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THE 



Review of Reviews. 



AN INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE. 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 



VOLUME XIII. JANUARY-JUNE, 1896. 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS 
New York: 13 Astor Place. 



\- 




/\%%^\^ 



Copyrighted by The Review of Reviews Co. 



'** 83""2 53 ^°' 



XL 



p^ 3895 



INDEX TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME OF 

THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

JANUARY-JUNE, 1896. 



Abbott, The Late Dr. Austin, 058 ; portrait, 650. 
AbyflBiiiia : 

Boaman Interest in Abyssinia. 528. 

Italian Operations in Abyssinia, 891, 582. 

Trouble with King Menelek, 892. 

England Supports Italv. 898. 

Bnssia Rewards King Menelelc, 3(HL 
Afirial Navigation : 

The Latest Bival of the Balloon, 79. 
Africa : 

The Winning of Africa, 202. 

Europe in Axrica, 887. 

Two Militant African Powers, 390. 

England*s Alliance with Italy, 527. 
Africa, South : 

Invasion of the Transvaal, 141. 

Dutch and English in South Africa, 141, 880. 

The Rise of Johannesburg. 142, 482. 

The Status Quo in South Africa, 889. 

Demands of the Uitlandera. 1^ 598. 

From Jameson^s Point of View, 148. 

Chamberlain, diodes and Kruger, 148. 

The Feeling Against Germany, 145. 

Destiny of the Transvaal, 145. 

The Situation in the TransvaaL 206, 259. 649-651. 

Rhodes and the South African Future, 262. 

Gtennan Designs in South Africa, 828. 

Future of the British Chartered Company, 381. 

The Slump in South Africa, 649. 

The ^sing in BCatabdleland, 528, 652. 

The Rinderpest in South Africa, 652. 

BritiBh Dominance in South Africa, 721. 



The Alaska Boundary Question, 209, 718. 

Sheldon Jackson, Alaskans Apostle and Pioneer, 691. 

The Gold Fields of Alaska, W, 

The Land and the Climate, 711. 
Alliance. An Anglo-American, 467. 
AmBonTwilliam B., ^0 ; portrait, 270. 
American HittoriccU Review reviewed, 288. 
Ambassador to Berlin, Our New, 273. 
An^o- American Alliance^An, 467. 
At>IVni^« : Wild Traits in Domesticated Animals, 91. 
Antarctic Continent, Exploring the, 77. 
Ants : The *' Bacehorse '^ Ant. 608. 
April 1, 1878,— a Betrospect, 528. 
Arbitration : 

The Welcome Cry for Arbitration, 265. 

Arbitration with Canada Needed, 266. 

Limits of International Airbitratiop, 887. 

Propoeed Solution of the Venezuelan Question, 885. 

Eogiii^ Besponse to the Appeal for International Arbi- 
tration, 450. 
Archsological Di8<5overies in Ghreece, 245, 888. 
Architecture : Dangers of High Buildings, 611. 
Arena reviewed, 106, 282, 860, 498, 618, 748. 
Armenia : 

Who is Besponsible f 204. 

What Must Be Done in Armenia f 887. 

Bussia and the Armenian Intervention. 895. 

An American Heroine in the Heart of Armenia, 444. 

The Defense of T^itwou 628. 

How Lord Salisbury Hoped to Save Armenia, 717. 
Art Education in England, 402. 
Aria ! An Asiatic Lull, 529. 
AOantie Monthly reviewed, 101, 281, 859, 492, 617, 742. 



Austin, Alfred, Poet Laureate, 199 ; portraits, 199, 866. 
Author's Choice of Company, An, 854. 

Bacteria in Agriculture, Uses of, 602. 
Banks : A Peasant Bank, 600. 
Bamby, The Late Sir Joseph, 861 ; portrait, 851. 
Bayard, Thomas F. : 

Bayard's Edinburgh Speech, 9. 

Motion to Impeacm Mr. Bayard, 10. 
Belgium. The Socialistic Party in Belgium, 597. 
Bemis. Edward W., Social Creed of. 214. 
Beresford, Lord, Anecdote About, 84. 
Bering Sea Arbitration, Results of the, 98. 
Bible : The Old Testament Not Inspired, 226. 
Biblical World reviewed. 104. 
JBi-cameral Conflicts at Home and Abroad, 269. 
^^Sicycling : The Great Bicycle Year, 227. 
Bimetamsm : 

Some Leading Errors of the Gtold Standard Party, 173. 

Bimetallism : Some Damaging Facts in Its EUstory, 176. 
Blowita, M.de.: 

Character Sketch, 509. 

Portrait, 668. 
Boer, Olive Schreiner on the Genesis of the, 5^9. 
Bookman reviewed, 104. 
Books, The New : 

Leroy-Beaulieu's *' Israel Among the Nations,*' 52. 

Becent American Publications, US, 240, 872, 498, 624, 758. 

Beports of Government Departments, 112. 

Progress in Biblic^raphy, 238. 

Alfred Austin's " England's Darling." 366. 

Notes From Our London Correspondent, 389. 
Boundarv Controversies, United States, 467. 
BowelL Sir Biackenzie, 210. 
Boys' Republics, Vacation Camps and, 572. 
Brazil and French Guiana, 521. 
Buildings, Dangers of High, 611. 
Bulgaria : The Conversion of Prince Boris, 894. 

CAHBRmGB Magazine reviewed, 617. 
Camphor, Cultivation of, in Formosa, 89. 
Canada : 

Winnipeg vs, Ottawa, 146. 

Canadian Questions, 274, 522. 

A Beview of Canadian Affairs, 311. 

Canadian Tariff Beform, 472. 
Canals, Ship : 

The Cost of Ship Canals, 99. 

The Nicaragua CeLnaX, 208. 
J Caricature, Current History in, 21. 148. 284, 413, 580, 666. 
Century Magazine reviewed, 101, 229, 356, 489, 615, 742. 
Chamberlain, Joseph : 

Character Sketch, 181. 

Portraits, 180. 181, 182, 188. 

Mr. Chamberlain and South Africa, 16. 
Character Sketches : 

Abdul Hamid, Sultan of Turkey, 83. 

Joseph Chamberlain, 181. 

Cecil Rhodes, 317. 

Murat Halstead, 439. 

M. de Blowitz, 559. 

Thomas Hughes, 567. 

Sheldon Jackson, 691. 

Nicholas II., Czar of Russia, 703. 
China : Lessons of the Talu Battle, 212. 
Christianity's Millstone, 226. 



IV 



INDEX TO VOLUME XIII 



Church Entertainments, A Study of, 222. 

Civic Duties, Mr. Roosevelt on, 76. 

Civil Service, Ex-President Harrison on the, 463. 

Civil Service Reform, Progress in, 14, 468. 

Civil War, Gladstone's Forecast of issue of the, 728. 

Cleveland, President : 

Mr. Cleveland on the Venezuelan Question, 6. 

The President's Hunting Trip, 6. 
Coleridge's Portrait of Himself, 852. 
Congress : 

Radicalism in the Senate, 271. 

Some Striking Contrasts, 271. 

Dull Times at Washington, 519. 
Contemporary Review reviewed, 106, 285, 861, 494, 619, 749. 
Contents of Reviews and Magazines, 120, 248, 876, 504, 

682,759. 
Conventions and Gatherings of 1896, 544. 
ComhUl Magazine reviewed, 752. 
Cori>orations, State and Semi-Public, 215. 
Cosmopolitan renewed, 102. 280, 857, 490, 616, 743. 
Cripple Creek, The Story of, 161. 
Cuba: 

Our Relations with Cuba and Spain, 12. 

Real War in Cuba, 12. 

Plan to Guarantee Cuban Bonds, 12. 

Progress of the Cuban Rebellion, 146, 519, 647. 

Inside the Insurgents' Lines, 207. 

The New Cuban Policy, 278. 

American Interests in uie Cuban War, 898, 518. 

Spanish Feeling Against Americans, 999. 

Our Cuban Ne^hbors and Their Struggle for Liberty, 
419. 

Cuban Representation in the Cortes, 515. 

Recognition of Belligerency, 516, 715. 

Fitzhugh Lee as Consul-General, 517. 

Possible Complications of the Cuban Question, 577. 
Czar, The Crowning of a, 594. 

Danish Langua^ Future of the, 607. 

Deaths of Promment Persons, 20. 

De Grimm, Constantm, 530 ; portrait, 680. 

Democracy. Mr. I^ecky and, f32. 

Dietaries, A Practical Experiment in the Study of, 300. 

Diplomacy. The Palmerstonian Ideal in, 228. 

Domestic Service Viewed Scientifically, 607. 

Dumas, Alexander, Fils, 98. 

Eastern Feeling Toward the West, 725. 

Eastern Question, Ehigland and Russia and the, 883. 

Education : 

Is There a New Education ? 217. 

Evening Schools in the Open Air, 218. 

Political Principles Applied to Education, 477. 

School Reform in New York City, 736. 

The Politician and the Public Schools, 787. 

Value of a College Training. 787. 

New English Educational Bill, 738. 
Egypt : 

England's Policy in the Soudan, 525. 

England's Position in Egypt, 588. 

The Defense of Dongola, 585. 

The Present Lord of the Soudan, 586. 

Truth About the Advance to Dongola, 719. 

The Latest Discovery in Egypt, 720. 
Election of Senators by Popular Vote, 270. 
Electricity : 

Rdntgen Rays, 808. 476, 603, 609. 

Electric Railway Progress in 1895, 846. 

The Velocity of Electricity, 477. 
Employer, An Ideal, 218. 
England : 

The Secret of England's Greatness, 74. 

The Egyptian Question, 263. 

^^land as Chief War Power, 267. 

Effect of England's Militant Example, 268. 

Death of Prince Henry of Battenburg, 388. 

The Session of Parliament, 896. 

Art Education in England, 402. 

A British Imperial Customs Union, 529. 

England's Meat and London's Water, 529. 

American Feeling Toward England, 579. 

British Schemes for National Defense, 587. 

England and the Triple Alliance, 588. 



ni Luck of the Salisbury €k>vemment, 649. 

The Colonial ZoUverein Idea, 653. 

A Hundred Million Budget, 653. 

Rate Relief for England^s Splendid Paupers, 654. 

Sir John Gorst's Education Bill, 654. 

The Irish Land Bill, 655. 
** English Speaking Race " Sentiment, 267. 
Estates, The Myth of Unclaimed, 223. 
Europe, The Repartition of, 382. 
Europe, Plots and Counterplots in, 717. 
European Incidents, 529. 
Events, Record of Current, 26, 158, 276, 404, 587, 669. 

Fabian Society, The, 697. 

Family Life in America, 478. 

Farming on Vacant City Lots, 349. 

Federahsm, British and American, 728. 

Field, Eugene : Eugene Field and the Children, 84. 

Financial : 

Mr. Carlisle and the Greenbacks^ 18. . 

Conditions for American Financial Supremacy, 7SL 

Wall Street and the Gold Crisis, 139. 

The Loan Syndicate and the '* World," 140. 

The Bond Cn>eration of 1895, 209. 

A Universal Ratio, 212. 

Analvsis of the Silver Vote, 268. 

The Last €k>vemment Loan, 272. 

The Money Question and Constructive Enterprise, 340. 

Politics and the Money Question, 400. 

Silver and Politics. 519. 

John Sherman on Our Financial His, 580. 

A Multiple Money Standard, 596. 

The Monetary Standard, 645. 
Food Investigations : 

Food and Labor Force, 599. 

The People's Food— A Great National Inquiry, 679. 

A Practical Experiment in the Study of DietarieaJ900. 
Fortnightly Review reviewed, 108, 234, 862, 495, 620, 760. 
Forum reviewed, 105, 282, 860, 498, 619, 747. 
France : 

Programme of the French Ministry, 18. 

The Ck>vemment of Prance and Iw Recent Changes, 
307. 

The Paris Exhibition in 1900, 529. 

French Affairs, 657. 

The Franco-Russian Alliance. 700. 
Freeman, Edward A., Scholar and Professor, 96. 
French Reviews reviewed, 109, 236, 368, 49^ 622. 
Fry, EUzabethj Early Days of, 605 
Future Life, Mr. Gladstone on the, 217, 853, 729. 

Game and Fish, Preservation of Our, 601. 
G^ermany : 

Closing of Social Democratic Clubs, 18. 

Libertv of the Press in Gtermany, 80. 
GiUam, Bemhard, The Late. 284 ; portrait, 285. 
Gladstone on the Nature of the Future Life, 217, 353, 729. 
Gladstone's Political Forecast That Went Wrong, ?28. 
Oodey^s Magazine reviewed, 104, 231, 748. 
Gold Mining: 

The Story of Cripple Creek, 161. 

*» That Flood of Gold." 167. 

The Gold Fields of Alaska, 697. 
Greece i 

The American School at Athens, 274, 838. 

Greece and the Olympian Games, 657. 
Guiana, British : 

Some Plain Truths About British Guiana, 138. 

Absenteeism at its Worst, 184. 

Religion and Climate, 606. 
Guiana, French, Brazil and, 521. 
Ounton^s Magazine reviewed, 288. 

Halstbad, Mnrat : 

Character Sketch, 439. 

Portraits, 899, 439. 
HarmeL M Leon, An Ideal Employer, 218. 
Harper* s Magazine reviewed, 100, 229, 356. 489, 6H 748. 
Harris, Joel Chandler, 218. 
Heber the Bibhophile, 220. 
Herron, Professor George D., 607. ' 

Homes, Suburban, 740. 
Household Economics as a University Movement, j)04. 



INDEX TO yOLUME XIIL 



Hojrties^ Thomas : 

dbaracter Sketch, 507. 

PortraitR, 586, 567, 571. 
Human Race : Is the Race Deteriorating ! 3^. 

Illustrations : 

Cartouns, 4, 6, 262, 661, 602, 66S, 664. 

The Emperor William's Cartoon, 2. 

The Wars and Riots of 1895, 24, 25. 

A New York Bicycle Pohoeman, 26. 

Moeqae of the Tudiz Kiosk, 44. 

ninstrationB from Mr. Stead's '' Blastns,'' 49, 50. 

Hebrew Institnte. New York, 59, 60, 61. 

Fao-simile of Wasnington's Handwriting, 62. 

The New Zealand Eea, 91. 

ninstrations from •* Tartarin," 115. 

New York Clearing Honse Building, 156. 

Views at Cripple C^reek, 161-166. 

Qold Mining Processes, 167-171. 

Street Scene in Johannesburg, 260. 

Water Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, 299. 

Bdntgen Photographs, 803-305. 

Swiniord Old Manor, Ashf ord, England, 367, 368. 

Submission of King Prempeh, 887. 

Kinff Prempeh's March, 888. 

A Windsor Liuncheon, 888. 

Ovation to Dr. Jameson, 389. 

Death of Hicks Pasha. 391. 

The Island of Trinidad, 404. 

'* Chinese " Gordon's Monument, 406. 

Monument Conmiemoratlng the Independence of the 
Transraal, 407. 

The New Search Light at Bamegat, 408. 

The Cuban Flag^l9. 

Joe6 Maceo and His Staff, 425. 

A Cuban Insurgent Camp, 430. 

A Typical Cuban Soldier, 432. 

A " Mac^te," 488. 

Armenian ReUef Work, 445, 446, 448. 

The Poe Cottage at Fordham, 458. 

Qtoujp of Indian Peasants, 466. 

The fiidophone, 485. 

Egyptian Camel Corps in the Desert, 526. 52T. 

Statue of Shakeifpeare by McMonnieis, 537. 

A Group of Royal Cyclists, 538. 

The Partridge Statue of Gen. Grant, 589. 

French Army Folding Bicycle, 539. 

The New Chicago Coliseum, 544. 

Agricultural Building at Nashville, 545. 

Y. M. C. A. Building at aeveJand, 546. 

The Proposed Columbia Library, 547. 

Fine Arts Building, Tennessee Centennial, 548. 

Cleveljud Central Armory, 550. 

The Northfleld Auditorium. 552. 

Buildings in Roman Style, Budapest Exhibition, 556. 

Street in Swiss Village, Geneva Exposition, 557. 

Illustrations from " Tom Brown at Rugby," 568, 570. 

« Vacation Camp " at Freeville, N. y., 5^576. 

Book Illustration, 629. 

Proposed Elevated Bicvcle Path. 648. 

Transvaal Mounted Pofice Escorting Transport Riders, 
661. 

Olympian Gkunes at Athens, 657. 

New Minneapolis City Hall, 658. 

New City Hall, St. Louis, 672. 

Views in St. Louis, 678-678. 

Jndd Hall, Wesleyan University, 680. 

Dr. Atwater's Laboratory, 682. 

Diagrams Showing Composition and Cost of Food Ma- 
terials, 665, 686. 

Dr. Jacloson en route to the Zuni Pueblo. 692. 

A 500>miie Missionary Journey in Alaska, 693. 

The Bear in the Ice in Bering Sea, 694. 

Landing of Domestic Reindeer in Alaska, 694. 

Herd of Reindeer, 665, 696. 
Tmmigrstion : 

Has Immigration Increased Population ? 228. 

Restriction of Immigration, 736. 
Index to Periodicals,lSa, 254, 382, 510. 688J66. 
India : Indian vs. English Rule in India, 721. 
/nvsitors' Review reviewed. 752. 
Ireland : What Unionists Must do for Ireland, 843. 



Irish Appeal to America, If the, 781. 
Irrigation in the Arid Lands, 314. 
Italian Reviews reviewed, 109, 236. 
Italy: 

England's Alliance with Italy, 527. 

Italy, At Home and in Africa, 527. 

Jackson, Sheldon: 

Character Sketch, 691. 

Portraits, 691. 692. 
Jameson, Dr., in England, 388, 528. 
Japan : 

strikes in Jai>an, 474. 

Visit of FieldMarshal Yamagata, 523. 

Rumored Treaty of Alliance with Russia, 655. 
Jarrah Trees of Australia, 92. 
Jws: 

/The Jews in America and Europe, 19. 
/ At Jerusalem Five Years Hence, 48. 
/ Israel Among the Nations. 52. 
I The Jews of New "XJork, 58^ 
\ Are the Jews Returning to Palestine f 89. 

The Modem Jew, 2K. 
Journalism : 

The Press and Public Opinion, 181. 

Modem Journalism in London, 181. 

True Inwardness of Modem Journalism, 475. 

Labob: 

Samuel Gompers and the American Federation, 19. 

Russian Solution of the Unemployed Question, 473. 

Employees as Directors, 47a 

Strikes in Japan, 474. 

Need of Better Homes for Wage Earners, 739. 
Ladies' Home Journal reviewed, 616, 746. 
Land, How Water Makes, 476. 
Law : The Bar as a Profession, 480. 
Leading Articles of the Month, 72» 208, 828, 468, 577, TIL 
Lecky. Mr^ and Democracy, 788. 
hOAUm, Sir Frederick, The Late, 864 ; portrait, 403. 
LesBe, l^e Late Henry, 487 ; portrait 487. 
Letter Writing, The Art of, 820. 
LUfpineUVa MagoMine reviewed, 868, 491, 61^ 7«6. 
Litmture : The ** Strong ** Story, 482. 
London : Rebuilding of the London Slums, 847. 
Lost Property OAoe, Mysteries of the, 988. 
Lotos reviewed, 86, 492. 

MoClubb*8 MAOAJEiifB reviewed. 130. 281, 358, 491, 615, 748. 
Manning, As to Purcell's Life of, 483. 
Maps : 

The Disputed Venezuela-Guiana Territory, 9, 135. 

Ottoman Possessions in Europe and Afia, 87, 40. 

The South African Republic, 142. 

South Africa in 1884 and 1806, 258. 

Political Changes in Siam, 263. 

Abyssinia, 890. 

The Island of Cuba, 483. 

Greater New York, 649. 

Afghanistan, 655. 

Alaska, 711. 

Illustrating the Alaska Boundary Dispute, 714. 
Matabeleland : See under South Africa. 
Mayors. British Peers as City. 16. 
Men, The Tallest, in the World, 87. 
Menzel, Adolph, illustrator, 63 ; portrait, 63. 
Military Training in Europe, 267. 
Millenium. Mr. Howells', &1. 
Millet, Will H. Low on, 607. 

Minneapolis, Minn., An Incident in the Story of, 658. 
Miss or Mrs. f Is it, 604. 
Missions : A Commission on Missions, 740. 
Monroe Doctrine : 

Philosophy of the Monroe Doctrine, 207. 
^ The Monroe Doctrine Accepted by England, 264. 
— The Monroe Doctrine, 886. 

A Russian Proposal 606. 
Morley, John, in the House of Commons, 17. 
Municipal Matters in Various Cities, 15. 
Munaey's Magazine reviewed, 231, 491, 744. 
Music : 

About Conducting, 82. 

Musical Pictures, 485. 



VI 



INDEX TO yOLUME XIII. 



National Review reviewed, 107, 284^ 861, 485, 622, 752. 
Navies : 

LeseoDB of the Yaln Battle, 212. 

Naval Progress in 1895, 832. 

Naval Programmes, American and English, 807. 

" Navy Bfania " inBngland, 471. 

Naval Preparations, 515. 

The Spanish and American Navies, Oomx>ared, 516. 
Nerves, Diseases of the, 610. 
New England McLgazine reviewed, 108, 859, 480. 
New Review reviewed, 10% 285, 751. 
New Tear, A H6i>efal and Interesting, 8. 
New York : 

New York Police and Excise Matters, 16. 

New York in Current Politics, 520. 

The Greater New York, 647, 727. 

Transit Projects, 648. 

School Reform in New York City, 786. 
New Zealand : 

What New Zealand is Doing for Labor, 81. 
Ninettenth Century reviewed, 107, 235, 882,494, 621, 750. 
North American Bedew reviewed, 1<», 232, 859, 498, 618, 

746. 
Novikoff. Madame de. Reminiscences of, 608. 

Olympian Gkimes : Greece and the Olympian Gkunes, 657. 
Outlook reviewed, 108, 238. 

Painters, About Some Great, 467. 
Periodicals, Index to, 126, 254, 882, 510, 688, 766. 
Periodicals reviewed, 100, 229, 856, 489. 614, 742. 
Persia : The Persian Satrapy, 666. 
Peterson's Magazine reviewed, 104, 482, 745. 
Photography, See under R6ntgen*8 X Bays. 
Physical Training at the Universities, 609. 
Pictures. Musical, 485. 
Pigeon Post, An Atrial, 475. 
Plots and Counterplots in Europe, 717. 
Poe, Edgar Allan : 

Shall We Preserve the Poe Cottage at Fordham f 458. 
Poets: 

America's Sevon Great Poets, 85. 

tn Praise of the Poets, 86. 

The New Poet Laureate, 199. 
Political : 

See Also under head Presidential Candidates. 

The '* German ** Vote and the Parties, 74. 
I The Recent Kentucky C^risis, 401. 

Political Principles Applied to Education, 477. 

The Factional Democratic Struggle, 519. 
Political Science Quarterly reviewed, 233. 
Pope, The Election of a, 781. 
Popular Science Monthly reviewed, 360. 
Portraits : 

Abbey. Edwin Austin, 400. 

Abbott, Austin, 650. 

Abbott, Edward, 659. 

Abbott, Lyman, 659. 

Abdul Hamid U., 33. 

Abyssinia, King of, 390, 891. 

Abyssinia, Queen of, 891. 

Ahlwardt, Herr. 28. 

Alden, Henry Mills, 242. 

Alexander, William, 541. 

Allison, William B., 270. 

Altgeld, J. P., 647. 

Alvey, Richard H., 180. 

Arendt, Otto, 178. 

Atwater, W. O., 679, 600. 

Austin, Alfred, 199, 866. 

Austria, The Emperor of, 805. 

Baldissera, General, 528. 

Baratieri, General, 158, 898. 

Barnes, Mrs. C. P., 292. 

Bamby, Joseph, 851. 

Barrett, William E., 10. 

Barrows, Anna, 295. 

Battenburg, Prince Henry of, 408. 

Beach, Alfred Ely, 160. 

Berryhlll, Virginda J., 292. 

Berthelot, M., 18. 

Billings, John Shaw, 157. 

Blackmore, R. D., 116. 



Blowits. M. de, 558. 

Booth, Ballington, 276. 

Booth, Eva, m. 

Booth, Maud Ballington. 276. 

Booth-Tucker, Commander, 408. 

Booth-Tucker, Mrs., 408. 

Bradford, Amory H., 241. 

Brewer, David J., 180. 

Brown, Arthur, 277. 

Bulgaria, Ferdinand of, 394. 

Bump, Franklin. 14. 

Bunce, Rear- Admiral, 516. 

Boris, Prince, of Bulgaria, 896. 

Bowell, Sir Macken^e, 147. 

Bowen, Henry C. 412. 

Cabral, the Brazilian, 501. 

Campbell, Helen, 294. 

Cameron, J. D., 521. 

Canizares, Santiago Garcia, 429. 

Cannon, Frank J., 277. 

Castelar, Ehnilio, 516. 

Castillo, Canovas del, 899. 

Cavaignac, M., 27. 

Chamberlain, Joseph, 180, 181, 182, 188. 

Cisneros, Salvador, 429. 

Clark. Nathaniel George, 159. 

Cleveland, Grover, 8. 

Cockerill, John A., 542. 

CofSLn, Cliarles Carleton, 412. 

Conlin. Peter, 16. 

Cook, E. T., 182. 

Cooper, Sarah B., 291. 

Coudert, Frederic R., 180. 

Courthorpe, W. L., 158. 

Crane, Stephen, 630. 

Currie, Sir Philip, 5. 

De GrimmJ!>)nstantin, 530. 

Delbruck. Professor, 19. 

Demmon, Stephen D., 14. 

Diaz, Abby Morton, 205. 

Dillon, John. 896. 

Dingley, Nelson, Jr., 140. 

Dougherty, N. C, 547. 

Duchesne, General, 887. 

Dumas, Alexandre, perey 31. (See note.) 

English, W. H., 280. 

Ewmg, Thomas, 281. 

Fildes, LuJke. 95. 

Floquet, Charles, 278. 

Freaerick the Great, 64. 

Garcia, Calixto, 427. 

Garfield, James R., 402. 

George, William R., 572. 

Giddings, Franklin H., 498. 

Gillam, Bemhard, 284, 285. 

Gilman, D. C. 130. 

Gladden, Washington, 241. 

Gomez, Gen. Maxmio, 146, 886. 

Greely, A. W., 500. 

Green, Andrew H., 648. 

Green, W. H., 664. 

Greenway, Thomas, 146. 

Grey, Lord, 389. 

Hale, Eugene, 398. 

Halstead, Albert, 443. 

Halstead, Clarence, 443. 

Halstead, Bfarshal, 443. 

Halstead, Murat, 899, 489. 

Halstead, Robert, 443. 

Hanna, Mark, 520. 

Haygoodj'Atticus G., 283. 

Hearst, W. R, 405. 

Henrotin, Ellen M., 291. 

Hicks Beach, Sir Michael, 653. 

Houssaye. Arsene, 412. 

Hughes, Thomas, 566, 567, 571. 

Hunter, Colonel. 541. 

Hyppolite, Florvil, 548. 

Jackson, Sheldon, 601, 092 

Jameson, Dr., 145. 

Jones, J. K., 269. 

Joubert, General, 145. 

Kimball, Dr. Grace, 444. 



INDEX TO yOLUME XIII. 



TU 



Kitchener. Maj.-Oen. H. H., fi0S. 

Knowlee, Maj. Qen., 505. 

Kroger, Paul, 143. 

Kmger. President and Mrs., 261. 

Laboacnere, Qenry, 138. 

Lee, Pitxhngh, 517. 

Leifi^ton, Sir Frederick, 408. 

Leslie, Henry, 487. 

Lincoln, Mary J., 206. 

LiTingston. Leonidae f ., 7. 

LockroT, M., 18. 

McCarthy, Jnstin, 897. 

Maceo, Antonio^JSS. 

McKinley, Jr., William. 644. 

McKinney, Birs. Samnel. 202. 

McKisaon. Robert E., 5«i. 

ICagonn. George F., 282. 

Mifiet-Prevost, 8., 307. 

ICann, Horace, 548. 

ICarryatt, Captain, 758. 

Martt Jos6,m 

IfMsinghain, H. W., 182. 

Matthews, Clande, 646. 

M61ine, M.. 642. 

Menocal, Mario O., 420. 

Menzel, Adolph, 63. 

Millais. John £., 402. 

Moffat, D. H^ 165. . 

Moore, Birs. Philip N.. m. 

Morsan, J. Pierpont, l41. 

Morley. John, 457. 

Mmniford, Mary E., 202. 

Mundella, A. J:, 457. 

Mnrfree, Mary N., 116. 

Nelidoff, M. de, 540. 

Norman, Henry, 181. 

Nye, Edgar Wflson, 411. 

Olney, Richard, 7. 

Pahner, Fanny Pnrdy, 292. 

Parkes, Sir Henry, 662. 

Peckham. Rnfos W., 19. 

Persia, The Shah of, 666. 

Persia, The Late Shah of, 666. 

Pina, Seyero, 420. 

Poe, Edgar Allan, 458. 

PoUock, Frederick, 807. 

Portnondo, Rafael, ^a». 

Pnlitzer, Joseph. 140. 

Qnrncy, Joeiah, 15. 

Babi. General, 426. 

Raines, John, 520. 

Rappleye. Elbert, 518. 

Rhodes, CecU J., 144. 

Ricotti, General, 528. 

Rdntg^n, Professor, 808. 

Rosewater, Charles C, 709. 

Rosewater, Edward, 709 

Rosewater, Victor. 709. 

Rndini, Marquis of, 393. 

Ronyon, Theodore, 274. 

RussiaTrhe Czar of, 514, 703, 704, 706. 

Rnsma, The Czarina of, 704, 707. 

Russia, Empress of. 17. 

Saint- miaire, Barth6Iemy, 80. 

Salisbury, Lord, 8. 

Sam, President of Hayti, 523. 

Satolli. Canlinal, 157. 

Sermoneta, The Duke of, 540. 

Shaw-Lefevre, Mr., 457. 

Shennan, John, SOB. 

Slatin Pasha, 409. 

Solomon, Solomon J., 400. 

Spalding. J. L.. 244. 

Sprigg, J. Gordon, 278. 

Siansf eld, James, 451, 457. 

Stevens, John H., 668. 

Stratton. W. 8., 164. 

Taaffe, Edward Francis Joseph, 81. 

Taylor, Hannis, 400. 

Teller, Henry M., 646. 

Terrell, Alex. W., 5. 

nacher, J. B., 401. 

Tbomas, Ambroise, 486. 



Thurman. Allen G., 20. 

Tupper, Sir Charles, 522. 

Turkey, Grand Vizier of, 32. 

l*uttle, Herbert, 624. 

Uhl. Edwin F., 274. 

Walbridge, Cyrus P., 678. 

Watts, G. F., 04. 

Weyler, General, 273. 

White, Andrew D., 130, 360. 

White, Horace, 179. 

Wiggin, Kate Doaelas (Mrs. Riggs), 246. 

Tamagata, Field Marshal, 623. 

ZiethexL General. 65. 
Poverty, Mr. Carnegie in Praise of, 741. 
Presidential Candidates : 

Presidential Conventions and Candidates, 13, 270, 400, 
520, 521. 

Reed's Qualifications for the Presidency, 211. 

The Presidency and Secretary Morton, 464. 

Senator Allison for President. 461. 

The McKinley Tidal Wave, 643. 
Press, Liberty of the, in Germany. «0. 
Prince Edward Island, Agrarian Transformation in, 88. 
Progress of the World. 3, 131, 269, 387, 516, 643. 
Protection as a Republican Dogma, 644. 

Rack Question, Unaided Solution of the, 738. 
Railwajrs : 

London's Underground Railways, 97. 

Remedies for Railway Rate War^ 210. 

The Fastest Raib-oad Run, 224. 

Electric Railway Progress in 1896, 846. 

Catching a Runaway Engine, 613. 
Record of Current Events, 26, 163. 276. 404, 687, 659. 
Reed's (T. B.) Qualifications for the Presidency, 211. 
Reform Clubs, College, 16. 
Republic, The George Junior, 672. 
Republic, Principles of an Ideal, 340. 
Revenues, The Deficit, 18. 
Reviews and Magaiines, Conte&U of, 120, 248, 876, 6M, 

682, 750. 
Rhodes, Cecil : 

Character Sketch, 817. 

Portrait, 144. 

Not the Hero of ** God in the Car,** 488. 
Roads : The French Roadmakert, 846. 
Romanes, G^eorge J., Conversion of, 730. 
Rdntgen's X Rays • 

Rdntgen^s X Rays, 303. 

Teda on Rdntgen's Rays, 476. 

The X Rays not Refrangible, 608. 

The Rdntgen Rays in Surgery, 609. 
Roeewaters, The, and the Bee^ot Omaha, 709. 
Runyon, Theodore, Death of, 278 ; iwrtrait, 274. 
Russia : 

The Franco-Russian Alliance, 700. 

Persecution Policy Countermanded, 17. 

Russian Interest in Abyssinia, 628. 

The Crowning of a Czar, 504. 

A Peasant Bank, 600. 

Russia's Deal with China, 656. 
Rnssia, Nicholas II., Czar of ; 

Character Sketch, 708. 

Portraits, 514, 703, 704, 706. 

St. Louis : 

St. Louis : This Year's Convention City, 672. 

St. Louis, The Growth of, 724. 
Salvation Army: 

The Rise of the Salvation Armv, 93. 

The Salvation Armv Leaders, 93. 

Sfdvatiou Army Affairs, 403. 

Gen. Booth's Latest Scheme, 466. 
Scribner*8 Magazine reviewed, 100, 280, 367, 400, 614, 144. 
Siam: 

England and France in Siam, 263. 

The British in Siam, 472. 
Slums : Rebuilding of the London Slums, 847. 
Socialism : 

Socialist Party in Belgium, The, 607. 

The Fabian Society, 507. 

The Moral Aspects of Socialism, 506. 
Social Progress, A Pleasant View of, 216. 



J 



vm 



INDEX TO yOLUME XI 11. 



Soudan- See tinder ] 

South America, Britlsli Ciyilissation in, 188. 

South American Bacee, 134. 

South Carolina's New Constitution, 66. 

Spain: 

Our Relations with Cuba and Spain, 12. 

The Spanish Elections, 515. 

Cuban Representation in the Cortes, 515. 

The Results of a War With the United States, 516. 
Spanish America, Matters in. 523. 
Spokane and Its Fruit Fair, 90. 
Strikes in Japan, 474. 
Suburban Home8^40. 
Supreme Court : Rufus W. Peckham's Appointment, 10. 

Tamff. The Anti-McKinley, 646. 
Tariff Reform, Canadian, 472. 
Temperance and the Liquor Traffic : 

The Body as a Water Enffine, 79. 

Scientific Temperance, 216. 

The New York Liquor Law, 401. 

Mr. Raines on the New York Liquor Tax Law, 505. 

Government by Brewery, 505. 

School vs. Drink in Holland, 596. 
Thomas, The Late Ambroise, 486 ; portrait, 486. 
Theatres : The School of the Stage, 855. 
Thrift, Democratizing, 600. 
Thurman, Allen, G., Death of, 20 • portrait, 20. 
Tramps : The Wanderlust in Children, 87. 
Transvaal, See Under South Africa. 
Turkey: 

Our "Relations to the Turkish Situation, 5. 

The Massacres in Turkey, 197. 

The Sultan of Turkey, 205. 

American Policy Toward Turkey, 534. 
Turkey, Abdul Hamid, Saltan of : 
Cliaracter Sketch, 88. 

Portrait, 88. 

Uhl, Edwin F., Ambassador to Berlin, 278 ; portrait, 274. 



Uitlanders, See under South Africa. 
United States : 

Conditions for American Financial Supremacy, 72. 

Affairs in Various States, 272. 

Various State Legislatures, 402. 

Vacation Camps and Boys* Republics, 572. 
Venezuelan Question, The : 

Mr. Cleveland on the Venezuelan Question, 6. 

Salisbury's Refusal to Arbitrate, 7. 

President Cleveland's Recommendations, 8. 

The Venezuela Question, 181-189, 897. 

British Views as to Boundaries, 184. 

The Venezuela Commission, 187, 264, 265. 

British Views on the Venezuelan Question, 206. 

Outlook for a Venezuelan Settlement, 264. 

Proposed Solution of the Venezuelan Question, 885. 

" Hard Facts " about British Guiana, 468. 

The Venezuela Case : Further Opinions, 469. 
Victoria : Woman's GK)esip about the Queen, 222. 
Victoria^ Queen : 

Sixty Years of Progress, 841. 

Early Recollections of Queen Victoria, 843. 

rt^AOB Earners, Need of Better Homes for, 780. 
Wars and Riots of 1895, 24. 
Washington, G^eorge : 

Fac^miU of Manuscript, 62. ♦ 

The Personal Side of Washington, 488. 
Washington : Spokane and Its Fruit Fair, 90. 
White, Andrew Dickson, 850 : portraits, 130, 850. 
Wickliffe, John, A Catholic View of, 353. 
Western Feeling Toward the East, 725. 
Women : 

The General Federation of Women's Clubs, 291. 

Women and University Degrees, 479. 

Note.— The portrait of Alexandre Dumas on pace 81 is that 
of Dumas pere. and was substituted by mistake for that of 
Dumas the younger. 



The Review of Reviews, Edited by Albert Shaw. 

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, 1896. 



The Emperor William's Cartoon Frontispiece. 

The Progress of the World— 

A Hopeful and Interesting New Year 3 

The Far £a8tem Situation from a German Stand- 
point J 8 

The Ne arB^ tatem Qnestion 4 

How th^^Vwers Hold Together 4 

What will Have to be Done ? 5 

Oar Relations to the Tnrkish Situation 5 

Mr. Cleveland on the Venezuela Qnestion 6 

The President's Hunting Trip 6 

Salisbury's Refusal to Arbitrate 7 

Tlie President's Recommendation 8 

A Dedsion can be Quickly Reached . 9 

What Mr. Bayard Thinks of us as a Nation. 9 

The Motion to Impeach Mr. Bayard 10 

Amfdy Punished Already 11 

A Lack of Patriotism U 

American Buildings in Foreign Capitals 11 

Our Relations with Cuba and Spam 12 

A Real War Exists in Cuba 12 

A Plan for the Guarantee of Cuban Bonds 12 

Mr. Carlisle and the Greenbacks 18 

The Deficient Revenues 18 

Prnddentia] Conventions and Candidates 18 

Progress in Civil Service Reform 14 

The Ooll€«e Reform Clubs 15 

MTmi^paTBCatters in Massachusetts and Elsewhere 15 

New York Police and Excise Matters 15 

Britiah Peers as City Mayors 16 

" The Man who Riffhts Things " 16 

Mr. Cbamberiain's Manifesto 17 

" Honest John " for Montrose 17 

P ro go eDive Russia 17 

The Frognunme of the French Ministry 18 

llie Kaiser *' Squat on the Safety- Valve " 18 

Mr. Gompersand the**A. P. L." 19 

A New Member of the Supreme Court 19 

The Jews in America and Europe 19 

Ex-SenaUnr Thurman 20 

The Obituary Record 20 

With portraits of Hon. Alex. W. Terrell, Sir Philip Cur- 
rle, Hon. Leonidas F. Livingston, Hon. Richard Olney, 
Lord Scdisbnry. President Cleveland, Hon. Wm. E. 
Barrett, Franaun Bump, Stephen D. Demmon, Hon. 
Josiah Qoincy. Chief of^Police Conlin, the Empress of 
Russia, M. Berthelot^M. Lockroy, Professor Del- 
brflck« JnBtice Bufus W. Peckham, and the late Ex- 
Senator Thnrman, and a map of the disputed Vene- 
suelan territory. 

Carrextt History in Caricature 21 

With reproductions from American and Foreign cartoon 
papers. 

Tke World's Wars and Riots of 2895 24 

With cartoon maps. 

Record of Current Events 26 

With portraits of Herr Ahlwardt, Barth^Iemy Saint- 
Hilaire, Count von TaaflFe. and Alexandre Dumas, flls, 
IL Oavai^nac. and picture of New York policeman _ 
mounted on bicycle. 

Abffail Hamid, Snltan of Turkey : A Character 

^^^''^Sketcb 88 

By William T. Stead. 
With portrait of Abdul Hamid U.. view tif the Mosque of 
tbe TQdiz Kiosk, and maps showing the Ottoman pos- 
I in Europe and Asia. 



At Jer. salem Five Years Hence 48 

With two illustrations. 

Israel Among the Nations 52 

By Professor Richard Qottheil. 

The Jews of New York 58 

By Jacob A. Riis. 
With numerous illustrations. 

Adolph Menzel, Illustrator 68 

By Valerian GribayMoff. 
With portrait of Menzel and two specimen illustrations. 

South Carolina's New Constitution 66 

By Albert Shaw. 

Leading: Articles of the Month — 

Conditions for American Commercial and Financial 

Supremacy 72 

The Secret of England's Greatness 74 

The " German Vote *' and the Parties 74 

Mr. Roosevelt on Civic Duties 76 

Exploring the Antarctic Continent 77 

The Air Car 79 

The Body as a Water-Engine , . 79 

Lifese-Majest^ or Madcap William ? 80 

The Toilers* Paradise 81 

About Conducting 82 

When Victoria was Crowned 83 

" The Bravest Deed I ever Saw " 84 

Eugene Field and the Children 84 

America's Seven Great Poets 85 

In Praise of the Poets 86 

TheTaUestMen in the World 87 

The Wanderlust in Children 87 

How the Landlords were Bought out in Prince Ed- 
ward Island 88 

How Camphor is Cultivated in Formosa 89 

Are the Jews Retumina to Palestine f 89 

Spokane and its Fruit Fair » 90 

Wfid Traits in Domestic Anipials 90 

With picture of the New Zealand kea. 

What is Jarrah f 92 

Mrs. Josephine Butler on the Rise of the Salvation 

Army 98 

Alexandre Dumas, Fils 93 

Mr. G. F. Watts, R. A. « at Home 94 

With portrait. 

Luke Fildes and his Work 95 

With picture showing Mr. Fildes in his studio 

Freeman the Scholar and Professor 96 

An Artist on the London Underground Railway.. 97 

Results of the Bering Sea Arbitration 98 

The Cost of Ship Canals 99 



The Periodicals Reviewed. 



.100 



Recent American and English Publications 112 

With portraits of Mary H. Murfreeand R. D. Blackmore. 

Contents of Reviews and Magazines 120 

Index to Periodicals 126 



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The Review of Reviews. 



Vol. XIII. 



NEAV YORK, JANUARY, 1896. 



NO. 1. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



4 Hop9fui '^^ ^®^ y®^ dawns upon a world 
aW imUfsUng that finds itself more thoroughly 

Kmi Y9ar. a^ake and more actively interested in 
itself as a whole than it has ever been before. At 
least there has never been a time of such adventur- 
ous interest and enthusiasm since the great period 
of voyaging and discovery that followed the find- 
ing of America by Columbus. The year 1896 is to 
decide whether Spain must give up Cuba, the first 
gained and the last retained of her American pos- 
Mssions. This year is destined to settle at least for 
some time to come the fate of much or all of the 
Turkish Empire. China, which had unt^hese lat- 
ter da3r8 seemed so unshakable in her inerA is fated 
this year to add some strange and sensational chap- 
ters to her own history, while influencing profoundly 
the history of Europe. Japan, having given an 
atnitgiTig illustration of her ability to play a great 
part in war and to assert herself in diplomacy, is 
now entering upon a still more marvelous chapter 
of industrial history. The new year is to see much 
of novelty and change in the drifts and tides of in- 
ternational commerce, particularly as regards the 
position of Asiatic countries. The opening up of 
Africa goes on at an astounding rate, and the year 
1896 will prc/bably add a larger number of fresh 
pages to the marvelous story of European enterprise 
in the African continent than any previous year has 
contributed. The Russians are pushing the trans- 
Siberian railway across the bleak steppes of north- 
em Asia, through winter snows, with feverish 
haste. Vast numbers of workmen are grading the 
road and laying the rails, and the work goes on at 
night by electric illumination. Almost unexampled 
progress will be made on the Asiatic railroad sys- 
tem in the year 1896. We shall soon, therefore, see a 
road completed across northern China to the Yellow 
Sea at Port Arthur. Two Pacific cables, one under 
American and the other under British auspices, are 
planned for construction this year. Meanwhile the 
Japanese, with the largest cotton factories in the 
world, are carrying their capital and skill into 
China, where they propose to build still larger cot- 
ton factories, and will employ skilled Chinese labor 
at eight or ten cents a day. Some of these new Chi- 
nese factories will be in operation in the present 
year. Manchester, Fall River and Lowell will have 
to take account of these new facts. It is expected 
that horseless carriages will begin to come into prac- 



tical use during this interesting year ; that elec- 
tricity will replace steam on some important lines 
of main railway ; that trolley lines will be greatly 
extended ; that the use of bicycles will continue to 
multiply. Men expect to know more about the 
Arctic and Antarctic regions, as the result of plans 
set on foot for exploration this year, than they have 
ever learned before. Medical and sanitary science 
seems on the eve of several important discoveries, 
and was never so active as now. All sorts of politi- 
cal and social problems are pressing themselves 
upon the attention of the nations, and the outlook 
for improvement in the general condition of man- 
kind is at least bright enough to encourage every 
earnest and hopeful effort. Upon the whole, then, 
we may look forward to a twelve- month of many 
striking and intensely absorbing events in the drama 
of the world's progress. 

Th9 Far EaaUm '^^ Oriental situation has been 

Situation from a powerfully impressing the quick 

German standpoint. ^^^ ^^ ^^^ German Emperor. 

That personage is again justifying the observation 
made long ago that his true rdle in life should have 
been that of a newspaper editor. The post would 
have suited him much better than that which he 
now occupies. He seems to feel this himself, and a 
few wee^ ago he astofiished his subjects by coming 
out as political cartoonist— which may indeed be re- 
garded as a long step toward editorship. We repro- 
duce by permission as frontispiece of the Review 
OF Reviews this first incursion of the Kaiser into a 
field hitherto free from imperial and royal intrud- 
ers. The Emperor did not draw the picture, but he 
gave the idea and .a rough sketch to an artist, ap- 
proved of the finished result, and presented the orig- 
inal as a delicate compliment to the Czar. Lest any 
one should fail to understand this unique example 
of imperial picture politics, the Nord-Deutsche was 
authorized to accompany the engraving with the 
following semi-official exposition of what its imperial 
author wants it to signify. The explanation, which 
is certainly not lacking in explicitness, is as follows: 

On a plateau of rock bathed in Ught radiating from 
the Cross— that symbol in which alone Christians win 
their victories — stand allegorical flg^ores of the civilized 
nations. In the foreground is France shading her eyes 
with her left hand. She canoot yet altogether believe 
in the proximity of danger : but Germany, armed with 
shield and sword, follows with attentive eye the ap- 



THE REI/IEIV OF REl^/EU^S. 



proach of calamity. Russia, a beantiful woman with a 
wealth of hair, leans her arm, as if in close friendship, on 
the shonlder of her martial companion. Beside this gronp 
Austria stands in resolute pose. She extends her right 
hand in an attitude of invitation, as if to win the co- 
operation of still somewhat reluctant £2ngland in the 
common task. Italy stands between these two Powers, 
and, like (Germany, eagerly gazes on the calamity which 
menaces them. The rearguard of this group of noble 
female figures is formed by a young girl with ringlets of 
curling hair. She images the smaller civilized states, 
and she, too, carries a spear. In front of this martial 
group of many figures stands unmailed the winged arch- 
angel Michael, holding in his right hand a flaming sword. 
His countenance is turned toward the female group, his 
features reflect grave energy, and his outstretched left 
hand, which i)oint8 to the approaching horror, also em- 
phasizes the invitation to prepare for the sacred conflict. 

At the foot of the rocky plateau stands the vast plain 
of civilized Europe. A majestic stream gushes across it. 
Lines of mountains bound the horizon, and in the valley 
cities are discerned, in the midst of which tower churches 
of various creeds. In the foreground is the Castle of 
Hohenzollem. But over these peaceful landscapes 
clouds of calamity are rolling up. Dark pitchy vapors 
obscure the sky. The path trodden by the invaders in 
their onward career is marked by a sea of flames pro- 
ceeding from a burning city. Dense clouds of smoke 
twisting into the form of hellish, distorted faces ascend 
from the conflagration. The threatening danger in the 
form of Buddha is enthroned in this sombre framework. 
A Chinese dragon, which at the same time represents 
the demon of destruction, carries this heathen idol. In an 
awful onset the powers of darkness draw nearer to the 
banks of the protecting stream. Only a little while, and 
that stream is no longer a barrier. 

Beneath the original cartoon His Majesty wrote 
the autograph legend: "Nations of Europe, defend 
your holiest possessions." 



authorities. In Syria, the Mohammedans have been 
armed, the troops have been supplied with green 
flags, and the Christians await in an agony of sus- 
X>ense the signal for a slaughter grim and great. The 
Sultan and his pashas appear to have made up their 
minds that the Christian populations need to be 
thinned down ; and, as the powers bark, but dare not 
bite for fear they should bite each other, the horri- 
ble work of massacre plus torture, outrage and 
plunder goes merrily on. So widespread has been 
the devastation that ominous rumors of impending^ 
famine are current throughout Anatolia, and thi» 
winter it is probable sheer starvation will carry off 
thousands whom even the Kurd and the Turk have 
spared. Here, indeed, is a tempting picture for the 
imperial cartoonist's pencil. 

How the Caricature, indeed, finds a tempting' 
Powers Hold theme in the way in which the powers. 
Together. ^^^ holding together on the Turkish 
question. Lord Salisbury's declaration at the Man> 
sion House on Lord Mayor's Day was very explicit. 
''Nothing," he said, ''has impressed itself more- 
strongly on my mind than the disposition of the- 
great powers to 'act together, and their profound 
sense of the appalling dangers which any 8ei>aration 
of their action might produce." That is satisfactory 
so far as it goes. But "the disposition to acf to- 
gether," of which Lord Salisbury speaks, is not very 
visible to the naked eye. To talk together, yes. To 
make representations together, also yes. But it is 
to be feared their ** profound sense of the appalling 
dangers which any separation of their action might 
produce," neutralizes their disposition to act^ and 
reduces the ** concert of Europe " to impotence. All 



The Near 
Eastern 
Question. 



It would be more to the 
puri)ose just now if our 
imperial cartoonist 
would prepare another picture, il- 
lustrating his view of the ** Near 
Eastern Question," which at pres- 
ent is very much more pressing 
than any danger with which Bud- 
dha and the Yellow Dragon have 
anj'thing to do. The situation in 
Asiatic Turkey has been alarming 
to the last degree. Massacres have 
been reported daily. The Moslems 
in the provinces, hearing that the 
powers insist upon the Christians 
having ofl&cials in proportion to 
their numbers, grimly respond to 
their benevolent intentions by re- 
ducing the Christian population to 
the vanishing point. In Erzeroum 
there seems to be now no doubt that 
the massacre was carried out in cold 
blood by the Turkish soldiers in obe- 
dience to definite orders from the 




Russia, England, 
HOW THE SIX POWERS ARE *' HOLDING TOGETHER " ON THE TURKISH 



THE PROGRESS OF THE U^ORLD. 



5 



the powers are so afraid of getting out of step if 
they inarch, that they keep on marking tinie, and 
meanwhile the massacre goes on always like the 
gaillotine in the days of the Terror. For weeks to- 
gether the six great powers gave their whole atten- 
tion to the trifling matter of getting the Snltan to 
allow them two gnard boats apiece instead of one at 
Constantinople, and all this time the massacres were 
going on unchecked in distant Armenia. The more 
argent the need for interference has grown, the less 
disposition have the powers shown to do anything 
for the wretched victims of Turkish rapacity. 








HON. ALEX. W. TERRELL, 

U. 8. Minister at Constantinople. 

iTAo* mu Obviously, if the powers hit the Ottoman 
#^«M to B§ Empire too hard, it will break to pieces 
under their eyes, and the general scram- 
ble will begin. But if they are to be paralyzed by 
fear of breaking i^ to pieces, the Turk will have a 
free hand to slaughter the Christians into silence. If 
the Kurds should kill a few Americans, or even one 
British Consul, there would be a quick stop put to 
all this dilly-dallying. But so long as it is only 
Armenians who are being butchered, the risk of ac- 
tion is deemed too great Sooner or later the Sultan 
win perhaps be told in plain terms that he must stop 
all this bloody work or be deposed ; and when he is 
deposed the Ottoman Empire may be administered, 
as its public debt is at present, by an international 
commission. A papor Sultan might be conveniently 
iiwtalled as the figure head of this commission, 
which would do all its business in his name, and 
which (as it would have cash to pay its troops) would 
probably be obeyed. If only the powers could trust 
each other for five years, every one would be aston- 
ished to find how simple a problem this Eastern 
Question might prove to be. But there would have 
to be, first, a self-denying ordinance binding all the 
powers to seek no private ends and to respect the 
integrity of the Ottoman dominions ; and secondly, 



the governing Turk would have to be resolutely re- 
duced to his prox>er position as Constable for Europe, 
instead of being alio wed to forget all botmds of mod- 
eration in the belief that he is the " Shadow of 
God." 

Our Relations ^^^^^ ^ nothing in the President's 

to the message that throws any fresh light 

Turktsk Situation. ^^^^ ^j^^ situation in the Turkish 

Empire. We are assured that our government, 
through Mr. Terrill, our Minister at Constantinople, 
has been doing everything in its power to protect 
American missionaries and their legal rights and 
interests. With reference to the future, Mr. Cleve- 
land says: 

The presence of our naval vessels which are now in the 
vicinity of the disturbed localities affords opportunities 
to acquire a measure of familiarity with the condition of 
affairs, and will enable us to take suitable steps for the 
protection of any interests of our countrymen within 
reach of our ships that might be found imperiled. 

The President distinctly disavows for the United 
States any of that responsibility for the native races 
suffering hardship under Ottoman rule which the 
European powers have taken upon themselves by 




SIR PHILIP CURRIE, 

British Ambassador at Constantinople. 

their treaty obligations. Much as we sympathize 
with the Armenians, there is no present prospect of 
our interfering in any wise on their behalf. But if 
anything should happen to further seriously imperil 
the lives of Americans in Turkey, the anarchy now 
prevailing in Asia Minor would not only justify the 
landing of American marines, but would make it a 
clear duty We may believe that the admini.^tration 
at Washington takes this view, and imqiiestionably 
Mr. Terrell, upon whom large discretionary power 



6 



THE REyiElV OF REl^IEU^S. 



Mr. Cfeuelandon 

the Venezuela 

Question. 



has been conferred, would not hesitate to assume 
responsibility for decisive action if the issue arose. 
Elsewhere in this number we publish a very complete 
sketch of the Sultan and the present condition of 
Turkey, contributed by Mr. Stead. 

Mr. Cleveland's Message of Dec. 3 to 
Congress dealt with the foreign rela- 
tions of the United States, and with 
the nation's currency and financial problems. The 
most striking paragraph in this carefully elaborated 
document was the one devoted to the Venezuelan 
controversy. That paragraph embodies a state- 
ment of American policy which is destined to play 
an important part in the history of our foreign re- 
lations, and we may well therefore quote it without 
abridgement. It is as follows : 

It being apparent that the boundary dispute between 
Great Britain and the Bepubhc of Venezuela concerning 
the limits of British Guiana was approaching an acute 
stage, a definite statement of the interest and i)ohcy of 
the United States as regards the controversy seemed to 
be required both on its own account and in view of its 
relations with the friendly i)ower8 directly concerned. 
In July last, therefore, a dispatch was addressed to our 
Ambassador at London for communication to the British 
Government, in which the attitude of the United States 
was fully and distinctly set forth. The general conclu- 
sions thereinreachedand formulated are in substance that 
the traditional and established policy of this government 
is firmly opposed to a forcible increase by any European 
power of its territorial possessions on this continent ; 
that this i)oUcy is as well founded in principle as it is 
strongly supported by numerous precedents ; that as a^ 
consequence the United States is bound to protest' 
against the enlargement of the area of British Guiana 
in derogation of the rights and against the will of Venez- 
uela ; that, considering the disi>arity in strength of 
Great Britain and Venezuela, the territorial dispute be- 
tween them can be reasonably settled only by friendly 
and impartial arbitration, and that the resort to such 
abitration should include the whole controversy, and is 
not satisfied if one of the powers concerned is per- 
mitted to draw an arbitrary Hue through the territory 
in debate and to declare that it will submit to arbitra- 
tion only the portion lying on one side of it. In view of 
these conclusions, the dispatch in question called ui)on 
the British Government for a definite answer to the 
question whether it would or would not submit the ter- 
ritorial controversy between itself and Venezuela in its 
entirety to imx)artial arbitfation. The answer of the 
British Government has not yet been received, but is 
expected shortly, when further conmiunication on the 
subject will probably be made to Congress. 

Our readers will observe that Presi- 
%ntfnSfr?p.' ^^^^ Cleveland and Secretary Olney 

entertained the same view of the bear- 
ings of the Venezuela question that this magazine 
had frequently presented as the only one that has 
seemed to make for righteousness and peace. Arbi- 
tration is the only possible way to settle justly the 
question who is entitled to the disputed area. The 
sentiment of Congressmen of both parties in both 
Houses was strongly in accord with the President, 



when the message was received. The long awaited 
answer from Lord Salisbury arrived a few days 
later. It was imderstood that Lord Salisbury had 
dissented emphatically from the President's position. 
Congress was eager to obtain possession of the full 
correspondence. But Mr. Cleveland, without wait- 
ing for the British reply, although he knew it to be 
on its way in the ocean mails, quietly left the White 
House to spend a week or ten days shooting ducks 
in the North Carolina sea marshes, at a long distance 
from newspaper correspondents. He was accord- 
ingly subjected to a very sharp and bitter criticism 
by the press of the country, which declared that — 
after having enjoyed a vacation at Buzzard's Bay 
of nearly half a year, and having been back in 
Washington for only a little more than a month— it 
was his duty as a public oflScial to remain at his 
post, particularly during the opening days of Con- 
gress when many public questions were demanding 
attention. Among the newspapers which criticised 
the President, the most severe were those of his own 




BfR. CLEVELAND AS A DUCK-HUNTER. 

(Prom N. Y. Evening Telegram of December 18.) 

party. We were inclined to think that most of the 
journalists who had taken this tone would soon re- 
gret it. The responsibility of the President of the 
United States, even in the very fairest political 
weather, is a tremendous burden. The President is 
not to be held to so many hours a day, like a post- 
office clerk. It must be assumed that Mr. Cleve- 
land's hunting trip was taken at this time not for 
mere pleasure, but fully in the line of his own sense 
of public duty. However freely one may criticise 
policies actually announced, the people and the 
press should be careful to show consideration for the 
office of the President, and should not be too ready 



THE PROGRESS OF THE iVORLD, 



to pass censure upon his personal methods. It is 
altogether possible that the President went to North 
Carolina expressly to avoid the necessity of sending 
the Venezuelan correspondence to Congress until 
the public f eehng on that subject might grow some 
what more calm. Moreover, it would be naturally 
expected that, having committed himself to the 
position expressed in the message as quoted above, 
the President would have some course of action to 
recommend to Congress when transmitting Mr. 
Olney's letter and Lord Salisbury's reply. Inas- 
much as grave issues might hang upon the precise 
nature of the President's recommendation, he may 
well have thought it best to gain time for delibera- 
tion by taking a few days' outing. Of course, we 
have no authority whatever for suggesting that this 
particular subject was upon the President's mind 
Nevertheless he could hardly have helped thinking 
about it very closely and carefully. The question 
is not one which has come to the surface in a mo- 
ment ; and although it calls for firm and imam- 
bignous treatment, it is not to be solved by bluster 
or by off hand methods. Most of our people are con- 
servative ; and upon sober second thought they were 
rather glad that Mr. Cleveland had given another 
evidence of his capacity for cool and deliberate ac- 
tion by this very hunting trip which on first thought 
seemed so ill-timed and unsuitable. No interests of 
moment really suffered, although a good many pub- 
lic affairs in detail were somewhat inconveniently 
blocked by Mr. Cleveland's absence from Washing- 
ton. Mr. Livingston, of Georgia, who is one of the 




most aggressive champions of Venezuela's position in 
the boundary dispute, was disposed to push a resolu- 
tion through the House of Representatives calling 
upon the Secretary of State, in the absence of the 
President, to send at once to Congress the coveted 
dispatch from the British foreign oflSce. But Mr. 
Livingston was made to acknowledge that such an 
action would be seriously discourteous to the Presi- 
dent and he abandoned his resolutions. Mr. Cleve- 
land was in the White House, ready for business 
again, on Monday, December 16. after a total dis- 
appearance lasting some twelve days. 




HON. LEON1DAS F. LrvrXGSTON, OF GEORGIA. 



HON. RICHARD OLNEY, SECRETARY OF STATE. 

SaUsburu's ^^® foregoing paragraphs had been writ- 
Refusai to ten wheu the afternoon papers of Tues 
Arbitrate. ^^ ^j^^ ^^^j^ brought the President's 
special message on the Venezuelan question, together 
with a full summary of the corresi)ondence that had 
passed between Secretary Olney and the British 
government. Mr. Olney's exposition of the meaning 
of the Monroe Doctrine, and of the attitude of the 
United States with reference to questions on this side 
of the Atlantic, will rank among the ablest of Amer- 
ican state papers. This document is one of great 
dignity and power; Lord Salisbury's reply is of a 
very different order. The British document may all 
be summed up in the statement that, whatever Great 
Britain may choose to do with Venezuela or any 
other st^te on this side of the ocean, it is absolutely 
none of the business of the United States. To quote 
Salisbury's exact words, the British Empire and 
Venezuela ** have differed for some time past, and 
continue to differ, as to the line by which their 



THE REI^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



dominions are separated. It is a controyersy with 
whicli the United States have no apparent practical 
concern. It is difficult indeed to see how it can ma- 
terially affect any state or community outside those 
primarily interested, except, perhaps, other parts of 
Her Majesty's dominions, such as Trinidad. The dis- 
puted frontier of Venezuela has nothing to do with 
any of the questions dealt with by President Mon- 
roe." We may remark that Mr. Olney had demon- 
strated by irrefutable logic that the Venezuela ques- 
tion has everything to do with the Monroe Doctrine. 
The upshot of Lord Salisbury's long deferred com- 
munication is an absolute refusal to consent to arbi- 
trate the question in dispute witn Venezuela. 

President Cleveland's message of 
the 17th answers briefly but firmly 
Lord Salisbury's position and the 

message concludes with the following remarkable 

paragraphs : 

The course to be pursued by this government in view 
of the present condition does not appear to admit of 
serious doubt. Having labored faithfully for many 
years to induce Oreat Britain to submit this dispute to 
impartial arbitration, and having been now finally ap- 



The President' 8 
Recommendation, 




LORD SALISBURY. 
(From a new photograph.) 

prised of her refusal to do so, nothing remains but to 
accept the situation, to recognize its plain requirements 
and deal with it accordingly. Great Britain's present 
proposition has never thus far been regarded as admissi- 
ble by Venezuela, though any adjustment of the bound- 
ary which that country may deem for her advantage and 
may enter into of her own free will cannot, of course, be 
objected to by the United States. 

Assimiing, however, that the attitude of Venezuela 
will remain unchanged, the dispute has reached such a 
stage as to make it now incumbent upon the United 
States to take measures to determine, with sufficient 




PRESmENT CLEVELAND. 

certainty for its justification, what is the true divisional 
line between the Republic of Venezuela and British Gui- 
ana. The inquiry to that end should of course be con- 
ducted carefully and judicially, and due weight should 
be given to all available evidence, records, and facts in 
support of the claims of both i>arties. 

In order that such an examihation should be prose- 
cuted in a thorough and satisfactory manner, I suggest 
that the Congress make an adequate appropriation for 
th^ expenses of a commission to be appointed by the 
Executive, who shall make the necessary investigation 
and report ui)on the matter with the least i)OSsible delay. 
When such report is made and accepted it will, in my 
opinion, be the duty of the United States to resist by 
every means in its power, as a wilful aggression upon its 
rights and interests, the appropriation by Great Britain 
of any lands, or the exercise of governmental jurisdiction 
over any territory which, after investigation, we have 
determined of right belongs to Venezuela. 

In making these recommendations I am fully alive to 
the full responsibility incurred, and keenly realize all the 
consequences that may follow. I am nevertheless firm 
in my conviction that, while it is a grievous thing to 
contemplate the two great English-speaking peoples of 
the world as being otherwise than friendly competitors 
in the onward march to civilization and strenuous and 
worthy rivals in all the arts of peace, there is no calam- 
ity which a great nation can invite which equals that 
which follows a supine submission to wrong and injust- 
ice, and the consequent loss of natiom il self-re8i)ect and 
honor, beneath which is shielded and d»f ended a people's 
safety and greatness. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD, 



9 



We have never known a case of inter- 
^tuHStSu' national dispute in which, on all 

grounds, a settlement by arbitration 
seemed more urgently advisable; and Lord Salis- 
bnry's denial of our friendly request seems to us as 
recklesB and as evil a thing as modem history can 
show. His expressed contempt for the Monroe doc- 
trme is wholly offensive to us as a nation. But Salis- 
bury will not always be Prime Minister; and that 
which is right and just should triumph in our rela- 
tions with England without one single hint of so 
inccmceivably horrible a catastrophe as war. While 
we believe Lord Salisbury wrong and President 
Cleveland and Secretary Olney right regarding the 
applicability of the Monroe doctrine and the prin- 
ciples of arbitration to the Venezuelan difficulty, it 
does not seem to us that the resources of diplomacy 
have been by any means exhausted. We are confi- 
doit that the Venezuelan question will be settled 
within this year 1896, and that the sober, peace-lov- 
ing people of England and the United States will 
conclude not to hate each other or to fight each 
other. It would be entirely impracticable for us to 
send a commission to the region in dispute; but we 
heartily approve of the plan of a commission sitting 
in Washington who will advise our own government 



concerning the downright merits of the controversy. 
Meanwhile, it is not in the least necessary or desir- 
able to contemplate hostilities as a result of the light 
which such a commission may throw upon the 
boimdary question. The questions involved are his- 
torical ones which can be as readily determined in 
Washington as anywhere else. The controversy is 
one of at least fifty years' standing, and all the facts 
have been already completely unearthed. All that 
Great Britain can claim has been printed' in British 
blue books; and, moreover. Lord Salisbury's letter 
contains the best presentation of the British case 
that experts could make with unlimited time at their 
disposaL President Cleveland's commission, assum- 
ing that it will be duly appointed, will have merely 
to look into the merits of these claims already pre- 
sented by Great Britain, and to examine the Vene- 
zuelan claims, which, with all the evidence that is 
procurable, have alr^Eidy been carefully formulated. 



What Mr. Bayard 
TMnka of Ua 
OM a Motion, 



Meanwhile, however, the House had 
treated itself to the discussion of 
another lively topic in the field of 
foreign affairs. Our representative at the court 
of St James, the Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, has 
made a great reputation among our British cousins 




EXPLANATIONS 

I Extreme limit of England's present claim. 
Line of arbitration limited by England. 
••«»••■•« Extension of the Schombnrgk line. 
0-<M>i<M> Original Schombnrgk line. 



V^^WW^M^^V 



>»»>»> 



The Line proposed by Lord Granville. 

Line proposed by Lord Aberdeen. 

Line once proposed by Dr. Bojas, Venezuelan 

Envoy, as a compromise. 
The first Rosebery line. 
Venezuelans extreme claim. 



MAP OF DISPUTED VEXEZUELA-OCIANA TERRITOBY, SHOWING THE VARIOUS BOUNDARY LINES. 



10 



THE RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS, 



as a public speaker, and he is in constant demand. 
The most elaborate, and of course the most deliber 
ately prepared, of all the speeches Mr. Bayard has 
delivered since he became Ambassador was one 
before the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution on 
November 7, his subject being ** Individual Free- 
dom." The address was quoted rather copiously in 
the British newspapers at the time it was delivered, 
but it attracted little attention in the United States 
for several weeks. When certain portions of it, by 
way of quotation from the London Times, at length 
made their appearance in our American press, a 
gentle murmur of criticism began to be heard. It 
remained for two Congressmen from Massachusetts to 
present the matter in such a fashion as to transform 
the murmur into a veritable uproar. The portion 
of Mr. Bayard's speech which was considered to be 
invidious, and out of place in a representative of 
this country at a foreign capital, was as follows : 

In my own conntry I have witnessed the insatiable 
growth of that form of state socialism styled " protec- 
tion," which I believe has done more to foster class legis- 
lation and create inequality of fortune, to corrupt public 
life, to banish men of independent mind and character 
from the public councils, to lower the tone of national 
representation, blunt pubhc conscience, create false 
standards in the popular mind, to familiarize it with re- 
liance upon state aid and guardianship in private affairs, 
divorce ethics from xx)htics and place politics upon the 
low level of a mercenary scramble, than any other single 
cause. 

Step by step, and largely owing to the confusion of civil 
strife, it has succeedeu in obtaining control of the sov- 
ereign ix)wer of taxation, never hesitating at any aUi- 
ance or the resort to any combmation that promised to 
assist its purpose of perverting public taxation from its 
only true justification and function, of creating revenue 
for the supix)rt of the government of the whole people, 
into an engine for the selfish and private profit of allied 
beneficiaries and combinations called *^ trusts.'* Under 
its dictation individual enterprise and independence have 
been oppressed and the energy of discovery and inven- 
tion debilitated and discouraged. 

It has unhesitatingly allied itself with every policy 
which tends to commercial isolation, dangerously de- 
pletes the Treasury and saps the i)opular conscience by 
schemes of corrupting favor and largesse to special 
classes, whose support is thereby attracted. 

Thus it has done so much to throw legislation into the 
political market, where jobbers and chafferers take the 
place of statesmen. The words of Lowell's warning well 
apply : ^ 

Rough are the steps, slow-hewn i4^bk» flintiest rock. 
States climb to power by ; slippery those with gold 

Down which they stumble to eternal mock ; 
No chatterer's hand shall long the sceptre hold, 
Who, g^ven a fate to shape, would sell the block. 

Gradually the commercial marine of the United States 
has disappeared from the high seas, with the loss of the 
carrying trade and the dispersion of the class of trained 
seamen and skilled navigators ; the exceptions, that only 
prove the rule, are the few vessels lately built, and only 
by making a breach by special contract in the general 
tariff and navigation laws, a reluctant confession of the 
impolicy and unwisdom of both, but an object-lesson 
from which valuable instruction may be drawn. 



The Motion 
to Impeach 
Mr. Bayard. 



On December 10. Mr. McCall, 
the representatives from Massac 
offered a resolutioi^ requesting t 
President inform the House concerning the 
ticity of the speeches reported to have been i 
Mr. Bayard, and further if any steps hf 
taken to recall or censure the Ambassador. *] 
olution was not privileged, and therefore c< 
be discussed without first having been refer 
committee, except by unanimous consei 
CJrisp, as leader of the Democrats, objected, 
McCall's resolution was referred to the Coi 
on Foreign Affairs. But Mr. Barrett, of Mi 




HON. WM. B. BABRETT, OP MASSACHUSEl 

setts, a new Republican member who has 1 
place in Congress of Mr. William Everet 
diately arose and offered a resolution impeac 
Bayard **of high crimes and misdemean 
resolution proceeding to quote from Mr. 
speech. A motion to impeach is privileged 
Barrett, therefore, precipitated an immedia 
which occupied a good part of the day a 
dealt with Mr. Bayard in a manner which 
thing but complimentary. The defense of 
ard was altogether perfunctory, and it "Wf 
that most of the Democrats were in sympj 
the Republican attack. In a speech at th 
town of Boston in August Mr. Bayard ha< 
commented on American affairs, and am 
things had made the following deliverance 
The President stands in the midst of a st 
confident, and oftentimes violent people, men 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



11 



to have their own way, and who need to have that way 
freqnently obstructed, and, I tell you plainly, it takes a 
real man to govern the people of the United States. 

This extract was included by Mr. Barrett in his 
resolations ae a part of the complaint againBt the 
Ambassador. By an overwhelming majority of the 
votes of the House,— a number of Democrats voting 
are with the Republicans, — Mr. Barrett's motion 
prevailed; and accordingly the Committee on For- 
eign Affairs was directed to ascertain whether such 
statements had been publicly made, and if so, to re- 
port to the House such action as should be proper in 
the premises. It is hardly likely, therefore, that Mr. 
Bayard will escape a formal and official censure by 
the House of Representatives, although it is not sup- 
posed that there will be any attempt to bring an im- 
peachment trial. 

»mptM ^^' ^y*''^ *"^ merely committed an 
Pwtihed annoying offense against diplomatic usage. 
4/fMtfy. j^ jg ^j^^ niore difficult to understand why 
he should have made American public affairs the 
rahject of discussion abroad, inasmuch as he has 
himself served as Secretary of Slate and has there- 
fore been accustomed to give the usual cautions to 
our diplomatic representatives. They are always in- 
fdmcted that they must not under any circumstances 
make public speeches which deal with questions 
prominently in controversy between great political 
parties at home. Inasmuch as the policy of pro- 
tective tariffs has been the actual practice of our 
iTDvermnent for the i>ast thirty- five years, and is 
honestly believed in by at least half and probably 
much more than half of the American people, it was 
<*ioeedingly injudicious in Mr. Bayard while hold- 
ing the post of ambassador to the one country which 
u most strongly opposed to our national commercial 
policy, that he should seize important public occa 
sons to denounce his own country and countrymen. 
Any European ambassador who should indulge in 
this sort of freedom of speech would be instantly 
recalled by telegraph. The English papers, although 
naturally approving of Mr. Bayard's sentiments, 
have avowed their surprise that he should express 
those sentiments while holding the position of am- 
btnador. The discussion in Congress, followed by 
the discussion in the American and English news 
papers, has of itself sufficiently punished Mr. Bay- 
ard for his '* high crimes and misdemeanors. '* There 
will, of course, be no repetition of the offense while 
he is ambassador, and other American representa- 
tives abroad will be on their guard against undiplo- 
matic behavior. It is therefore to be hoped that the 
incident will be disposed ot without further attempt 
to consider it seriously. After all. Mr. Bayard's of- 
f«itte was only one of technical form. His personal 
sentiments were entirely familiar to every one before 
he accepted the post of ambassador ; and when 
^waking before the Philosophical Institution at Ed- 
inborgh he evidently considered himself as entitled 



to appear in his personal and private capacity as a 
political philosopher, having left his official char- 
acter behind him at the embassy in London. 

Although Mr. Bayard*s offense was one 
Patriotism, which ought not to be taken too seriously, 

the incident carries with it a lesson that 
our public men and our party newspapers alike have 
great need to learn. That lesson is one of simple 
patriotism. Americans who go abroad, whether as 
our official representatives or in unofficial capacities, 
should be far more careful to avoid giving the im- 
pression that they think their country needs to be 
apologized for. They should not carry their intense 
partisanship as a chief item of their traveling bag- 
gage. Here at home, moreover, there is always a 
disposition on the part of a portion of the press and 
the politicians to support some foreign government, 
rather than our own, at the very moment when a 
serious question of international policy is at stake. 
Nothing of this kind is observable in any European 
country. In questions of foreign policy our govern- 
ment must be understood as endeavoring to act for 
the welfare of the whole country ; and patriotism de- 
mands that the government should be criticised with 
the least possible show of hostility. Thus the news- 
papers which have been so extravagantly denotmcing 
Mr. Cleveland and Mr. Olney as ** jingoes ** because 
of their position toward the Venezuelan question, 
have been guilty of something more serious than 
bad taste. Meanwhile, prominent Americans who 
go to England and denotmce those of their fellow 
countrymen who favor protective tariffs as scoun- 
drels and corruptionists. are serving no purpose ex- 
cept to create the impression that Americans are too 
violent in their partisanship to speak calmly even 
when away from home. Doubtless our commercial 
policies and our foreign policies have at times in 
some respects been seriously at fault; but at least no 
other great country in the history of the world has 
in its public policies pursued a course so broad and 
impartial,— «o little selfish and so free from ag- 
gression and grasping. — as our own country. These 
things go somewhat by comparisons ; and. surrounded 
as he is by the atmosphere of British policy, domestic 
and foreign, it would hardly seem as if Mr. Bayard 
ought to have felt any impulse to denounce his own 
country. 

American Buiid- ^^® ^' *^® wisest recommendations 
ings in Foreign in the President's message has to do 
Capitate. ynih. the emoluments and conditions 
of our representatives abroad. The Review of Re- 
views has more than once expressed the wish that 
Congress might decide to build a worthy American 
building in every important foreign capital, as the 
X>ermanent headquarters for American official inter- 
ests. Our diplomatic and consular representatives 
as a rule are domiciled in shabby, rented quarters, 
and they have a most undignified fashion of moving 
from one street to another at frequent intervals. 



12 



THE REI^/EIV OF REVIEWS. 



American ambassadors and ministers receive much 
smaller pay than those of the principal European 
countries, and have very little means put at their 
disposal for the dignified maintenance of their pub- 
lic offices. If a suitably furnished residence in a 
building owned by the United States government 
were provided, it would not be necessary to increase 
salaries very much, if any. The question of expense 
ought not to be raised as an obstacle. The price of 
one battleship would pay for at least ten excellent 
buildings in as many foreign capitals,— all of them 
fine enough to excite general admiration. These 
buildings would do a great deal more than the one 
battleship, or half a dozen battleships, to lend 
weight and dignity to the diplomatic representations 
of the United States government. The ship would 
be obsolete within ten years; the buildings would be 
good for two hundred. The President's recommend- 
ation should be acted upon. 

/>„. i>-/^/««. The President's information to Congress 

Our Relations ,. ^, _, . . . *^^, 

with Cuba touching the Cuban situation is worthy 
and Spain. ^^ ^^^ respect and careful attention. 

The following extract contains the more essential 

part of his discussion of Cuban affairs: 

Whatever may be traditional sympathy of our country- 
men as individuals with a people who seem to be strag- 
gling for larger autonomy and greater freedom, deepened 
as such sympathy naturally must be in behalf of our 
neighbors, yet the plain duty of their government is to 
observe in good faith the recognized obligations of in- 
ternational relationship. The performance of this duty 
should not be made more dif&cult by a disregard on the 
part of our citizens of the obligations growing out of their 
allegiance to their country, which should restrain them 
from violating as individuals the neutrality which 
the nation of which they are members is bound to ob- 
^.^erve in its relations to friendly sovereign states. 
Though neither the warmth of our people's sympathy 
with the Cuban insurgents nor our loss and material dam- 
age consequent upon the futile endeavors thus far made 
to restore peace and order, nor any shock our humane 
sensibilities may have received from the cruelties which 
api)ear to esi>ecia]ly characterize this sanguinary and 
fiercely conducted war, have in the least shaken the 
detennination of the government to honestly fulfill every 
international obligation, yet it is to be earnestly hoped, on 
every ground, that the devastation of armed confiict 
may speedily be stayed, and order and quiet restored to 
the distracted island, bringing in their train the activity 
and thrift of peaceful pursuits. 

The representatives of the Cuban patriots in the 
United States have expressed themselves as entirely 
satisfied with the President's point of view. They 
call attention to the fact that he describes the situa- 
tion in Cuba as actually a war, and they read be- 
tween the lines what they believe to be an entire 
. readiness on Mr. Cleveland's part to assent to the 
recognition of the belligerency of the Cuban insur- 
gents, provided Congress should take the initiative. 
Cuban freedom has a host of friends to speak for 
it on the floor of both Houses, and it will have a 
hearing. 



A Real Certainly it is no trifiing revolt 
War Exists exists in Cuba, but rather a formic 

in Cuba. g^^ q£ ^^^ ^|jg^ gp^ijj ^.Q^^ 

month after month to recruit new regiments 
dispatch them to the scene of hostilities. It is 
that the insurgents continue to avoid de< 
pitched battles, but the very strength of their 
lies in their ability to conduct a waiting cam] 
and to avoid large open engagements. If the 
maintain themselves on the lines of their pi 
policy for two or three months, the heavy e 
rains will come, followed by the early heat 
Cuban summer, and the Spanish situation vi 
hopeless. For neither the Spanish soldiery 
Spanish finances, nor Spanish politics could e 
the strain of a postponement of definite resi 
Cuba to another winter. The general uneasii 
Spain has been exhibited within the past moi 
a cabinet crisis and reorganization, —the imm 
cause being the exposure of a series of Tamma 
scandals in the municipal administration of M 
rather than the government's ineffectual war 
in Cuba. Undoubtedly there will be a strong 
made in our Congress at the present session to 
nize the belligerent rights of the Cuban insu 

A Plan for t/io -^ good many American businei 
Guarantee of are in f avor of a plan by wh: 
Cuban Bonds. United States government woul 
antee the bonds which Cuba might issue in c 
raise money to buy her liberty from Spain, 
case Cuba would become an independent r< 
under a virtual American protectorate, ^^ 
American director of customs and revenues i 
to protect the interest on the bonds indorsed 
government. It should be observed that 1 
present great finance minister, De Witte, is I 
China within the sphere of effective Russia 
ence by the simple device of guaranteeing tl 
which China is obliged to raise in order t< 
the Japanese indemnity. It is said that I 
has also in mind a scheme for guaranteeing t 
of Bulgaria and the other Danubian provin 
means by which to solidify Russia's moral h 
those minor states. In England, moreover, 
derstood that one of Mr. Chamberlain's cl 
as Colonial Secretary is that of a closer union 
the home coimtry and the great British co 
means of this same scheme of a British 
guarantee of colonial debts, thus enal] 
colonies to borrow at lower rates, and 
larger investments in works of public imp 
and development. An American private 
now controls the debt of San Domin^^, am 
manages, through its own agents, the col 
customs. We may well shrink from t 
quences of a full annexation of Cuba, 
scheme of commercial union, with Americ 
vision over fiscal matters, would doubtl 
exceedingly advantageous. Spain -would 
welcome such an escape from her present 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD 



13 



Mr CartMt '^^ Bjmxxal report of the Secretary of the 
awrftt* Treasnry was made public on December 
Ctmotmcht, j^ j^ moBt essenti^ recommendations 
were contained in the President's message to Ck)n- 
gresB, althoogh the Secretary's report argues the 
case at moch greater length. Mr. Carlisle explains 
and defends the methods employed by the Treasury 
in its bond issues; and his great contention, sup- 
ported by the President's message, is the necessity 
for prompt legislation looking toward inmiediate re 
txrement of the greenbacks. He maintains that so 
long as the great volume of Treasury notes is main- 
tained in circulation, — ^the government being com- 
p^ed to redeem these notes in gold whenever pre- 
sented and then to pay them out again in the ordi- 
nary course of business, instead of canceling them,— 
the burden of maintaining a stock of gold for re- 
demption purposes must always subject the Treasury 
to great annoyance and embarrassment, and the 
ooontry to a heavy and needless expense. Mr. Car- 
bale would favor retiring the whole volume of sev- 
eral hundred million dollars of greenbacks at once, 
iaroing in place of them government bonds at low 
interest It has been suggested, however, by vari- 
ooa bankers and financiers, that a very gradual can 
rellatioa of the greenbacks would be quite sufficient 
to create that feeling of confidence which is all that 
» needed to relieve the situation. It is at least cer- 
tain that Congress will not pass a measure to retire 
tiie whole volume of Treasury notea It is not at all 
probable that the present Congress will take any 
<ew looking even toward gradual retirement. Mr. 
Carlisle still asks that the Secretary of the Treasury 
be authorized to issue short-time bonds at a low rate 
whenever, in his judgment, such a course is needful 
to sQstain the public credit The last House of Rep- 
reMntativee refused to grant such authority, although 
tbe Senate voted favorably upon the proposition. 
Senator Allison has a plan for the issue of a popular 
loan in the form of three i>er-cent bonds of small de- 
nominations, and it is likely that his scheme will be 
adopted. It is an attractive one. 

Mr. Carlisle presents figures which 
^^I^^SSfc^ show that the government's ordinary 

receipts for the fiscal year which ended 
last June were $43,805,000 less than the corre8i)ond- 
ing expendituree. The deficit of the preceding year 
had becsi 170,024,000. For the current year, which 
viU exkd June 30 next, Mr. Carlisle estimates that 
tbe deficiency will be $17,000,000. This would seem 
to be taking a rather optimistic view, and events 
most take a very favorable turn to justify the pre- 
dictions of the Treasury officials. When, however, 
Mr. Carlisle extends his forecast, and estimates that 
there will be a surplus of revenue of $6,908,926.83 
for the fiscal year ending June 1, 1897, it would 
Karcely appear that his calculations serve to uphold 
Us opinion that no legislation is needed to increase 
L rvT«nuee. By Mr. Carlisle's own showing, the three 
tvSl fiscal years of his administration will have re- 



sulted in an aggregate revenue deficiency of $180,- 
000,000; and this makes no accomit of the further 
sums which ought to have been paid into the sinking 
fund in accordance with law. Nor does Mr. Car- 
lisle's estimate of a small surplus for the fiscal year 
1897 allow for sinking fund; for if the sinking fund 
obligations should be met, there would be a large 
deficiency. Even if there had been no greenbacks 
presented for redemption, and therefore no deple- 
tion of the gold reserve on that account, it is never- 
theless true that Mr. Carlisle's bond sales would have 
been needed to obtain money to make up for the 
lack of revenue. Curiously enough, the President 
said nothing about these deficits in the long finan- 
cial portion of his message. Mr. Carlisle seems to 
endeavor, through the entire length of his very 
detailed and argumentative report, to convey the im- 
pression that there would have been no occasion to 
borrow money except for the purpose of keeping up 
the supply of gold. If the Secretary had been some- 
what more frank in his treatment of this question 
of the deficient revenues, he would have gained a 
more favorable hearing for the plans that he advo- 
cates. It is too early to predict the course that Con- 
gress will pursue regarding these questions of 
finance, but evidently the Republicans who have the 
presidential election in mind will continue to advise 
the least possible attempt to disturb the main lines 
of the existing revenue system. An increase in the 
tax on beer would make small disturbance, and could 
be made to yield perhaps $30,000,000 of additional 
revenue. The Wilson-Gtorman tariff becomes grad- 
ually more productive. The income from customs 
was $132,000,000 in 1894 (fiscal year), and $152,000.- 
000 in 1895; and it is estimated at $172,000,000 for 
the current fiscal year; while for the year ending 
June 30, 1897, the estimated receipts from customs 
are $190,000,000. It will be hard to keep down the 
expenses. 

Prtaidentiat '^^ Republican National Committee 
ConvenHons and met at Washington in December to 

CandldaUa. g^^j^ ^^ question where and when 
the next presidential convention should be held. 
The cities which competed most eagerly for the 
honor and advantage of entertaining the convention 
were San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Chicago and St 
Louis, several other cities also presenting their 
claims. The plea of San Francisco was especially 
tempting; and besides the promise of every conven- 
ience and a large sum of money for convention ex 
X>enses, a round-trip fare for all comers of twenty-five 
dollars between Chicago and San Francisco was 
guaranteed. One of the principal reasons, however, 
against going to San Francisco was the lack of a 
sufficient number of transcontinental telegraph wires 
to accommodate the Eastern newspapers. The con- 
test was finally narrowed to a choice between Chicago 
and St. Louis, and the more southerly city carried 
the day. The Republicans have recently won in 
Kentucky and Missouri, and they have made Ten- 
nessee a doubtful state. It is good politics to take 



14 



THE REk'lElV OF REk'/ElVS. 




FRANKLIN BX7HP, OF ANN ARBOR, 
Sec. and Treas. College Civil Serrice Reform League. 

next year's Republican convention to St. Louis, the 
better to undo the impression in the South that the 
Republican party is a sectional institution. There is 
no longer any reason why there should be only one 
party in the Southern states. It is altogether likely 
that in the years to come there may be such a shift- 
ing of party allegiance as to mi^e the Southwest 
Republican and the Northwest Democratic. At 
least there can be no reason for vast Republican 
majorities in the one section and vast Democratic 
majorities in the other. The Democratic National 
Committee will meet in Washington about the mid- 
dle of January, to decide where the Democratic con- 
vention shall be held. There is some discussion of 
iN^ew York as the suitable place, but it is more likely 
that Chicago or St. Louis will be selected. The dis- 
cussion of presidential candidates continues to rage 
without abatement, but the most knowing of the 
political managers have no more idea who will be 
nominated than the little children in the kindergar- 
tens have. There are four prominent Republican 
candidates, namely, in alphabetical order, Allison, 
Harrison, McKinley, and Reed. As yet there is only 
one Democratic candidate of prominence, namely, 
President Cleveland. The third- term movement 
bids fair to develop a better organization and a more 
powerful hold upon the party situation than the 
third-term movement for President Grant in 1876. 
In the very possible event that Mr. Cleveland him- 
self may suppress the third-term movement, Secre- 




6TEPHEN D. DEMMON, OF CHICAOO, 
Presideiit of College Civil Service Reform Leag 

tary Olney and Secretary Carlisle might becc 
principal candidates. 



Progress in 
Cluif Seroice 



The annual meeting of the Ci 
vice Reform Association was 
fi0form, Washington on December 1 
the Hon. Carl Schurz as president made a ve; 
worthy address. The movement has made g 
tory gains, and Mr. Schurz summed them 
most impressive manner. Our consular ser 
though sadly demoralized in the opening nn 
the present Administration, is now, by Secre 
ney's advice, to be brought— so far as mos 
places are concerned — under strict and sensi 
ulations which will in time give us a servi* 
upon actual merit, and one which can be of { 
to American commerce. Furthermore, it is i 
to introduce the principles of merit and oi 
nent tenure into the ranks of the great 
fourth-class postmasters. Gradually -we arc 
rid of the abominable spoils system, and that 
found reason for thankfulness. It is worth o 
to note the fact that a woman's auxiliary of 
Service Reform Association has been inst 
New York and that women^s branches a 
formed in different parts of the country, 
no political sphere in which intelligent wc 
render more valuable service to their cou£ 
in this hopeful, but necessarily long-contim 
against spoils and corruption as the obj 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



15 



motives of political life. Mrs. Josephine Shaw 
Lowell is one of the women most actively enlisted in 
the new movement 

Tkt Coii9g9 -Ajiother hox>eful sign of the times is the 
Monm launching of the *' National League of 
^•^ College Civil Service Reform aubs." 
The movement took definite form at a convention 
held in Chicago last May. in which colleges from all 
parts of the country were represented. Nothing 
coald be in better spirit or taste than the organiza- 
tion of college and university students in the inter- 
est of purer and better public administration. With 
the collegiate Republican clubs and Democratic 
clubs it is not so easy to sympathize. The value of 
college life lies in the opportunity it affords for the 




BOir. JOSIAH QUINCT, MAYOR OF BOSTON. 

fltody of principles, the adoption of high ideals, and 
the impartial examination of history. The student 
who makes himself a partisan too soon, gratuitously 
tbandons that particular attitude of mind which 
ToiderB his opportunities for study and inquiry most 
frmtfoL There is plenty of time for aggressive 
partisanship after college work is left behind; but 
dril lervice reform is not a party issue, nor are its 
gneral premises open to legitimate controversy. 
It is only as students possess the mental attitude of 
ciril lervice reformers that they can study and ob- 



serve the political phenomena about them from any 
intelligent or sensible point of view. The scientific 
study of i)olitical history and political methods is 
becoming constantly more popular in our colleges 
and universities; and such study must presuppose 
a belief in honest and efficient administrative meth- 
ods. The Civil Service Reform Club may well be- 
come a feature of student life in every institution of 
learning, professors and instructors also affiliating 
themselves with the societies. 

Municipal Matters '^^^ municipal election .in Boston 
In Masaachusetta resulted in the choice of the Hon. 
and Eiaewhera. j^-^j^ Qumcy as mayor. Mr. 

Quincy's brief career in the State Department at 
Washington did not give the country an altogether 
favorable impression of his administrative methods, 
but it is quite possible that he may show an especial 
aptitude for municipal work, and may return to his 
earlier allegiance to the profession and practice of 
civil service reform. Mr. Quincy is a gentleman of 
remarkable political capacity, and doubtless he will 
wish to distinguish himself by making the great 
city of Boston a model among American mimicipal- 
ities. The other cities of Massachusetts held munic- 
ipal elections at the same time; and while it may be 
said that the Republicans were victorious in many 
Instances, it is also true that an unusual number of 
contests were waged upon non-partisan lines with 
strictly local issues upx>ermost in the campaign. A 
considerable nimiber of towns in the neighborhood 
of Boston voted against the granting of any liquor 
license for the year 1896. It is to be regretted that so 
enlightened a state as Massachusetts should permit 
so excessively foolish a thing as the submission to 
popular vote every year of the broad issue whether 
or not the liquor traffic should be licensed. A ple- 
biscitum on so distinct a matter ought not to be 
mixed up with the election of city officers and the 
general questions of municipal government. It 
should be entirely sufficient to deal with the license 
question at a separate election, to be held once in 
five years, or better still, once in ten. A vigorously 
contested mimicipal election in Charleston, South 
Carolina, in which the opposing parties were the 
Democrats and the ** A. P. A." organization, was 
won by the Democrats with a small majority. 
Mayor Smythe is the new head of the municipality. 
Mayor Pingree, of Detroit, who was re-elected for a 
fourth term in November, has abated not a whit of 
his vigorous methods, and continues to assert the 
supremacy and sovereignty of the municipal au- 
thority as against private corporations. 

Mew fork '^^^ ^®^ York Police Commissiou- 

Poiice and ers have conferred the office of Chief 

Exelae Mattera. ^^ p^j.^^ ^^^^ ^^ p^^,. Conii^ ^^O 

has acted in that capacity since the retirement of 
Superintendent Byrnes. It is interesting to note that 
Mr. Conlin's appointment was preceded by a written 
civil-service examination. His long record is free 
from blemish, and it is to be hoped that his further 



16 



THE REyiEU^ OF REI^IEIVS. 




PETER CONLJN, N. Y. CHIEF OF POLICE. 
(From a oketch by V. Orlbayedoff.) 

career may be useful and prosperous. The chief of 
police of the city of New York is the occupant of one 
of the most important official positions in the United 
States. Chief Conlin was a brother of the late Amer- 
ican actor known by his stage name of William J. 
Florence. The New York Police Board has mounted 
a small squad of men upon bicycles, and the exper- 
iment promises to be successful. The policy of a 
strict suppression of Simday liquor-selling has not 
been abandoned by the Board. On the evening of 
December 16 a great public meeting, presided 
over by Bishop Potter and held under the auspices 
of the ** Church Temperance Society," with repre- 
sentative speakers from various denominations, de- 
nounced all attempts to change the law in the di- 
rection of a partial Sunday opening. We publish 
among our ** Leading Articles of the Month " an 
abstract of a remarkable article in the Fonim by the 
Hon. Frederick William HoUs, in defense of the 
German- American view of the Sunday and liquor 
questions. Mr. HoUs was one of the delegates-at- 
large to the late Constitutional Convention, and pre 
sents the G^erman view with great ability and un- 
questioned sincerity. The issue as drawn between 
ftie position taken by the Carnegie-Hall meeting 
and that presented in Mr. HoUs' article, is likely to 
be contested with vigor in the forthcoming session 
of the New York Legislature, and will in all likeli- 
hood be carried from the state of New York to the 



committee room of the platform-framers of the N'a- 
tional Republican Convention at St. Louis. Whicli- 
ever side participants may take in this i)ending con- 
troversy, it is important above all things else they 
should think, speak, and act with perfect sincerity. 



According to the published list of tlie 
British mayors elected in November no 
fewer than eleven peers have been 

elected as the chief magistrates of as many towns. 

Among them are the following: 



Brithh Peers 
as City 
Mayors. 



Appleby— Lord Hothfleld. 
Cardiff— Lord Windsor. 
Dudley — The Earl of 

Dudley. 
Liverpool -The Earl of 

Derby. 
LoNOTON— The Duke of 

Sutherland. 
BiCHMdND— The Earl of 

Zetland. 



RiPON— The Marquis of 
Ripen. 

Sheffield — The Duke of 
Norfolk. 

Warwick— The Earl of 
Warwick. 

WfflTEHAVEN— The Earl of 
Lonsdale. 

Worcester— Lord Beau- 
champ. 



" The Man 

Who Rights 

Things." 



If we add to these the peers serving on the London 
CJounty Coimcil. we find a remarkable beginning: 
made in the utilization of the peers by the democ- 
racy. For, be it remembered, in every one of these 
cases the peer-mayor is chosen by the town councU- 
lors whom the householders, male and female, elect 
by ballot. This may appear deplorable to the aus- 
tere republican, but it illustrates very forcibly the 
absence of that class hatred which is the poison of 
social life. The British peerage contains many men 
of trained, practical ability, who are particularly 
well qualified to take the lead in municipal progress. 

The position of at least one British 
minister has been strengthened by the 
course of recent events. Mr. Chamber- 
lain, who is now generally recognized by the public, 
although not by his colleagues, as the second man 
in the cabinet, was very much en Mdence in Novem- 
ber and December. He has launched an expedition 
against King Prompeh which will certainly make 
its way, vnth or without bloodshed, to the Ashanti 
capital to dictate terms of a settlement that will open 
up the auriferous beds behind Coomassie to British 
enterprise. But his chief exploit, and that which won 
for him from Khainathe title of Moatlhodi, "the 
man who rights things," has been the arranging of 
a compromise between the Bechuana chiefs and Mr 
Cecil Rhodes. Of course Mr. Chamberlam was but 
the go-between. Any awkwardness on the part of 
Mr. Rhodes would have made short wf^^,^^*^,t 
Colonial Secretary's attempt to be - Moatlhodi. 
The settlement by which Khama retains his sover- 
eignty-with power to exclude liquor--over his own 
territory, under the direct supervision of ttje Colonial 
Office, contents him ; and what contents Khama con- 
tents those who have made his cause their owa In 
return for this substantial concession of hisclaun. 
Khama cedes to the British South African Company 
a strip of land giving them right of way, and a Ime 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



17 



Mr. Cham- 
beHairn'M 
MoMjetto. 



" Hottest John " 

for 

Moittrow. 



of rail through his land to Rhodesia. The reversion 
of Khama's territory will go to the Company. But 
that is not a question for to-day or to-morrow. 

Mr. Chamberlain made a very impor- 
tant speech at the banquet given by the 
Agent- General for Natal in November 
to celebrate the completion of the Natal- Transvaal 
Railway. Mr. Chamberlain put his foot down with 
emphasis upon Matthew Arnold's "weary Titan'* 
theory of the British Empire. His speech was full 
of buoyant hope and confidence in the future of the 
race which inherits the influence, resources, and 
power of the British Empire. He also made an impor- 
tant speech intimating plainly his conviction that 
what Australia wants is more labor— a doctrine 
which the Australian trade unions will stoutly op- 
pose. Mr. Chamberlain's cx)ncluding achievement 
op to date has been to promise a 
subsidy of £75.000 a year to the 
fast mail steamers that are to run 
between Canada and the mother 
coontry. and to arrange for a 
special colonial committee to dis- 
C118S the question of the Pacific 
cable. 

Mr. Morley, after a 

few months' dubi- 

tatim, has decided 
that the House of Commons pos- 
senes greater attractions than his 
study or than that course of for- 
eign travel which he at one time 
contemplated. This is to be re- 
gretted. Mr. Morley needed a 
year's rest He could not have 
employed it better than in making 
the tour of the world, and espe 
dally in making a prolonged visit 
to the United States. The Mont> 
pose Burghs were about to lose 
their member, and they naturally 
pitched upon the most distin- 
guished Liberal outside the new 
Parhament to represent them. 
They will return Mr. Morley free 
of expense, and find him cheap at 
the price. Mr. Morley —like Mr. 
Asquith, Mr. Campbell-Banner- 
man. and Sir (Jeorge Trevelyan — 
will therefore become a Scotch 
member. Where the Opposition 
front bench would be, but for 
Scotland and Wales, it is some- 
what difficult to say. At the same 
time it would probably have been 
of better service to Mr. Morley, 
althoQsch not to the House of Com 
mons, if the Burghers of Montrose 
W selected Mr. Shaw Lef evre as 
their future member. Mr. Lecky, 



the distinguished historian, also enters Parliament, 
as a Unionist member. 

As a thank offering for the birth of an 
^'^a'Jssia!'' heir, or from some other cause, the Czar 
has made M. Pobedonostzeff counter- 
mand the policy of persecution which he has carried 
out so unflinchingly in the Baltic provinces. We 
read in the papers : 

The Procarator-G«neral of the Holy Synod has trans- 
mitted to the Minister of the Interior a document, in 
which he states that the assimilation of the western 
frontier populations with the heart and core of Russia 
is being accomplished in a satisfactory manner, and that 
the Orthodox Church is showing gratifying growth in 
those parts. The Procurator adds that extraordinary 
measures need no longer be taken by the authorities to 
help forward the work, and that the Ministry of the In. 




THE EMPRESS OF ALL THE RUSSIAS IN STATE DRESS. 



18 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



terior may, therefore, for the future refrain from taking 
any such steps. 

What gall and wormwood it must have been to M. 
Pobedonostzeflf to have to issue such an order. For 
a true persecutor never ** refrains. " Whatever suc- 
cess he achieves always seems to him to justify a 
continuance of the policy of repression. This order, 
therefore, may be regarded as the first and most 
gratifying indication of the young Czar's initiative 
in public affairs. 




(8) A law for Associations, repealing j 
subjecting the Churches to the general 1 

(9) The creation of a Colonial Army. 

(10) ImpartiaUty In disputes bet we 
labor. 

Generally speaking, M. Bourgeoif 
leagues mean to go the pace now they 
die; and since the majority has no sue 
overthrow is regarded as inevitable 
date. Their most important action hi 




M. BERTHELOT, FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER. 



M. LOCKROT, FRENCH MINISTER OF 1 



The Programme 
of the 
ch k 



M. Bourgeois, the New French prime 
minister, having completed his min- 
French Wnhtry. ^^^^^ ^y installing M. Berthelet, the 
distinguished chemist, at the foreign office, as we 
reported last month, proceeded later on to announce 
the policy of the new administration from the Trib- 
une. It is frankly radical and definitely anti-mod- 
erate republican. His programme is as follows : 

(1) Thorough investigation into alleged corruption in 
high places. Nothing is to be hushed up. All the dirty 
linen is to be washed on the house-top. In earnest 
whereof Arton has been arrested in Clapham and is to be 
extradited. Now Arton is accused of being the briber- 
in-chief in the Panama days. 

(2) Legislation to disqualify as Deputies all men who 
are directors of companies having contracts with the 
State, or who participate in syndicates of guarantee for 
the issue of stock. 

(3) The Budget must be imssed at its normal date. 

(4) A Progressive Succession duty. 

(5) Reform of the Liquor Laws. Exemption from duty 
of all hygienic drinks. 

(6) An income tax. 

(7) Old Age Pensions. 



The Kaiser 
" Squat on the 
Safety Value.' 



blushing annexation of Madagascar as ] 
pendency. 

With the exception of the s 
strike there is small syin] 
increase in the bitterness v 
British classes and masses. In Genni 
other hand, both parties seem to be a j 
crisis. When Professor Delbrfick can b 
for the most moderate of criticisms of 
ment in a magazine article, and when th 
of so reasonable and respectable a joi 
Ethische Kultur can be consigned to a 
three months — the public prosecutor c 
vain for the severer sentence of nine 
prisonment— it is evident the Kaiser ui 
the policy of sitting on the safety val 
was hoped he had abandoned. Among 
intelligence from Berlin is the announc 

The Chief of Police in Berlin gives notice 
mary closing of eleven Social Democratic ( 
ing six Reichstag electoral clubs, the So 
Committee, the Agitation Committee, the Ix 
tee of the Party, the Club of the Party D< 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



19 



the Central Committee of the Social Democratic Party 
of Germany. 

The Emperor is believed to be " bent upon using 
force, regardless of consequences, even if it leads to 
a life-and-death struggle.'' If he does, he will find 
that it will have serious consequences, and the end 



A New Member ^^ ^^ * matter of no small importance 
of the when a new member is added to the 



Supreme Court. 




PROFESSOR DELBRUOK. 

of it will be not life, but death. No doubt the so- 
cialist agitation is very annoying. So is a London fog. 
And the Kaiser will find hisxartillery is almost as im- 
potent against one as it would be against the other. 



Mr. Bompere 

and 

t^ "A. F. L" 



The American Federation of Labor, - 
which met in December of 1894 at 



Denver, when John Bums was pres- 
et as a delegate from England, and which at that 
time substituted John McBride as president in place 
of Samuel Gkimpers,— has again held its annual meet- 
ing, this time in New York. Mr. Gompers was the 
fotmder of the organization and had been its presi- 
dent from the beginning until the last year. By a 
vwy closly contested election he has been restored to 
office. He represents the more conservative wing, 
the advanced or socialistic element of the Federation 
supporting Mr. McBride. The convention refused 
to commit itself to the idea of a general strike for 
the eight-hour day. Several women delegates were 
among the most prominent speakers. There were 
present from England as trades union delegates a 
prominent labor leader, Mr. Mawdsley, and one or 
two associates. The Federation maintains its strong 
Md upon the chief labor organizations of America. 
The necessity of union among workers was shown 
in December by an unjustifiable lockout of New 
York clothing- makers. 



Supreme Court of the United States. 



The lamented death of Justice Jackson, of Tennessee, 
made a vacancy which has now been filled by the 
appointment of an equally meritorious and distin- 
guished judge. The new member of our highest 
bench is Judge Rufus W. Peckham, who has for many 
years been a member of the Ck)urt of Appeals of the 
State of New York, and whose fitness for his new 
post of honor and responsibility is recognized with 
words of approval in every quarter. His unanimous 
and immediate confirmation by the Senate was a 
matter of course. 




The t/ewa in 

America and 

Europe. 



JUSTICE RUFUS W. PECKHAIL 

The intensity of the anti -Hebrew 
crusade in Vienna seems scarcely to 
have abated. Although the Austrian 
government persistently refuses to tolerate the per- 
secution of the Jews, and declines to ratify the selec- 
tion of Dr. Lueger as Burgomaster of Vienna, it is 
the policy of the prevailing majority to elect Lueger 
over and over again. There is, of course, no prob- 
ability that the devotion of the Viennese to their 
candidate will survive more than two or three re- 
jections. Although Lueger is very fierce against the 
Prime Minister, he will not succeed. The Jews are 
too powerful to be subjugated, and moreover the bet- 
ter sense and feeling of the people will reassert 
themselves. The most conspicuous of the German 
Jew-baiters is Herr Ahlwardt, a man who has figured 
prominently in educational, clerical and jwlitical 
circles. This personage arrived in New York last 



20 



THE REI^IEIV OF REI^IEWS. 



month with the intention of stirring up an agitation 
here against the race which he abominates so deeply. 
Ahlwardt was greatly surprised at the languid inter- 
est that his coming aroused. Instead of finding that 
the people of New York were ready to follow his 
lead in a harsh uprising against the Hebrews, he 
found a marvelous Hebrew fair just on the point 
of oi)ening in that chief center of popular attrac- 
tions, the Madison Square Garden. He found the 
opening ceremonies of the fair participated in by 
Mayor Strong, ex-Mayor Hewitt, and other distin- 
guished representatives of the best Gentile opinion, 
and he further found hardly a man, woman or 
child in the great metropolis sa3ring anything but 
pleasant things about the industrious, charitable and 
intelligent race which had gotten up so brilliant and 
entertaining a fair for the benefit of its vast and 
useful system of benevolent and enducational estab- 
lishments. Nobody can deny that the Jews as a 
race have some representative faults; and those de- 
fects in their national character do not by any means 
wholly disappear when they come to our side of the 
Atlantic. Nevertheless, when Jew-baiters like Ahl- 
wardt declare that the Hebrews are only parasites, 
doing no productive work themselves, but only try- 
ing to divert to their own pockets the wealth pro- 
duced by other men's toil, he shows his little knowl- 
edge of the industrial life of the Jews in the United 
States. The workers in the great ijlothinK industry 
of New York City are nearly all of tlj*»n) Ht-brews, 
and they are engaged in many othfr trarlt:^H which 
require physical toil. Their charitii^s, aud their 
work for the social advancement of thtir i)eople, iue 
pre-eminent in New York, and are ejtrt^Ueut in many 
parts of the country. We have thouijfht it timely 
and interesting, by means of some apecically coiitrib 
uted articles printed elsewhere, to call atteiitiou to 
the present conditions of the 
Jewish people both in this coun- 
try and eisewhere. 



One of the ablest 
^nuZT and most highly re- 

spected of the 
American public men of the 
generation of the war period 
has passed away during the 
month covered by our record. 
Ex -Senator Allen G. Thurman. 
of Ohio, had exemplified in his 
long political career the best 
traditions of American states 
manship. He was a constitu- 
tional lawyer of deep learning 
and strong convictions, and his 
record is an honorable and 
blameless one. He had retired 
to private life a number of 
years ago. but wholly without 
any seeking on his part he was 
made the Democratic nominee 
for the Vice- Presidency in 1888. 



After his defeat in that year he had 1 
his Ohio home. He received a fall 
ago which hastened his demise, in ] 
ripe old age. 

The obituary list containi 
R9cllT^^ '^^y persons notable for : 

reasons. Count Taaff^, 
Austrian statesman, for a long time ir 
Austrian foreign policy, has passed a'' 
Pasha. Turkish ambassador at Lon 
governor of the Lebanon district, anc 
the ablest and most trustworthy officii 
man service, died in London at a t 
adopted country (Rustem wpa neitli 
Moslem, but an Italian and a Catho 
ously needed his advice. Following 
death of Pasteur, two other Frenchm< 
rank have gone, namely, Jules Bart 
Hilaire and Alexandre Dumas, flls. In 
famous journalist George Augustus i 
down forever his busy and graceful pe: 
Edward McPherson, for many years 
American House of Representatives an 
a political historian and statistician, di( 
ber 14, in his Pennsylvania home. 1 
tavius Brooks Frothingham, an emine 
minister, died in Boston on November S 




(Dra^ n by a N. Y. -JoumcU artlBt.) 

THE LATE SENATOR THURMAN, WITH A GRANDCHILD. 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 




THE HOUR HAS COME — THE MAN IS HERE. 
AH TQfm*Reed— tbat is the way Congress looks to the public. 
From Judge (New York). • 





OUR AMERICAN CZAR AND HIS DO NOTHING POLICY. 
From Harper^8 Weekly (New York). 




^y^nCBOWDEO ! APROPOS OF THE COLLISION WHICH 

DXTAINKD LORD DUNRAVEN. 
iiOiD DrxRATKN : ** There doesn't seem to be room enough 
oo the Atlimtic for me.''— From the N. Y. Herald. 



CONGRESS ON HIS HANDS. 

From the Illustrated American (New York). 



22 



THE REI^/EIV OF REVIEWS. 




■r*v 



FAB AWAY IN TURKEY. 

The Lillipatians have taken poesession of Gulliver, who had fallen asleep. 
From KladderadaUch (Berlin). 




THB DEMONSTRATION OF THE FLEETS. 



The Sick Turk : " But. gentlemen, I am not yet dead/* 
From KladdertidaUch (Berlin). 



THE HEEDLESS TURK.— From Punrft (L< 



CURRENT HISTORY I^ CARICATURE. 



23 




\ CONTINXKTAL POWKRS GIVE ENGLAND A LIVELY SEN8ATI0N. 
From Kladderndatrh (Berlin). 




POLITICAL HYPNOTISM. 

8cbnb from a private performance in downing 
Street. 

Svengali— Mr. Cbamberlain ; Trilby— Lord Salisbury. 

From the WettminBter Budget (London). 




THE BRITISH HERO UP TO DATE. 
Tbe Lord Mayor has appointed Mr. Bamato a Lieutenant of the 
Clt7 of London. He has also banqueted bini at the Mansion Houao 
for kE& heroic ronduct in the field— of speculation. 

From the WeMtminster Budget (London). 



THE ENGLISH "DEAD- LOCK.' 

Britannia (to Master Shipbuilder): "Come, sir ! Yon 
at least ought to know better. Am I to ' rule the wavi'is ' 
with a fleet * made in Qermany " ? "—From Punch (London). 



24 



THE REyiEW OF REf^/ElVS. 




REBELLIOI^S 

iM THE OLD WORLD 



DUT^INO tSg5. 



THE YEAR'S WARS AND RIOTS. 

THESE are pipint; times of peace only relatively speak- 
ing. Years gone by have witnessed m ore bloodshed 
per capita. In spite of that '* great gift of the nine- 
teenth century," arbitration, there are still civilized 
nations, Powers they are termed, whose rights are too 
incontestable to be intrusted to " boards " and " commis- 
sions ;" and also scattered about through the continents, 
and bunched upon the islands of the seafi, there are people 
who do not know any better than to resist when their 
home land is encroached upon by foreigners. Perhaps, 
however, the ** ultimatum," now in high favor, represents 
the transition between the tribunal of war and courts of 
arbitration, and the end of the century may after all see 
this new method of settling difficulties, international and 
internecine, securelv adopted by the Powers, and the ex- 
ercise of a more Christian spirit on their part toward 
weak and defenseless nations. 

As for the year just closed, we, the inhabitants of the 
earth, were yet far from being a peaceful people. The 



two raai>!* xvhicb we reij 
tho Ni'W Ycrk WorfJ, 
txHtiu^ the attention i;po 
crt:-*, notH ant] robellioiift 
emphusizi* tliis fart. Fo 
partial ^^miinmry uf id*' 
fllct* f or 19^*'\ aw prvwiith^i fnun mom 
in our *' R^eorti uf Current Ev*<^iirfj. * 
At tljp ln*ginningof tbe vvar -Ja|KU] 
in war with Pbina^ and uo?*Hliliry ■ 
tjwl until upriniif. T\\^ nn.iwt deflp+^rfit* fi^^b 
NfW'l'haiiR jn Marrh, wh4*n tho ChiiiL*!!*' hm 
KH<K^ killtnl, <((«► prirttfliert? and a quantitv » 
iitnmunUion- tht* J^vjianew luss wan domL^tJii 
killed and wounded. 

ELarly in January a party of Hawaiian royal 
against the government. The uprising was 
with a loss of 10 men killed and 150 prisoners. 
The French became involved in a struM:] 
Hovas of Madagascar, which terminated onlj, 
ber last in the taking of the capital of the c- 
the submission of the natives to French ruJe. 

Italy has been constantly engaged in flghi 
Abyssinians since the beginning of the i 
recently 700 Italian soldiers were purroondedl^ 
of native troops, and utterly annihilated. 

In August last news was received of a homb 
of CJhristians in China. Some reparation for U 
ties was made in the execution of the responal 
officials. , « .. jtrr 

The killing of Armenians by Turks and Ka 
was begun in 189 i, has been continued intermitti 
to the present time. In October last renewed 
of an even more horrible natnre were report 
November the Harpoot missionR, suotained by 
ican board, were burned, and the missionaneB 
to flee for their lives. 



THE IVORLD'S WARS AND RIOTS OF 1895. 



26 



RIOTS, 
ELOCDEHED 




Ibips in 
JuDe to Jftd- 

port of He^^a, 
10 pfotoct tha 
]i«Mwd |ivx)peTt7 
it iMilgaer^ the 
BritiA Vioe-Goa- 

4bot de^ in an atr 

fiKkb? Beloaius. 

In the United 

BMb^ the fint viole&ce 

im WM reported in January 



^ithe nflaatly pearr^f al city of 

bunUyiiT wliere & strike of the i^trt^t oar confiiK^torfi and 
BuCeroieTi tied up nearly all Ihi? lines of eltfctrio mirfai^e 
wri, and lei to the caUin? out of 7,0)!) of thf* Rt*ite rnihhfi, 
iid tbe wtootlng of seii^eral rioten*. A^ this muni n^r i^f 
Ite BtviKW^ OF RE^-iKiVii j^ Roiiiij to preq^ BnipklvTir* 
eoco is being repeatel in PhiMelphuv ttn^'M itv 
'rfBrothi^rlyLove^ 

The tilimg of a nnmbar of ItalianH in Colorado, in 
MitdL led to th« CAlUng out of the militia, anil at one 
tn»lhMatoiied an intgraational depute. 

JUtoflt the samei time there were «6riLJUft riots in New 
(Mmn, io which the white and ueK^'n cotton hnodlpTfl 
toQfcpttrt several heing killed and many otliorH woiunl+.^d. 
a nrid^Qnimer the regular army was calln^l oa' t<^ put 
I wi Inlian outbreak io Wyoaiing, which oriRiuEitod 
adiBpat^ lietween the white settleru and tbe Indiana 
OTV the killing of KHine. 

A l ittU liter njts b&twe^n Italian and nepro m inters 
jwa reported in niinoifl. many uf the nHgr^wr-t* iieiiii 
orijoi from their homes and some kUle^i and maUrpJit^i 
Titt Cah<ftn iusLirrectioo which Ijegan earh' in March 
itoik oa threatening pmiK^rtiou^, and fn^sh U^WeH uf 
^_^J^tj;oop«» have boeti repeat^lly renuirod. hut u\ Iiii8 
Wtng there is no priNwpect of an tuirly tcnoinaritm of 
"**"W^ Many entragenientti have been foi;ijht, re- 

ttfcBff U gnat \wBr of life. 
^^ I Ameiica has nr^]>ortred thf^uKualnutnlJer of revolii- 
mi. Thjit in the United States of Tolotnbia wjis iior- 
■if* the moet important; it wan final I v put down ejirly 
ta the year. 

After three d*yB* fighting at Lima, io March, a proviFH 
Itml P ernyjan goyernmeDt waa orffanized, and the in- 
f5>n'«:tioo m thftt conn try may be regarded aa snccest^fnl. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



PROCBEDINQS IN CONGRESS. 

December 2. — Both Houses assemble. The Hon. Thomas 
B. Reed, of Maine, is elected Speaker of the Honse of 
Representatives. Secretary Carlisle sends to Ck>n£rress 
estimates of the expenses of government for the fiscal , 
year ending Jmie SO, 1897, as follows : 

Legifllative establishment $«,:tni f,r*hl 

Executive ostablishment 20jicJA*4:U 

Judicial establishment t>-iU«> 

Foreign intercourse l>HiJ.rjH.H 

Military establishment ai.ri:>l,<AW 

Naval establishment :*; , iVtiHT-i 

Indian affairs H,7.iiJ,4iH 

Pensions 141 .^iMJCtf 

Public works :iH ►: Li i?.'?^ 

Postal service '*.- rji. :Tii 

Miscellaneous :r.,i,.L-, i^o 

Permanent annual appropriations Jit) u j l 1 1 -i i 

Grand total $418,091,073 

December 3.— President Cleveland's annual message, 
pealing exclasively with foreign affairs and the national 
finances, is received in Congress ; it reasserts the Monroe 
doctrine, defines the position of the United States in 
reference to the boundary dispute between Great Britain 
and Venezuela, and recommends the retirement of the 
greenbacks and Treasury notes.... The President nomi- 
nates Judge Rufus W. Peckham, of New York, to suc- 
ceed the late Ji^stice Jackson on the bench of the United 
States Supreme Court. 

December 4.— The Senate only in session ; Mr. Hoar 
(Rep., Mass.) introduces resolutions calling for the pro- 
tection of American missionaries in Turkey. 

December 5.— The Senate only in session ; Mr. Chandler 
(Rep.. N. H.) introduces a bill for the free coinage of gold 
and silver at the ratio of 15X to 1, to take effect when 
similar measures shall have been adopted by England, 
France, and Germany. Mr. Mills (Dem , Tex.) introduces 
a bill providing for the coinage of the silver bullion now 
in the Treasury. Mr. Call (Dem., Fla.) speaks in favor of 

recognizing the Cuban revolutionists as belligerents 

The Senate confirms the nomination of Matt W. Ransom 
to be Minister to Mexico. 

December 6.— The House of Representatives only in ses- 
sion ; Speaker Reed appoints the mileage committee. 

December 9. — The Senate confirms the nomination of 
Judge Rufus W. Peckham to be Associate Justice of the 

Supreme Court Only minor business is transacted in 

the House. 

December 10. — In the Senate Mr. Sherman (Rep , O.) 
introduces by request a bill providing for the issue of long 
term bonds in small denominations to cancel demand 

notes The House adopts the resolution of Mr. Barrett 

(Rep., Mass.) for information about certain utterances of 
Ambassador Bayard, amended so as to strike out the 
words " by impeachment or otherwise." 

December 11. — ^The Senate only in session ; Mr. Dubois 
(Rep., Ida.) speaks on his resolution to distribute appro- 
priation bills among the committees with reference to the 
subject matter of each. Mr. Allen (Pop., Neb ) speaks in 
advocacy of the recognition by the United States of the 
belligerent rights of the Cuban insurgents. 

December 12. —In the Senate, bills to secure the pay- 
ment of the indebtedness of the Pacific railroads to the 
government are introduced by Mr. Frye (Rep., Me.) and 

Mr. Thurston (Rep., Neb.) The House, in committee 

of the whole, is addressed by Mr. Grow (Rep , Pa.) on the 
tariff question 



December 16.— The annual report of t 
the Treasury is received in both Houses. 

December 17.— President Cleveland ser 
•asi)ecial message relating to the bonne 
tween Great Britain and Venezuela, toj 
correspondence between Secretary Ol] 

Salisbury The appointment of three 

privileges and elections is agreed to in the 

December 18.— The House votes to appri 
for the expenses of a commission to be ai 
President to investigate and report on tht 
line between Venezuela and British Guiau 

December 20 — Beginn.ng of the holiday 

AMERICAN POLITICS. 

November 21.— The Pennsylvania Senate 
sumes investigation of Philadelphia's city 

November 26— The South Carolina cons 
vention completes its work on the articles. 

November 27.— The city of Buffalo gi*ant) 
the Niagara Falls Power (Jompauy, makii 
per cent, on gross earnings. 

November 29.— The New York Police ( 
decide to mount a part of the force on bicy 




A MOUNTED POLICEMAN OF NEW YO 

December 3.— Elections are held in twent 
setts cities The A. P. A. is defeated in Some 
burg and Waltham, but wins in Gloucepter. 
crats win in Quincy, Springfield, Haverhill, 1 
Holyoke ; the Republicans carry Chicopee, 
Lawrence, Maiden, Marlboro, New Bedford, 
ton and Pitt8field....In the J^ew Haven (Ct 
city election, the Democrats are successful. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



27 



December 4.— The Virginia Legislature meets in bien- 
nial Gestfiou. Governor CVFerrallf in his message, advo- 
cates the passage of a law requiring every locality in 
which a lynching occurs to pay a sum of money into the 
State Tr^ury, and to refund the expense of the mili- 
tary Governor Atkinson sends a special message to the 

Georgia Legislature urging prompt action dealing with 

the evil of lynchings The South Carolina convention 

Bgns the new constitution and adjourns. . . .The Gt3orgia 
Legislature fails to pass a liquor disx)ensary bill, the 
measure lacking the requisite two-thirds vote. 

Decembers. — President Cleveland leaves Washington 
for a duck-hunting trip in North Carolina waters. 

December 6.— Peter Conlin is appointed Chief of Police 
of New York City as the result of a written examination 
set by the Police Commissioners. 

December 9.— Senator Cameron, of Pennsylvania, an- 
nounces that he will not be a candidate for re-election. 

December 10. — William O. Bradley is inaugura^ted Gk)v- 
enior of Kentucky, the first Republican Governor in the 
history of the State The Republican national com- 
mittee fixes on St. Louis as the place, and June 16, 1896, 

18 the date of the national convention Josiah Quincy 

(Dem.) is elected Mayor of Boston by a plurality of 4,S76 
votes over Mayor Curtis. Republicans carry Chelsea and 
Lynn, Democrats Lowell, and Independents Worcester 
(igainst an A. P. A candidate). 

December 11.— ITie Pennsylvania Senate committee be- 
gins an investigation of the Philadelphia police dei>art- 

ment The municipal election in Charleston, S. C, is 

contested by Democrats and A. P. A. candidates ; Smyth 
(Dem.) is elected Mayor by a small majority ; half of the 
Aldermen are secured by the Democrats, and half by the 
A P. A.... The Philadelphia Wool Merchants' Associa- 
tion memoralises Congress to re-enact the wool tariff of 
MBO.. . .N. Clarke Wallace, Controller of Customs of the 
OMiadian c^vemment, resigns because of the Ministry's 
policy on the Manitoba school question. 

December 12. — ^The result of a bye-election in North 
Ontario by which McGillivray. the Conservative candi- 
date, is returned by an increased plurality, is regarded 
by the Dominion government as an endorsement of its 
position on the Manitoba school question. 

December 15.— President Cleveland returns to Wash- 
ington from his hunting trip in North Carolina. 

FOREIGN POLITICS. 

November 21.— The final results of the elections for 
members j)f the Bohemian Diet show the election of 46 
YounK Czechs, 27 German Liberals, 2 German National- 
ists, 2 Czech Peasants, 1 Old Czech, and 1 Clerical. 

November 28.— British Guiana Legislature votes suj)- 
piira for the expenses of the colonial forces. 

November 25 —The Italian budget statement, indicat- 
ing an improvement of the finances, is submitted to the 
Chamber....The Sultan of Turkey recalls the (Governor 
of Had jim, in response to the representations of Minister 
TerreU. 

November 27 —The Austrian Reich«rath decides that 
Dr. Laeger should be prosecuted on a charge of defama- 
tion. 

November 28 —Premier Crispi, in the Italian Chamber 
of Deputies, declares that the anti-«ocialist laws will be 
rigidly enforced, and that Italy will act with the other 
Eoropean powers as regards Turkey... Indictments are 
foond against fiftet*n members of the Municipal Council 
of lUdrid, Spain, who are accused of using their oflBcial 



positions to their private advantage The Hawaiian 

government releases seven political prisoners, five natives 
and two whites. 

November 29.— The headquarters of the socialists' elec- 
tion unions in Berlin, Germany, are closed by the police. 

November 30.— A new Peruvian Cabinet is formed, 
under the presidency of Dr. Barinaga. . . . A German police 
ordinance is published dissolving committees and asso- 
ciations connected with the Social Democratic party. 




M. CAVAION AC, FRENCH MINISTER OF WAR. 

December 2; — Elx-Premier di Rudini, in the Italian 
Chamber of Deputies, vigorously attacks the colonial pol- 
icy of the Crispi Ministry. 

Decembers.- The winter session of the German Reichs- 
tag is opened. 7 he speech from the throne expresses the 
hope of European and Asiatic peace. It declares that the 
financial position of the country is satisfactory, but that 
reform is necessary nevertheless — The Italian Chamber 
of Deputies passes a vote of confidence (267 to 181) in the 
Crispi Ministry on the question of colonial and Turkish 
policy. 

December 4.— Herr von Buol-Berenberg is re-elected 

President of the German Reichstag The commission 

appointed in Bulgaria to investigate the acts of the late 
Stambuloff Ministry recommends the impeachment of the 
members for acts of violence and other abuses of power 

December 5.— Premier Crispi decides to ask the Italian 
Chamber of Deputies to extend for one year the opera- 
tion of the emergency laws against socialists. 

December 6.— The Austrian budget for 1894, now made 
public, reveals a surplus of $10,000,000.... The Czar of 
Russia sanctions the scheme for the taxation of sugar 
formulated by M. de Witte, Minister of Finance ; this 
scheme provides that, besides an excise duty, a surtax 
shall be levied on all stock in excess of a certain quan- 
tity whenever the stock shall come into market, bat 

shall not be levied in the event of exportation The 

B^at in the British Parliament for Dublin University is 



28 



THE REI^JEIV OF REHEIVS. 



filled by the election of W. E. H. Lecky, the historian 
(Liberal Unionist). 

December 7.— The French Chamber of Deputies votes 
confidence in the efforts of the government to throw 
light on the Panama Canal scandals. 

December 9— Emperor William accepts the resigna- 
tion of Baron von Koeller, the Prussian Minister of the 
Interior, who is succeeded in office by Baron von der 
Recke von der Horst. The budget is submitted in the 
Reichstag. The Reichstag suspends all legal action 
against Herr Liebknecht and other socialist members 
who are under charges of lese maJesU and other officers 
during the present session of the Chamber — A great 
demonstration against abuses in municipal administration 
takes place in Ifadrid, Spain. 

December 10.— Count Badeni, the Austrian Premier, 
announces to the Reichsrath that the proposed scheme of 
electoral reform is now ready and has been approved by 
Emperor Francis Joseph.... The Bimetallic Conference 
opens at Paris. 

December 11.— The Spanish Ministers of Justice and 
Public Works resign because of differences with the 
Ministry in regard to the Madrid municipal frauds and 
Cuban policy. . . .Herr Bebel, one of the socialist leaders 
in the German Reichstag, denounces the Emperor in a 
speech. 

December 12.— The Queen prorogues the British Parlia- 
ment till February 11, 1896 — The French government 
transfers the administration of affairs in Madagascar 
from the Foreign Office to the Colonial Department — 
Adrien Lachenal (Radical) is elected President of the 
Swiss Republic for 1896 . . The Italian Chamber pays a 
tribute to the memory of Major Toselli, commander of 
the massacred column in Abyssinia. 

December 13 —The French government decides to cover 
part of its deficit by increasing the tax on transferable 
and foreign securities. 

December 14— A stormy debate takes place in the 
Italian Chamber of Deputies over the purchase of foreign 
instead of native wheat for use by the army. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

November 21.— Two thousand natives attack the mis- 
sion station at Antananarivo, Madagascar ; Missionary 
Johnson and his wife and child are murdered, and their 
bodies mutilated. The mob is actuated by a feeling of 
hostility against Europeans — Slavery convention signed 
between Egypt and Great Britain. 

November 23.— Twelve thousand more troops are em- 
barked for Cuba from Spanish ports Sir Philip Currie 

arrives in Constantinople Shakir Pasha, the Ottoman 

Minister at Athens, is recalled — Great Britain^s pro- 
posal for arbitration with reference to the island of 
Trinidad presented to the Brazilian government. . . .Sir F. 
Scott leaves Liverpool for Ashantee. 

November 25 —Maxim guns sent forward by the gov- 
ernment of British Guiana reach the Venzuelan frontier. 

Conference at Ottawa on the CTanaJian copyright 

question. . . .Italian-Swiss treaty signed. 

November 26.— A meeting in honor of Jos6 Marti, the 
dead Cuban leader, and to express sympathy with the 
Cuban cause, is held in New York City. 

November 28.— The Queen Regent of Spain is agreed on 
by the governments of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to 
act as arbitrator concerning the boundaries of those 

countries Officers of the Danish steamer JTorsa are 

arrested at Philadelphia for engaging in a Cuban filibus- 



tering expedition.... Costaki Efifendi A 
designated as Turkish Ambassador to Qr< 

successor to the late Rustem Pasha The 

of Agriculture issues an order forbidding: tl 
of sheep from the United States and Canj 
uary 1, 1896, unless the animals are slaugrh 
port of landing ; this order is due to the re* 
many sheep infected with scab. 

November 29.— The officers of the steam 
arrested as Cuban filibusters at WilminKton 




HEBR AHLWABDT, THE JEW BAITEl 

November 30.— A mob of 6,000 Hovas ( 
Christian mission at Banainandro, Madagasc 
troops are sent to quell the disorder....!) 
Christians at CsBsarea. 

December 1.— The bronze group by the so 
tholdi, representing Washington and Lafay 
veiled in the Place des fetats Unis in Paris, Fi 

December 3.— The Hungarian Premier, Bai 
declares in the Diet that Austria has no evil 
Turkey, since it is to her interest that the st 
maintained in the East. 

December 5 —The American Board of Con 
for Foreign Missions appeals to the Red Cross 
undertake relief work in Turkey as an iuten 
ganization. 

December 7 —The British Ambassador to 1 
States, Sir Julian Pauncefote, presents to the 
of State at Washington, Great Britain's repl; 
quest of the United States for arbitration of the 
dispute with Venezuela. 

December 9. — Baron von Bieberstein, Gtermai 
of Foreign Affairs, reasserts in the Reichstag 
differential sugar duty maintained by the Uni 
is a violation of the existing treaty. . . .It is ann 
Rome that 700 Italian troops have been surroi 
killed by 2.5,000 natives in Abyssinia. 

December 10.— The Sultan of Turkey grantj 
to the extra guard-ships demanded by the powt 
through the Dardanelles to Constantinople. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



29 



December 11 ~The commander of the British Ashantee 
expedition asks for more guns. 

December 12. — ^The British torpedo-boat Dryad and 
the Italian dispatch boat Archimtde pass through the 
Dardanelles.... The Chinese resimie possession of Port 
Arthur. 

December 18.— The American National Red Cross un- 
dertakes to receive and expend funds for the relief of the 
destitute and starving Armenians in Asia Minor. 

December 17.— (See ** Proceedings in Congress.") 

INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL 
DOINGS. 

November 22.— Building contractors in New York 
City Dotify strikers to return to work or forfeit their po- 
gitions. 

Norember 28 —Steamers carry $4,500,000 in gold from 
the United States to Europe, making the shipments for 
the week $7,350,000 ; the U. 8. Treasury offers to pay 
exprees charges both on gold forwarded to it, and on the 
currency sent in exchange. 

November 25.~The Bethlehem (Pa.) Iron Company re- 
ceives an order from Russia for 1,100 tons of armor-plate. 

November 29.— Important gold discoveiles are an- 
nounced in Utah. 

December 1.— Ihe United States law requiring the 
equipment of freight cars with hand-rails for the safety 
of trainmen, and imposing a penalty of $5,000 on railroads 
running cai« without such rails, goes into effect through- 
out the country. 

December 4 —The Empire State express on the New 
York Central Railroad begins running between New 
Tork City and Buffalo on a regular schedule of 58>^ miles 
an hoar. 

December 5.— A United States Court decision permits 
the Chicago gas <5ompanies to combine under the reor- 
ganization plan Navigation closes on the New York 

canals ; the total falling off in tons carried on the canals 
during the season of 1895 as compared with 1894 is about 
10 per cent. 

December 7.— There is a sudden drop in Tobacco Trust 
ttock, on notice of the passing of a dividend. 

December 10.— The Atchison, Topeka and Santo F6 
Bailroad is eold at auction for $60,000,000. 

Decern er IS —The houseftraithH' strike in New York 
City ends without concessions to the men. 

December 14.— The Tobacco Trust orders a boycott of 
cigarettes made by outside manufacturers — The Amer- 
kan Federation of Labor elects Samuel Campers presi- 
dent ; this action is regarded as a defeat of the socialists 
in the organization The striking engineers of the Bel- 
fast shipyards and the locked-out engineers of the Clyde 
reject the terms of settlement proposed by the recent 
oonferenoe. 

December 16.— A lockout of 4,000 tailors is begun in 
New Tork City and Brooklyn, the contractors repudiating 
the existing agreement with the unions. 

December 17.— A general strike of motormen for a ten- 
hour day and uniform wages of $2 ties up all but one of 
the Philadelphia trolley lines ; many cars are wrecked by 
the strikers, 

EDUCATIONAL AFFAIRS. 

November 21.— Annual meeting of the London Society 
tat the Extension of University Teaching. 



November 22.— Rev. William H. O'Connell, of Boston, 
is selected by the Propaganda for Rector of the American 
College in Rome. 

November 28 — Lord Bute is re-elected Lord Rector of 
St. Andrew's University. . . . A deputotion to the Duke of 
Devonshire advocates a teaching university for London. 
. . . W. J. Courthope is elected professor of poetry at Ox- 
ford University. 

December 6.— Yale wins the third annual debate with 
Princeton, on the question, ** Resolved, that it would be 
wise to estoblish in respect of all stote legislation of a 
general character a system of referendum similar to that 
estoblished in Switzerland,"* Princeton supporting the af- 
firmative side and Yale the negative. Senator Gray of 
Delaware presides and Messrs C. C. Beaman, James C. 
Carter, and Francis L. Stetson act as judges. 

December 18.— Annual "joint debate" at the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin on the question of legalizing the pool- 
ing of interstote railroad freight earnings. 

December 14.— Miss Helen Culver gives $1,000,000 to the 
University of Chicago for the biological department, thus 
securing an equivalent sum in addition for general en- 
dowment in accordance with the terms of Mr. John D. 
Rockefeller's proposition of last month, making the total 
gifts to the institution since November 1, $8,000«C00. . . . 
The comer-stone of the new building of the Brooklyn In- 
stitute is laid. 

NOTABLE OATHBRINOS. 

November 21. —The Knights of Labor, in session at 
Washington, D. C, re-elect Grand Master Workman 
Sovereign. . . .The Home Market Club, of Boston, Mass , 
gives its annual dinner. 

November 22.— Centennial celebration of the Harvanl 
Hasty Pudding Club. 

November 28— ** Brooklyn Day" at the Atlanta Ex- 
IKwition. 

November 25.—" Manhattan Day " at the Atlanta Ex- 
position ; President Seth Low and Mayor Strong are the 
principal speakers.... The eighth annual session of the 
Trans-Mississippi Congress begins in Omaha, Neb.; 
twenty-four states and territories are represented — 
AuTin**.! meeting of the London Nonconformist Council. 

November 2 '-Forty-ninth annual convention of Theta 
Delta Chi fraternity at Boston, Mass. 

November 28— South Carolina's day at the Atlanta Ex- 
position. 

November 80.— Annual meeting of the Royal Society. 

December 2.— Public Consistory in Rome, at which the 
Pope presides ; announcement is made of the creation of 
nine new cardinals, including Mgr. Satolli, Apostolic 
Delegate in America. 

December 4. —Carlyle centenary meeting at Chelsea ; the 
house in Cheyne Row, bought with money subscribed in 
England and America, is formally handed over to the 
trustees. The anniversary of Carlyle*s birth is also cele- 
brated at Ecclefechan, Scotland, his birthplace. 

December 9.— Fifteenth annual convention of .the 
Am rican Federation of Labor is begun in New York 

aty. 

December 12.— Annual meeting of the National Civil 
Service Reform Association in Washington, D. C — An- 
nual congress of the National Agricultural Union of Great 
Britain. 

December 16.— Mass-meeting in New York City to pro- 
test against any legislation permitting the opening of 



30 



THE REVIEW OF REyiEWS. 



liquor saloons on Sunday, addressed bj representative 
clergymen of all denominations. 

CASUALTIES. 

November 21.— Afire in Chicago does damage to the 
extent of $500,000, and imperils the lives of many women. 

November 22.— Five persons are killed and 17 injured 
by a fire in Chicago. 

November 23.— Severe gale on the British coasts ; many 
disasters at sea. 

November 26. — Chicago is cut off from telegraphic com- 
munication with other cities, and local ti*affic is block- 
aded by a severe storm of wind and snow. 

November 29.— A fail of rock in the Tillie Foster mine, 
near Brewster's, N. Y , causes the death of eleven men, 
and the serious injury of nine others. 

December 5.— A terrific gale prevails throughout Eng- 
land and off the coast ; several maritime disasters are re- 
ported. 

December 6. — A severe storm extends along the At- 
lantic coast of Nova Scotia The village of Mariestadt, 

Sweden, is obliterated by fire 

December 11 —The White Star steamship Oermanic 
collides with and sinks the Cambrae, near Liverpool ; no 
lives are lost. 

December 14.— The spontaneous combustion of naphtha 
iu the cargo of the German ship Athena^ bound from 
New York for London, when four days out at sea, causes 
the loss of the vessel, with fourteen lives. 

December 18.— Six men are killed and four others in- 
jured by the bursting of a steam pipe in the engine-room 
of the new American Liner St. Paul in port at New York. 

CRIME AND VIOLENCE 

November 21.— A negro is taken from jail and lynched 
by a mob of armed m^^n in E^t Tennessee. 

November 22. — A mob at Crystal Springs, Miss., lynches 
a negro who bad been convicted of murder and sentenced 
to the penitentiary for life. 

November 21- A mob at Mount Vernon, Qa., lynches 
a white school teacher. 

November 2»».— Serious riot in the Michigan State 
Prison at Jackson — Plot to escape from the New Jersey 
State Prison at Trenton is discovered. 

November 29. — Jabez Balfour is sentenced to fourteen 
years' imprisonment for London building society frauds 

December 11. — Troops are called out at Toi)eka, Kan- 
sas, to quell a riot threatened by a mob infiamed by the 
discovery in the dissecting room of the Kan as Medical 
College of three bodies of women stolen from Topeka 
cemeteries . . .February 21, 1896, is fixed as the date for 
the hanging of W. H. T. Dnrrant, convicted of the mur- 
der of Blanche Lamont at San Francisco Harry Hay- 
wood, convicted of the murder of Catharine Ging at 
Minneapolis, is hanged. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OP THE MONTH. 

November 22. — Eugene V. Debs is released from Wood- 
stock (III.) Jail, and is welcomed with enthusiasm in 
Chicago. 

November 2\ — ^The United States Supreme Court dis- 
misses the appeal of the city of New Orleans in the Myra 



Clark Gaines suit, thus ending a lonc^ U 
defeats IMnceton at football by 20 to 10 
of Pennsylvania defeats Harvard, 

November 27. — Steamship lines betw< 
States and Great Britain pool on eteeraic 
McGteoch, the speculator, commits suicide 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

December 2.— The battlefield of Bull B 
at auction for from $3 to $6 an aero. 

December 7 — The Attorney Gteneral re 
cation to dissolve the Walter A Wood Mo 
Manufacturing Company. 

December 9.— Several renegade Apache 
ers are captured by a squad of the Seventi 
in Arizona. 

OBITUARY. 

November 21.— Calvert Vaux, the wel 
Bcape-gardener and architect, 71 ... . Rev. D 
son Lumby, of Cambridge University, Ei 
Sir Henry Frederick Ponsonby, for many 

secretary to Queen Victoria, 70 Senhc 

Sequeira Thedim, Minister from Portugal 
States, 88. ..Flavel Scott Mmes, CJ. S. 
Crefeld, Germany, 80. 




THE LATB M. BARTHBLKMY SAIMT-HI] 

November 22.— Judge Harvey Walker Smi 
38. . . .Dr. William Starbuck Mayo, the authoi 
Redfem, the celebrated London tailor. 

November 23.— Maurice Frederick Hendrii 
the marine painter, 63. 

November 24.— M. Barthelemy Saint Hilair 
French writer and statesman, 00.... Baron 
Leicester Warren de Tabley, the English poet 
Dr. S. Dryden Phelps of New Haven, Conn., 'i 

November 25.— Rt. Rev. Dr. William Walro 

bishop of Antigua, 85 Mrs. Ellen Battelle I 

woman suffrage advocate, 48. . . .Edmond Vai 
ten, the Belgian writer on music and music 
Arthdr Amould, the French litterateur, and 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



31 



member of the commnne, 62.... Dr. Moritz fiosch, Gter- 
mAn MioiBter to Switzerland, 75. 

November 26.— George Edward DobsoD, F. B. S., Brit- 
ish flcieDtist and author, 51 ... . Henry Seebohm, the natu- 
nlist 

Noyember 27.— Bev. Octavins Brooks Frothingham, the 

Unitarian clergyman, 73 Gen. Thomas Jordan, 76 

BoyB] Prescott Hubbard, one of the old conductors of 
the *' onderground railway," 90 — Alexandre Dumas HI., 
the French dramatist, 71. 

November 28.— Major Horace Gray, a pioneer of Detroit, 
lfich.,83 

November 29.— Count Edward Francis Joseph Taaffe, 
late pdme minister of Austria, 62 — M. Pierre Charles 
Gbmte, a well-known French painter, 70. 

November 90.— Senior Bishop Alexander W. Wayman, 
of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, 74. 

December 2.— Dr. Tessendorf, Attorney-General of the 

High Court of the German Empire Mgr. William 

Oleason, Vicar-General of the Boman Catholic diocese of 
Boflalo, n... .Colonel Smith A. Whitfield. Second Assist- 
ant Postmaster (General under President Harrison. 

December 4.— Herr Eduard yon KHanyi, the originator 
of " living pictures," 43. 

December 5.— Edward Murphy, member of the Cana- 
disn Senate from the Montreal district, 77 — M. Jean 
Ifihe Arthur Challaoiet, member of the French Senate 
for Ard^che, 73. . Everett V. Pomeroy, of the Oakland, 
GaL, Times 39 — Charles Carroll Chase, an old citizen of 
Ctdcago, 66. 

December 6.— Colonel A. C. Hargrove, ex-President of 

the Alabama Senate Seth J. Thomas, for fifty years a 

number of the Boston bar, 88 . . .General Edward Wright 
of Dee Moines, Iowa, 71 — The Marquis de T Angle-Beau- 
icanoir, member of the French Senate, 57. 

December 7.— Dr. J. Edwin Michael, a well-known sur- 
geon and gyneoologiBt of Baltimore, Md , 47 — Cardinal 
IgnatioB Persioo, Titular ArchbiBhop of Dalmatia and Sec- 
rettfy-Oeneral of the Propaganda, 72. 




December 8.— George Augustus Sala, the distinguished 
journalist, author and artist, 67. 

December 9. — Herr Heinrich Dowe, inventor of a so- 
callel bullet-proor coat, 36 — Gen. Daniel F. Miller, an 
Iowa pioneer and a member of Congress in the 50's, 81 ... . 
Samuel G. Lewis, ex-controller of the Pennsylvania Bail- 
road Company, 68. 

December 10.— Thomas P. Proctor, of the Boston bar, 
64 Ezra Bostwick, a millionaire philanthropist of Michi- 
gan, 60. . . .Bt. Bev. Dr. George HiUs, late Lord Bishop of 
British Columbia, 79. 




THE LATE COUNT TAAJTB OF AUSTRIA. 



THE LATE ALEXANDRE DUMAS, FILS. 

December 11.— Bev. Dr. John Miley, professor of sys- 
tematic theology in Drew Theological Seminary, 82 

John Mulholland, first Baron Dunleath, 76....Jean-Bai>- 
tiste-Joseph-Ehnile Mont^gut, French litterateur, 70. 

December 12.— Ex-Senator Allen G. Thurman, of Ohio, 

82 — Ex-Congressman Hezekiah S. Bundy, of Ohio, 79 

G}en. Manuel de J. Calvar, President of the last Cuban 
provisional government.... Bev. Bobert William Browne, 
Archdeacon of Bath, 86. 

December 13.— Brevet Brigadier-General William Bed- 
ford Boyall, U. S. A., retired, 70. 

December 14.— Edward McPherson, political statistician 

and journalist, 65 Judge Thomas L. Nugent, Populist 

leader in Texas . . .Cardinal Paul Melchers, 82. 

December 15.— Ex-Congressman William Arthur Mc- 
Keighan, of Nebraska, 53. 

December 18.— Isaac Bassett for 64 years in the employ 
of the United States Senate, 76. 




The New Grand Vizier. Tahsin Bey, The Sheiki 

(First Secretary of the Sultan, with the Imperial Irad6 in his h 

KHALIL RIFAAT PASHA, THE NEW GRAND VIZIER, ON HIS WAY 1 

SUBLIME PORTE TO TAKE UP HIS POST. 



ABDUL HAMID, SULTAN OF TURKEY. 

A CHARACTER SKETCH. 

The Fin^t Pearl of the Age, and the esteemed Centre of the Universe ; at whose grand portals stand the 
camels of justice and mercy, and to whom the eyes of the kings and people in the West have been drawn ; the 
rulers there finding an example of political prowess and the classes a model of mercy and kindness ; cor Lord 
and Master the Saltan of the two Shores and the High King of the two Seas ; the Crown of Ages and the Pride 
of all Coontriea, the greatest of all Ehalif s ; the Shadow of Ood on Earth ; the successor of the Apostle of the 
Lord of the Universe, the Victorious Conqueror (Al-Giiazi) Sultan Abdul Hamid Khan. 

Maj Qod protect his Kingdom and place his glory above the Sun and the Moon, and may the Lord supply 
all the world with the goodness which proceeds from his Holy Majesty's good intentions.— Turkish newspapei 
quoted by Mr. H. Anthony Salmon^, Nineteenth Century ^ November, 1894. 

AMEN and Amen ! But if the stock of 
goodness at the disposal of the Lord 
does not exceed that which proceeds from 
His Holy Majesty^s good intentions it is to be 
feared the rest of the world will be put on 
short rations. Not that His Holy Majesty, the 
Shadow of God on earth, is lacking in the ma- 
terial with which on classic authority it is un- 
derstood that hell is paved. He means well, 
his intentions are excellent. Where he fails 
V in the execution. It is this trifling detail 
that at present stands in the way of the eleva- 
tion of Abdul Hamid's glory above that of the 
Son and the Moon, and, indeed, it is to be 
feared, has consigned it to the nethermost 
depths— which, however, is nnjnst. 

Abdul Hamid is, of all men, one of those 
most to be pitied, but at the present moment 
there is but little pity or compassion shown ' - 
him. The custom of punishing the Pope for 
0B«ar*8 crimes is still fashionable among man- ^ 
Mnd, and Abdul Hamid is being made the r , 
scapegoat for all the atrocities of all the Otto- ' ^ 
Bians. Not that he is without crimes of his 
ovD^black and bloody crimes, according to ^ ' 
oar Western ideas ; but, in the eyes of the :/, 
OrientaL their only criminality consists in 
thit they are not black and bloody enough to 
•dneve their end. For the government of 
Omanli has always been, since the days when 
the Tartar horsemen first taught Asia how 
terrible was their wrath, a government of 
terror. By terror the Sultans climbed to 
supreme power ; by terror they have main- 
tahied themselves on the throne of the CsBsars 
for five centuries, and it is only because they 
ran no longer inspire sufficient terror that the 
<>ttoman &npire is crumbling into ruin Ab- 
dul Hamid, no doubt, resorteil to massacre as a ^^^^^ ^^^^^ "• 
British Prime Minister attempts to renew his power Western civilization. The Sultan is an anachronism 
hj a dissolution. Atrocities are as natural to the Turk in the last decade of the nineteenth century, and those 
w the general elections to a Parliamentarian. They who have been tr>ing to make believe that he was a 
ire the traditional Ottoman method of renewing the civilized sovereign are no doubt experiencing the 
mandate of the ruler. No doubt this is offensive to revulsion natural to disappointed hope. But those 




34 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



of ofl who have never for one moment forgotten that 
the Tnrk is simply the aboriginal savage encamped 
on the ruing of a civilization which he destroyed, can 
afford to be more mild and jnst in our estimate of 
the character of the last of the line of Othman. 

In this article I shall not depart from the rule gov- 
erning all these character sketches. I shall try to 
represent Abdtd Hamid as he appears to himself at 
his best, rather than as he appears to his victims at 
his worst. It is of course impossible to write en- 
tirely from his standpoint. But it is possible to 
avoid the habit of judging the Sultan of Stamboul as 
if he were a smug citizen of a London suburb. And 
if we can but start from the point of realizing that 
it is as natural and as habitual to a Stdtan to massa- 
cre as it is to a Redskin to scalp, we shall at least 
avoid one element that would be utterly fatal to any 
realization of Abdtd Hamid's position. 

I. BEFORE HIS ACCESSION. 

Put yourself in his place ! Abdul Hamid, the 
nephew of Abdtd Aziz, was reared in the seclusion 
of the seraglio. Forbidden to take any part in pub- 
lic affairs, he was flung in his earliest manhood into 
the midst of that debauchery which makes Constan- 
tinople the cesspool of the world. For some years 
he spent his life in riot and excess. Then he sud- 
denly reformed. From a profligate he became an 
ascetic. Like Prince Hal he banished Jack Falstaff 
and all his companions of the wine cup, and set him- 
self with the zeal of a convert to live a higher and 
a purer life. His enemies impute it to calculation. 
But it would be more charitable to believe that the 
young man had passed through the experience of 
conversion —a phenomenon fortimately by no means 
peculiar to the Christian faith. The penitent prodi- 
gal is not the less welcome because he goes to a 
mosque rather than to a church, and there seems to 
be no doubt thiat long before there was any prospect 
of his succeeding to the throne. Abdul Hamid re- 
formed his mode of life and became, according to 
his lights, a pious and devout disciple of the Prophet. 
This was the more remarkable, as his conversion 
took place while Turkish society was still revelitig 
in the false security and fictitious wealth that re 
suited from the loans which liis uncle contracted 
with reckless prodigality. The latter part of the 
reign of Abdul Aziz was for the East what the clos- 
ing vears of the Second Empire was for France. Con- 
stantinople, like Paris, had its vulgar orgie of splen- 
did debauchery- -modem versions of Belshazzar's 
feast, in which the handwriting on the wall was 
hardly discerned before the avenger was at the gates. 

THE FALL OF ABDUL AZIZ. 

The French Empire went down in the earthquake 
of Sedan in 1870. It was not till five years later that 
that Nemesis overtook Abdul Aziz. The treasury, 
emptied by the Sultan's extravagance, could no' 
longer pay the interest on the coupon, and when Ab» 



dul Aziz could no longer borrow his ei 
After a brief pause, during which the 
gathered and broke in insurrection ii 
western province of the Herzeg^ovina 
ators prepared to depose the Snltan. 
followed each other with the rapidity- 
tragedy. Abdul Hamid from his retr 
mollahs and imams, was startled by 
of the deposition of his uncle, then of 
tion of his brother Murad as Saltan, 
heels of this came the suicide of the d< 
Then like a thunderclap came the assasi 
ministers who had deposed Abdul 1 
summary execution of their murderer 
the war clouds were gathering black 
the Russian frontier. Massacres and 
Bulgaria had filled Europe with shudc 
Montenegro and Seryia had gone to i 
volunteers were flocking to the Servi 
capital was seething with excitement 
the underswell of a revolution in S 
menace of a Russian invasion in Europe 
In the midst of all these portents of do 
recluse was suddenly confounded by t 
ment that his brother Murad had go] 
that he must ascend the throne of Othn 

THE DEPOSITION OF MURAD 

It is difficult to imagine a more trying 
that through which Abdul Hamid ha< 
tween the deposition of his uncle and 
of his brother. It would have severe! 
nerves of the most experienced polit 
most stormy of South American repul 
it must have been to the inexperiencec 
Hamid no one can quite realize. Wha 
that he shrank timidly from the periloi 
the tottering throne. He refused to cc 
deposition of his brother. He was reluct 
the reports of the physicians. He in 
foreign advice. But Midhat had decided 
must be removed. According to the 
made in the recently published book abou 
unfortunate Sultan might easily have re 
he been allowed to rest. As it was, the < 
purposely rendered his recovery impoe 
moment the foreign physician's back 
they succeeded in driving their unfortn 
into a condition of imbecility, which jt 
did not even necessitate, his depositii 
Hamid persisted to the last in depr 
brother's removal. He objected strenui 
own elevation to the Sultanate. Only ^ 
made clear to him that Murad would hi 
any case, and that he had only to choc 
being Sultan himself or being put out of 
the Sultan whom Midhat would install i 
did he yield and consent to accept the th 
jof the Ottoman Empire. So it came t< 
JMurad was formally deposed and Abe 
reigned in his stead. 



ABDUL HAMID, SULTAN OF TURKEY: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 36 



II. SULTAN. 

" YUdiz, the palace of the Sultan," says a recent 
writer, ** like the seraglio of the * good old times,' 
ooDtains all the dramatis personce of the tales of the 
Scheherazaide. the eunuchs, mollahs, pashas, beys, 
astrologers, slaves, sultanas, kadines, dancing 
women, Circassian and Georgian odalisques, whose 
main object in existence is their own self -advance- 
ment Above this ant-hill of picturesque folk the 
interesting figure of the Sultan stands out in striking 
Tthetr 

When Abdul Hamid was installed as Sultan of 
Turkey above this picturesque ant-hill, the situation 
was such as might well have appalled the stoutest 
heart Possibly the Sultan's ignorance— for although 
he is no fool, he, like all the other Turks, has never 
quite grasped the elementary facts which imderlie 
the modem world — may have heli)ed him. If he 
had had a wider range of knowledge or a more 
vivid imagination he might have gone the way of 

ALONE. 

Without training, without preparation, without a 
angle friend whom he cotdd trust, Abdul Hamid 
was suddenly brought forth from his seclusion by 
the men who had deposed his uncle and his brother, 
and established on a throne reeling from the blows 
of domestic insurrection and foreign war. The last 
days of the Ottoman Empire seemed to have come. 
Among all the Powers not one would promise him 
any help. Among all his pashas there was not one 
whom he did not believe would depose him to-mor- 
row if private gain or public policy appeared to de- 
mand such a step. The treasury was empty. The 
credit of the Empire was at such a low ebb that 
00 new loan was possible, yet armies had to be re- 
tained in the field to keep Servia and Montenegro in 
check Preparations had to be pushed forward to 
prevent the threatened Russian invasion. Greece 
was threatening in the south, Russia in the north 
and east, while Austria was suspected of aggressive 
designs in the west There was hardly a single prov- 
ince which was not threatening revolt The Pow- 
ers were clamoring for reforms, the first condition 
of which was lacking. What and where and whom 
wag he to trust ? 

KISMET. 

Now, Abdul Hamid was not learned, nor clever, 
nor heroic, nor indeed anything in particular. But 
he was bom of the house of Othman. and he was a 
devout disciple of Mohammed. For five centuries it 
had been the will of Allah that there should never 
he lacking a member of the House of Othman to 
wign as the Shadow of God among men. Therefore 
he might not unreasonably conclude it was the will 
of Allah that he, the right ftd representative of that 
great bouse, should deliver Islam from the ruin 
which menaced it But if it was the will of Allph 
that such a deliverance should be wrought, then it 
wwnot for him, Abdul Hamid, to tremble or to 



escape from the task laid upon him by providence. 
Years before, when he was still a young man. he 
had accompanied his uncle on the famous European 
tour, in the course of which Abdul Aziz visited Lon- 
don and was banqueted by the Lord Mayor. In 
those days it was noted that Abdul Hamid was of 
a very shy and retiring disposition. It was re- 
ported that when he was in the gardens at Bucking- 
ham Palace he would always slink behind the bushes 
and conceal himself if he saw any one approach- 
ing. By constitution he was not self-assertive, and, 
like Hamlet, he regarded it as a cursed spite that he 
was told ojff to put to right times so cruelly out of 
joint But, unlike Hamlet, Abdul Hamid is a Mos- 
lem, and a prince of the house which generation after 
generation produced warriors and statesmen who 
were the terror of Christendom and the object of 
the envious admiration of the Eastern world. Hence 
he did not hesitate when the call came to fairly 
shoulder his burden, and to undertake the task of 
saving the Empire with qualifications almost as 
scanty as those of Tommy Atkins for commanding 
an army corps. 

MIDHAT AND HIS CONSTITUTION. 

When he became Sultan, Midhat had conceived 
the idea of throwing dust in the eyes of Europe by 
proclaiming a constitution. The Sultan assented to 
it as he would probably have assented to any other 
expedient which the Grand Vizier proposed at that 
time. But he never liked it, and took the first op- 
portunity of dissolving the Parliament and putting 
the constitution on the shelf. Parliaments indeed 
were not in his line. The house of Othman has 
many virtues, but those of constitutional kingship 
were not of them. The founder of the dynasty and 
aU his most famous descendants had been men of 
personal initiative. They not only reigned, but ruled. 
They first carved out their resdms for themselves 
vrith their own scimiters, and then governed it by 
their own autocratic, theocratic will To Abdul Ham- 
id, who believed only in two things — in Gk>d and 
in his house —the very idea of a parliament or of any 
limitation on the sovereign power of the Sultan x>ar- 
took of the nature of a blasphemy. Not by such 
means would Allah deliver the Faithful Abdul 
Hamid would stand in the ancient ways, walk by 
the ancient light, and trust in the Gk)d of his fathers 
to deliver him from the perils that encompassed 
him round about For a time, in deference to Mid- 
hat, he tolerated the theatricality of the constitU" 
tion, hoping that it might delude the infidel and de- 
liver Turkey from war. But when it failed, and 
the infidel would not be deluded, and the Russian 
armies crossed the Danube and invaded Armenia, 
then the time for such fooling was past. Midhat 
was banished to Arabia, where h^ shortly afterward 
died, the Parliament was dissolved, and the consti- 
tUwion vanished in thin air. 

THE ONE MAN POWER. 

Henceforth the Sultan was to be the Snltan. And 
for nearly twenty years Abdul Hamid has been the 



36 



THE REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



Sultan and no mistake. Believing in no one but 
himself, he trusted no one but himself. Surrounded 
by men who had betrayed his uncle and his brother, 
living in an atmosphere malarious with corruption 
and saturated with intrigue, he early decided to 
trust no one, and to govern single handed. And 
hopeless though the enterprise appeared, Abdul 
Hamid may at least claim that whatever may be 
said in criticism of his policy, it has at least achieved 
one great and indisputable success. It has enabled 
him to survive. And that is more than most peo- 
ple believed possible. Not only has he survived for 
twenty years, but he has, until quite recently, been 
regarded as one of the ablest and most successful 
rulers of our time. 

The worst enemy of Abdul Hamid cannot deny 
that he is one of the most industrious of sovereigns. 
He toils early and late, seventeen and eighteen hours 
a day. Neither can it be imputed to him that he 
has not always labored for what he believed to be 
the real interest of the great trust which Allah has 
committed to his hands. He has worked like a gal- 
ley slave in the i)eopled solitude of his palace. An 
imperial convict sentenced to hard labor for life, 
with constant liability to capital punishment, he 
has scorned delights and lived laborious days. He 
is not a genius, but he has held his own ; not a hero, 
but he has borne the heat and burden of a long and 
toilsome day without complaining, and if he were 
gathered to his fathers to-morrow, he would have a 
record of which, when due allowance is made for 
his environment, no Sultan of his line need be 
ashamed. 

COURAGE WITH SELF-RELIANCE. 

It is the fashion nowadays to denounce Abdul 
Hamid as an abject coward. Cowardice has never 
been a note of the house of Othman. The breed is 
brave by heredity, and Abdul Hamid has given 
enough proof of his courage to show that he belongs 
to the imperial line. Almost immediately after his 
accession he had to face the Russian invasion. On 
both eastern and western frontiers burst the storm 
of Russian war. His arsenals were almost empty ; 
his treasury was bankrupt. Even the rifles for his 
legions had to be bought in hot haste across the At- 
lantic. Of his pashas some of the most highly 
placed were believed to be in Russian pay. There 
was no one in camp or cabinet who was of proved 
genius and who could command the confidence eitlier 
of hiy Sovereign or of Europe. Among the great 
Powers there was not one which could be relied 
upon for a cartridge or a sou. England, which in 
olden days had been the sworn ally of his predeces- 
sors, had taken offense about the suppression of the 
Bulgarian insurrection, an inscrutable piece of 
squeamishness on her part which Abdul Hamid to 
this day finds impossible to understand. As if the 
Ottoman Emi)ire could exist without such suppres- 
sion of rebellions ! For the Turk without atrocitias is 
as the leopard without his spots, and a sudden qualm 
of conscience as to the existence of spot^ cannot be 
understood by the leopard with whom we had been 



in alliance, spots and aU, for more tha 
of a generation. France, prostrate a 
man conquest, was useless. Abdul I 
depend on himself alone, as his ances 
before him — on himself, on the swords 
ful, and on Allah, the all-powerful, 
eleventh hour might make bare his a 
whelm the hosts of the Infidel. 

THE DEFENSE OF CONSTANTINO 

So argued the forlorn Sultan, and i 
ado he set himself to beat back the tid 
war. The terrible year that followed a 
impress to those of the tragedies wh 
ceded it. The heroic defense of Ple\Ti 
Pasha was a solitary gleam of light am 
deepening gloom of mihtary defeat, j 
rope and in Asia, the crusading Russ 
slowly but steadily onward. Kars fell 
Plevna at last surrendered in Europe, a 
Russian army, like a long dammed up \ 
irresistibly over the Balkans, and rusl 
up to the very gates of Stamboul. Thei 
the Sultan showed that he possessed soi] 
military instincts and the fighting spiril 
Panic reigned at the Porte, and the past 
by the sudden collapse of their armies, 
seling a hasty retreat to Broussa on th 
of the Sea of Marmora. Abdul Hamid 
undismayed, concentrated all his energ 
preparations for the defense of Con 
Mouktar Pasha was placed in command 
behind which the wreck of the Ottoman 
mustered for a last stand. 

HE VETOES THE FUGHT TO BROUJ 

While still absorbed in the preparati 
defense of his capital against the Russ 
Hamid was suddenly startled by an inti: 
the British fleet, which all the autumn h 
lenly vigilant in Besika Bay, was about 
passage of the Dardanelles. Orders we 
the forts to resist the naval invasion, ai 
ners in the forts that command the St 
ready to try conclusions with Admira 
ironclads. At the last moment, howeve 
were allowed to pass. 

Lord Beaconsfield undoubtedly intent 
vance of the fleet to be a demonstration 
Russians. But it so happened that it cr 
consternation among the Turks, who 
feel themselves suddenly assailed in froi 
by a fresh enemy. It was just abou 
when the British fleet had forced the Dard 
anchored at Prince's Islands, within a di 
ing of Stamboul, that a council was h 
capital to consider the Grand Vizier's p 
an immediate retreat to Asia. The as 
ministers and pashas was numerous and i 
The prevailing opinion was that as the 
now between the Russians at San Stefa: 
British fleet at Prince's Islands, nothing 



/tBDUL HAMID. SULTAN OF TURKEY: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 



37 




THE RECEDING TIDE OF OTTOMAN OPPRESSION. 



38 



THE REyiElV OF REI^IEIVS. 



but flight into Asia. Then it was found that the 
Sultan showed himself a true descendant of Othman. 
Confronted by the craven crew of his own council, 
urging instant flight, Abdul Hamid calmly, but 
resolutely, refused to abandon the capital. Come 
what might he would remain in Constantinople, and 
share the fate of the city that for four hundred 
years had been the throne of his dynasty. The 
word of the Sultan prevailed. The flight to Broussa 
was countermanded, and Abdtd Hamid, amid his 
craven councillors, kept the Crescent above the Cross 
on the great cathedral of St Sophia 

AND SAVES THE TURKISH FLEET. 

Nor was this the only trial of his nerve. When 
the negotiations were going on between General Ig- 
natieff and the Turkish plenipotentiaries at San 
Stefauo, the Russians demanded as one of the prizes 
of war the whole Turkish fleet. Achmet, Vefyk 
and Safvet Pashas, the strongest members of l^e 
ministry, urged compliance with the Rusian de- 
mands. Turkey, they held, was powerless to resist. 
To refuse the Russian terms would be to renew the 
war. If the war was renewed the Cossacks would 
canter almost tmopposed to the palace of the Stdtan, 
and the Ottoman Empire would not survive the 
capture of its capital. But here again the indomit- 
able spirit of Abdtd Hamid burst out. ** Never," 
he exclaimed-—" never," and with his own hand he 
wrote a letter to the Grand Duke Nicholas declar- 
ing it was impossible to give up the fleet. He 
added, with an emphasis unusual to him, that he 
would prefer to see the vessels blown up with him- 
self on board rather than that they should fall into 
the hands of Russia. This might be bluff, but it 
was bluff of the supreme sort, the bluff of a monarch 
on the edge of the abyss, and abqve all it was bluff 
that succeeded. The Russians waved their demand : 
the Turkish fleet, like the Turkish capital, was 
saved by the Sultan, and the Sultan alone. 

l'etat o'est MOl. 

It is enough to recall these two severe crises to un- 
derstand how it is that the Sultan feels that it is he 
and no other, he the Commander of the Faithful, to 
whom Allah has intrusted the responsibility of gov- 
ernment. And so it has come to pass that ever since 
that time Abdul Hamid has insisted upon governing 
himself alone. In small things as in great, in the 
appointment of a policeman in Erzeroum, or in the 
regulation of a theatre in Stamboul, equally as in the 
great affairs of state, the Sultan is supreme.' He alone 
must order everything, sanction everything, super- 
intend everjrthing. As in the eyes of Allah there is 
nothing great or nothing small, but all things are of 
equal importance, so it is with the chosen of Allah 
who reigns and rules at Stamboul. 

III. WHAT HE HAS DONE OF GOOD. 

What has Abdul Hamid done for the Empire over 
which he reigns ? First and foremost, he has kept 
it in existence for twenty years. He has survived 



war, insurrection, treason, attempted « 
bankruptcy. And that in itself is no n 
ment There seemed but a forlorn 1: 
would succeed. But he has succeeds 
least as a man may be said to succeed v 
in evading the continual menace of ann 

HIS FOREIGN POLICY. 

Secondly, he has, on the whole, been 
able and practical in his dealings witl 
than he might have been. H^ was slo 
Dulcigno to Montenegro and Epims to i 
resolution needed to be quickened by a 
onstration in the Adriatic and a threat 
on the custom-houses of Smyrna; but ii 
gave way. In his dealings with Bulgaria 
reasonable than any one anticipated. W 
Roumelia tore up the Berlin treaty andj< 
to the principality of Bulgaria, the Sultai 
been within his treaty rights, and he wo 
have had. to say the least, no oppositioi 
sia, if he had invaded the rebellious pro^ 
established his authority at Philippopo 
refrained from interfering, and as the 
twenty years' diplomacy he is probab 
terms with the Bulgarians than are the 
whom they owe their emancipation, 
has not done anything like the mischi 
have done in Egypt He might have 
things terribly if he had accepted our pi 
joint occupation. He refused, and altho 
have been regretting it ever since, he h, 
contributed mightily to establish Englif 
in Cairo. Rumor says that he encourag 
revolt. If so, we owe him only one mor< 
For if Arabi had not revolted, the Brit 
would never have been established in t 
at Cairo. Fourthly, he has had to face 
gerous revolt in Arabia He quelled it 
of concession, which warded off a serious 
Empire and gave to the Arabs securil 
oppression. 

RESTORATION OP FINANCES AND ARMY 

Fifthly, he established an Intemation; 
sion for the payment of the interest o 
This required considerable nerve. He 1 
Egypt what international commissions cs 
naturally shrank from establishing an h 
Imperio at his own door. But when con 
it was necessary, he bowed to the will of 
was rewarded for his self-sacrifice by tl 
lishment of the credit of the Empire i 
exchanges of Europe. When he came to 
Turkey was bankrupt. Her last loan 
floated at 12 per cent. To-day the tri 
though not overflowing, is able to meet 
tions, and with such punctuality and dis] 
enable a Turkish loan to be floated at 
Sixthly, he has done a great deal for th 
ment of the discipline and the equipmi 
army. He placed it under German dire 



ABDUL HAMID, SULTAN OF TURKEY: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 



39 



•ccording to Captain Norman, who recently wrote 
on the subject in the United Service Magazine, he 
hMB done a great deal toward making it a valuable 
fighting force. He has replenished the batteries of 
artillery, provided his troops with magazine rifles, 
and can now, it is said, put 500,000 men into the 
field. 

EDUCATION AND AET. 

Seventhly, Abdul Hamid has shown a praise 
worthy appreciation of the importance of education. 
When the Russians were in full march upon Adrian- 
ople. he was busily engaged in founding the Mulkieh 
school, a preparatory college for the civil service. 
After the war was oygt— inter arma silent legea—he 
founded a school of law at the capital— a measure 
of reform in which, it is to be hoped, his example 
will be followed with the necessary interval by Great 
Britain. Many other special schools have been 
founded by him, and more than 2,000 elementary 
schools, attended by 100,000 scholars, have been 
opened since he ascended the throne. Eighthly, 
Abdul Hamid deserves credit for his interest in the 
education of women. He has taken a notable step in 
advance by establishing various girls' schools in 
Constantinople and other towns. Ninthly, Abdul 
Hamid has taken a new departure in bestowing some 
attention on art There is more treasure-trove 
within his Empire than exists elsewhere on the 
world's surface. But hitherto sultans have con- 
eemed themselves as much with the priceless re- 
mains of Greek art as an Ashantee concerns himself 
about the higher mathematics. Abdul Hamid has 
broken with this barbarous tradition. Mr. Shaw 
Lefevre, who visited Turkey in 1890, says: 

For the first time the interesting contents of his treas- 
■ry have been arranged, and, under special permits, are 
open to inspection. He has also established a mnsemn 
of antiquities, under the care of Hamdi Bey, a very com- 
petent antiquarian, a Moslem by religion, but the son of 
a Greek who was stolen as a boy from Scio. There has 
been a recent find of three splendid sarcophagi at Sidon, 
one of which is believed to have contained the remains 
either of Alexander or one of his generals ; it has bas- 
reliefs of the very best period of Grecian art— equal in 
merit, in the opinion of many, to the Elgin marbles, and 
&r more perfect in preservation. This alone makes the 
fortunes of the museum, and must attract every sculptor 
In Europe. He has formed a school of art. 

ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM. 

Tenthly, he has busied himself very much about 
the reorganization of the judicial administration. As 
to the value of this I am skeptical. But it is prob- 
able that the Sultan means to do the best he can. 
He has certainly taken no end of trouble about it. 
According to Hakki Bey, the reign of the Sultan has 

witnesMd the most effective improvements in this re- 
•pectv The reorganization of provincial tribunals, the 
aominatioD of procurators and advocates general, the 
MUbliahment of a regular system of advancement for 
JTidgse, and a firm guarantee insiiring their trustworthi- 
new and impartiality, the institution of criminal and 
ciril procedures, are samples of this reforming policy ap- 
ptted to the administration of justice, besides the cre- 



ation of a law school destined to furnish the department 
of justice with able and well-instructed functionaries. 
The reorganization of the i>olice took place during this 
reign, which has witnessed so many acts for the welfare 
of the Ottoman people. The ancient confusion between 
the duties o^ the police, gendarmerie and department of 
penal jurisdiction ceased, and the gendarmerie as an 
armed force being attached to the War Department, the 
ministry of police remained with its essential attributes 
with regard to public safety. 

Eleventhly, he has paid some attention to the con- 
struction of railways, the making of roads, and the 
supply of the necessary appliances of civilization to 
the cities of his Empire. It is true that all these 
are but mere fragmentary trifles. Still, such as they 
are, they must be taken into account 

SISYPHUS ON THE B08PH0RUS. 

Abdul Hamid has at least maintained his Empire 
in peace. He might so easily have involved it in 
war. He has remained proof against all temptations 
of a warlike nature. He was not responsible for the 
Russian war. He inherited it, and he did the best 
he could. Since then he has succeeded in avoiding 
all armed collision with his neighbors, and has de- 
voted his whole energies to what he regards as the 
true welfare of his people. Arminius Vambery, who 
recently paid a visit to the Sultan, bears emphatic 
testimony to the zeal with which he labors in the 
public service. He says: 

The Sultan has got hardly the time to undertake a 
walk in his garden : how could he allow to himself the 
luxury of a longer holiday f To Sultan Abdul Hamid the 
throne is not at all a resting-place, and, having the honor 
to be his guest a few weeks ago, I can state from what 
I see that there has never been an Asiatic Prince who 
devoted all his energies to the welfare of his country like 
the present ruler of Turkey. 

IV. WHAT HE HAS DONE OF ILL. 

If these be the gopd deeds of Abdul Hamid, what 
are his evil deeds ? From the x)oint of view of the 
house of Othman his evil deeds are two, neither of 
which count for much with his most acrimonious 
critics, and both of which can be explained and ex- 
cused as the natural result of the circumstances 
tmder which he came to the throne. 

HIS NEGLECT OP THE PLEET. 

First and foremost, and worst of all, he has ne- 
glected the fleet He imperiled his Empire in 
order to prevent it passing into the hands of the 
Russians. He has allowed it to perish of red rust 
and decay. The ironclads are still anchored in the 
Bosphorus, but they can neither fight nor steam. 
When the Kiel Canal was opened and the warships 
of all nations were assembled in honor of the new 
international highway, the Sultan found that in all 
his navy there was only one ironcla<l whose boilers 
could be trusted to hold out for so long a voyage as 
that from Constantinople to Kiel and back. As the 
result of this neglect of the navy, his capital is to- 
day at the mercy of the Czar. The Russian Black 



40 



THE REI^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 




ABDUL HAMID, SULTAN OF TURKEY: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 41 



Sea fleet could any night force the entrance to the 
Boephorofi, and place Constantinople under the fire 
of their guns. Constantinople is now to all intents 
and purposes the fief of Russia The Sultan, as the 
Buasians say, is the Czar's dvornik or concierge, the 
keeper of the back door of the Russian Empire. The 
Snltan has to pay Russia for seventy years to come a 
tribute of £350,000 per annunL Whenever he fails 
to pay up Russia can levy execution; nor is there an 
ironclad in the Turkish fleet to say the Russian nay. 
Even Greece is able nowadays to hold her own 
against the once puissant Ottoman. Turkey, once 
one of the greatest of sea x)Owers, has now ceased to 
be a power at all, even in her own waters. To aUow 
the fleet to molder down into rusty ruin, that is the 
worst offense to be alleged against the Stdtan from 
the point of view of an Ottoman. 

WHY? 

It may be explained, although not justified, by re- 
calling the sombre memories of the previous reign. 
When the conspirators deposed Abdul Aziz, they 
first of all made sure of the fleet. When the luckless 
Saltan threatened resistance, the conspirators pointed 
through the windows to the Bosphorus, where in 
battle array the great ironclads lay ready to shell 
the palace on the first sign of resistance. It was the 
fleet which made the conspiracy safe and successful 
Abdul Hamid has never trusted his navy since. It 
was the instrument which ruined his uncle. Who 
coold say how soon it might be turned against 
bim ? So, lest the ironclads should depose the Sul* * 
tan, the Sultan has virtually deprived the Empire of 
the protection of the ironclads. It was foolish policy. 
For an ironclad which is of no use against a hostile 
fleet, is still quite powerful enough to shell the 
palace of the Sultan. Nevertheless the fact is un- 
diluted. The Sultan has now no fleet worth speak- 
ing of, and when we say that we say everything. 
For sea power has always been the foundation of 
empire, and when the Turk ceases to be ** king of 
fi&e two seas '* he will not long remain Emperor of 
the East 

PAHALYSIS FROM OVKRCENTRALIZATION. 

The second great fault of Abdul Hamid has been 
the paralysis of his administration due to the con- 
gested centralization of his Empire. As he persists 
in doing everjrthing himself, things don't get done. 
There is a vast accumulation of arrears of work al- 
ways before him. It used to be said of our Lords of 
the Admiralty that they were kept so busy signing 
papers all day they had no time left in which to 
thbik of the fleet at alL So it is with the Sultan. 
Mr. Shaw Lefevre says: 

There is no detail of administration of his government 
•0 nmdl or trivial that it does not come before him per. 
fona'ly for his approval and signature. The British 
Ambaaudor, as an illnfltration of this, told me that he 
fltmld not get his fctpaMilavmch repaired in the Turkish 
dorkrmnl, at hia o^^u expanse, without the matter going 
before the Sultan *" >f hid approval Another ex-ambassa- 



dor said that in an interview at the palace the Snltan 
complained of overwork, and pointed to a great heap of 
papers on his table on which his decision was required. 
The ambassador, glancing his eye at the papers, observed 
that the first of them consisted of proposed regulations 
for a caf^ chantant in Pera. 

The result is paralysis, nothing is attended to in 
the right time, and everything gets out of joint. 

CIVILIZATION TOO COMPLEX FOR THE SULTAN. 

It is easy to see how this has arisen; it is even 
easier to see how it must work out The Sultan, 
believing only in himself, will do everything himself. 
He and no other is the chosen of Gk)d. He therefore 
and no other must decide everything, sign every- 
thing. He is the delegate of Omnipotence without 
permission to redelegate his supreme power. This 
was possible when Sultans had little or nothing to 
do in the government of the provinces which they 
conquered. In the primitive barbarism of the Otto- 
man there was little trouble taken about the civic 
government. The Cadi sat under the palm tree ad- 
ministering justice; the Sultan lived in his tent in 
the midst of his soldiers leading them on to battle. 
Bajazet knew nothing of the endless minutiBB of ad- 
ministrative details which harass Abdul Hamid. 
Amurath did not concern himself with regulating 
caf4 chantanta. A multiplex civilization with in- 
numerable wants has invaded the primitive Ottoman 
state, and the Sultan who tries to deal with it single- 
handed is about as helpless as the baggage master of 
Jtdius Caesar would have been if he had been .sud- 
denly called upon to handle with his old ox-carts the 
goods traffic of the London and Northwestern Rail* 
way. 

OUR ABDUL HAinD AT WESTMINSTER. 

And yet it is not for Englishmen to be too hard 
upon the poor Shadow of God who sits this day and 
every day in the Yildiz Kiosk laboriously engaged 
in the labors of Sisyphus. For what is our House of 
Conmions, weighed down with arrears of business, 
liami>ered by obstruction and hopelessly inefficient 
to dispatch its work, but a British Abdul Hamid, a 
clotted and congested mass of excessively central- 
ized administrations, not less but rather the more 
unwieldy because it is controlled by six hundred and 
seventy minds instead of by one? The House of 
Commons is jealous of its power, just like the Sul- 
tan. He refuses to decentralize and abides stolidly 
in the ancient ways. 

THE Q. O. M. AND THE SULTAN. 

Another defect of the Sultan is recalled by a Brit- 
ish precedent. Our Liberals are at this moment in 
an even worse condition than the Ottoman Empire, 
and for much the same reason. The Grand Old 
Man, who for so many years as Commander of the 
Faithful overshadowed everything, was our Shadow 
of God, and beneath his shade no colleague could ac- 
quire sufficient standing to command the confidence 
or excite the enthusiasm of his party. The Sultan 
is to his pashas what Mr. Gladstone was to his col- 



42 



THE REyiEW OF RE^IEl^S. 



leagues. He is everything. They are but his in- 
stmments. In Mr. Gladstone's case this was dne to 
the ascendency, natural and legitimate, of trans- 
cendent political genius and unequaled experience. 
In the case of the Sultan it is due to his supreme 
position and the distrust natural to a sovereign who 
owed his throne to the conspiracy of the ministers 
of his predecessor. But to whatever it may be due, 
the result is the same. The Shadow of God trusts 
no one but himself, and is served not by statesmen, 
but by temx)orary tools whom he uses for a time and 
then throws on one side. Now it is possible to gov- 
ern an empire by one man if that one man sticks to 
imperial work. But if, in addition to being emperor 
the one man insists ux)on being cook, footman and 
butler as well, the machine will break down. 

HIS DTTKltVIKW WITH MR. HEWITT. 

The Sultan would be omnipotent, but he \z not 
omniscient: and it is impossible, imprisoned in the 
Yildiz Kiosk, to know what is going on in his dis- 
tant provinces. Mr. Hewitt, one time Mayor of 
New York, told me of an interesting conversation 
which he once had with Abdtd Hamid at Constan- 
tinople. Mr. Hewitt, who is a shrewd and observ- 
ant American, had been much impressed during 
his travels in Asia Minor by seeing a peasant cut 
down a fine date tree that grew at his door, because 
he was unable to pay the taxes. He was driven 
I>ermanently to imiK)verish himself in order to escax)e 
a levy which he had not means to meet. When he 
returned to Ck)nstantinople he told the Sultan what 
he had seen, and laid great stress ux)on the folly of 
killing the goose which laid the golden eggs. Abdtd 
Hamid was most sympathetic, thanked him cor- 
dially, and dismissed the official responsible for col- 
lecting the taxes in that particular district. But he 
lamented the impossibility of keeping an eye on all 
parts of his Empire, and he begged Mr. Hewitt, with 
an effusiveness that rather touched the New Yorker, 
to write to him whenever he saw anything or heard 
of anjrthing which he, the Sultan, ought to know. 

I rallied Mr. Hewitt for not embracing this oppor- 
ttmity of becoming the eyes and ears of the SiUtan, 
for he had not availed himself of the advantage. 
Mr. Hewitt was, however, much impressed with the 
sincerity of the Sultan's anxiety to do right, and the 
bitter sense of impotence under which he labored. 

THE POVERTY OF THE PEASANTS. 

The financial condition of the Empia is much im- 
proved from the point of view of the Stock Ex- 
change. But there is reason to fear that the im- 
provement in Ottoman credit has been achieved by 
levying taxes with a severity which has dried up the 
sources of the prosperity of the peasants. Mr. Cail- 
lard, the English member of the International Com- 
mission of the Public Debt, reported as long ago as 
1889 that the condition of things in the provinces 
was growing desperate. 

The peasant, in the interior, has reduced his wants to 
their simplest expression, and signs are to hand which 



show him to be less and less able to purchase the few 
necessaries he requires. For instance, a few years ago 
in any decent peasant household copper cooking utensils 
were to be seen. Novr they are scarcely to be found, 
and they have been sold to meet the pressing needs of 
the moment. Their place has been taken by clay uten- 
sils, and. in the case of the more affluent, by iron. The 
I>easant's chief expenses lie in his women-folk, who r^ 
quire print stuffs for their dresses and hnen for their 
underclothing ; but of these he gets as little as possibie, 
since, as often as not, he cannot pay for them. This 
smallness of margin is one of the reasons why the amount 
of importations increases so slowly. The peasant hardly 
ever pays for his purchases in cash ; what little he has 
goes in taxes. He effects his purchases by barter. An- 
other significant sign is the increase of brigandage vehich 
has taken place. New bands of brigands are continually 
springing up ; reports from the interior are ever bring- 
ing to our knowledge some fresh acts of violent robbery. 
This simply means that men desperately poor, and refus- 
ing to starve, take to brigandage as a means of Uving. 

THE WEALTH OF THE SULTAN. 

At the same time the peasants are growing poor, 
the Sultan is g^wing rich. He has by one means 
and another acquired immense estates. According 
to an American antiquarian who has spent some 
years in Bagdad and Syria: 

More than half of the landed property of the province 
of Bagdad has passed into the hand of the Sultan, and he 
has possessed himself of the whole of the valley of the 
Jordan. One effect of this was that the province no 
longer paid its way in the sense of returning a surplus 
income to the Treasury, as the Sujtan's land and those 
cultivating it were not subject to taxation. 

V. THE SULTAN AT HOME. 

No one knows really how the Sultan lives. A 
recent visitor at Yildiz received three different ac- 
counts of how he spends his day from three different 
pashas, each of whom ought to have been in a posi 
tion to know the truth. What is known is that 
Abdul Hamid lives very simply in the comparative 
retirement of the Yildiz Kiosk. Frances Elliott, in 
her ** Diary of an Idle Woman in CJonstantinople.'* 
gives an accotmt of his daily life which is probably 
as authentic as any that can be discovered in the 
press of Europe: 

YILUIZ KIOSK. 

Abdul Hamid is a nervous man. Ever sinc« the tragi n 
death of his uncle he has obstinately refused to move 
from the small kiosk or palazzetto called Yildiz, about 
three miles from the city, on the European range of hills 
bordering the Bosphorus. The way to Y'lldiz lies 
through the draggle-tailed streets of Pera, into compara- 
tive country. After going up and down hill at a break- 
neck gallop, the outline of a imlace kiosk, modem and 
small, reveals itself rising out of a cincture of dark 
groves. This is Yildiz Kiosk, where Hves the Com- 
mander of the Faithful. It is not a palace at all, but 
originally was a summer villa. The park, which is well 
wooded, is spacious, with grassy slopes, diversified with 
other kiosks, also shaded with groves descending to a 
quay on the Bosphorus. It has moat charming views 
over land and sea, Europe and Asia. Near at hand is the 



ABDUL HAMID. SULTAN OF TURKEY: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 43 



broad channel of the deep blue Bosphoros, with its frieze ^ 
of white palaces, steamers, caiques, and vessels with 
sails set gliding by every instant. 

HIB DAILY LITE. 

No Snltan has monnted the throne of Mohammed II 
ipore blameless in private life or endowed with more 
sentiments of general humanity. The hideous custom of 
the murder of infant nephews has ceased under his 
reign. He is modest in the requirements of his harem, 
like the Pope, the Sultan eats alone, seated near a win- 
dow overlooking the Bosphorus, except on special occa- 
nona. when he receives with the most finished courtesy 
royal visitors, ambassadors and their wives, every Eu- 
ropean luxury being understood and served upon Xhe 
board. Habitually he drinks only water, brought to the 
palace in casks under special precautions. His food is 
extremely plain, consisting chiefly of vegetables, served 
in silver saucepans presented to him at table sealed. No 
one works harder than Hamid. He takes but few hours 
of sleep, and sometimes passes the entire night pen in 
hand, signing every doctmient himself, from the ax>point- 
ment of a Governor to the lowest officer at the palace. 

FROM DAWN TO SUNSET. 

Like most Orientals, he is an early riser. After the 
prayers and ablutions enjoined by his religion— and he is 
oahiently a pious Turk— he drinks a cup of coffee, and 
then begins smoking cigarettes which (as was the case 
vith Louis Napoleon) he continues all day. At 10 a.m. 
he receives the reports of his ministers, works alone or 
vith his secretaries till one, when he eats ; then he 
drives in the grounds, or floats in a gilded caique on a 
lake for a couple of hours, never leaving the park of 
Tildiz except to go to the mosque, after which he returns 
to preside at the Council of State, or to receive ambassa- 
dors or ministers. His dinner is at sunset, when the 
national x>iUaf of rice and sweets are served with sherbet 
and ices. After this he betakes himself to the Selaulek 
to receive pashas and generals of high rank, such as 
Osman Ghazi, or of tener he disappears into the harem 
to pass the evening hours with wives, mother and chil- 
dren. Music is his delight, and in private he himself 
takes his place at the piano. 

Turk and Ottoman to the backbone, he is convinced 
that his soldiers are the best in the world, the most en- 
duing and amenable to discipline. In speech he is a 
pnrist, speaking well in a slow monotonous voice, but 
lometimes the flood of expression is let loose, and he is 
laid to burst into something like eloquence. The mollahs 
and dervishes find in him a ready listener and a liberal 
protector ; indeed, he is liberal, and takes pleasure in re- 
warding those who serve him well. His gifts to European 
ladies are especially magnificent in gems and pearls, of 
which he has drawersful in the old seraglio. 

AT THE SELAULEK. 

It is only on Friday, when the Sultan goes to the 
moBque, that he fever leaves the shelter of the park. 
All the troops are turned out, the ministers are in 
attendance, an immense crowd gathers to catch a 
glimpse of the Shadow of God, A newspaper cor- 
respondent thus describes the scene when the Sultan 
ippears: 

The silence suddenly becomes absolute as the Sultan 
leaT«9 the apartments, and then, as he appears, it is 
*n0y broken by the equivalent to a Turkish '* hurrah " 
fnnn the Marine Guard, given from hundreds of throats 



as with one voice, in three or four ringing syllables. At 
a gentle trot the open barouche shps past. On the right 
sits a small bowed figure, with eyes cast down and hands 
clasped on his knees. The beard is a dusky gray and the 
skin sallow and earthy. The Sultan looks ten years 
more than his age, one might say ten years older almost 
than he did in 1892. On his left is Ghazi Osman Pasha, 
who is groving old by the side of his great master. 
Under the windows filled with foreign spectators, 
amidst a curious hush, under the fire of every eye, passes 
the carriage with its terrible freight, the inscrutable 
will on which dei>end the lives of millions. As Abdul 
Hamid Khan II is assisted up the steps of the mosque, 
the shrill cry of the muezzin cleaves the blue stillness as 
he stands out a mere speck on the minaret rail against 
the sky. 

Then the doors close, and the act is over. The curtain 
figuratively falls, and tongues are loosed. An American 
remarks that the Sultan looks so like the late Bir. Jay 
Gould, that if the latter could have been placed by the 
side of Ghazi Osman, as he then was, and were so to 
drive back, not one in the crowd would detect the diflfer* 
ence. 

In half an honr he comes ont again, enters a vic- 
toria, takes the reins of the two gray horses, and 
drives away at a walking pace. 

THE SULTAN AS HE LOOKS. 

Miss Elliott, when she saw him, remarked : 

The Sultan is the most wretched, pinched-up little 
sovereign I ever saw. A most unhappy looking man, of 
dark complexion, with a look of absolute terror in his 
large Eastern eyes. People say he is nervous, and no 
wonder, considering the fate of his predecessor. Yet 
this is to be regretted, for if he could surmount these 
fears, his would be an agreeable and refined countenance, 
eminently Asiatic in type, and with a certain charm of 
expression. All I can say is that his eyes haunted me 
for days, as of one gazing at some unknown horror, so 
emaciated and unnatural is his api)earance that were he 
a European we should pronounce him in a swift decline. 
I hear that his greatest friend and favorite is his physi- 
cian. And no wonder, for he must need his constant care, 
considering the life he leads. How all the fabled state 
of the Oriental potentate i)alls before such a lesson in 
royal misery i The poorest beggar in his dominions is 
happier the he 1 

mS DREAD OF ASSASSINATION. 

It is not surprising that Abdul Hamid should fear 
assassination. Abdul Aziz was so afraid of being 
poisoned that he lived chiefly on hard-boiled eggs. 
Abdul Hamid never stirs outside his park. He re- 
fused to accompany the German Emperor to Sophia. 

Some grand duchess whom he received at his court, 
on his complaining that his health was indifferent, ad- 
vised him to take more exercise and change of air, and 
to dnve about the country. On her departure he is 
reported to have said, " What harm have I done that 
this woman should desire my death ? Why does she ad- 
vise me to run into such dangers ? " 

ESPIONAGE UNIVERSAL. 

He lives, like Domitian, in constant suspicion of 
all around him ; and all who surround him are be- 
lieved to live in imminent peril of their lives, should 



44 



THE REI^/EIV OF RE^IEiVS 




ABDUL HAMID, SULTAN OF TURKEY: A CHARACTER SKETCH, 45 



their imperial master sxispect they meditate designs 
against his life. He changes his bodyguard every 
week, and never allows his ministers to go out of his 
palace without a written permission. Everywhere 
he has his spies — in the Ministry, in the harem, in 
the street. Brother can hardly speak to brother 
without one suspecting the other to be a spy. The 
Sultan lives in the midst of this atmosphere of sus- 
picion. It is to him the breath of life. If the butler 
could but trust the cook, the Sultan's life might be 
taken in the night. He distrusts every one. He 
once put Osman Pasha — Osman the Victorious, Os- 
man the hero of Plevna — ^under arrest for three days, 
owing to a false report that he had saluted Reschad, 
heir apparent to the throne. No one is to be any 
body but Abdul Hamid. 

The preas is gagged. Ministers are reduced to the 
position of mere puppets. If any one distinguishes 
himself in any way, his very distinction is his 
doom. He is banished lest the discontented should 
rally round him. No one must be conspicuous. 
Every one must be reduced to the universal dead- 
level of abject mediocrity. 

THE TELEGRAM TO LORD SALISBURY. 

But while he thus silences criticism within his 
dominions, he is tremblingly alive to the comments 
oC the press outside Turkey. He is as sensitive as 
Lord Rosebery was to the printed criticism of 
iBimymouB and insignificant journalists. Instead 
fli letting the scribblers of Little Pedlington rave to 
the desert air, he has their leaders carefully trans- 
lited for his special benefit. The world was aston- 
iihed, and not a little amused, by the Sultan's pa- 
thetic appeal to Lord Salisbury. The Sultan said he 
had been very much pained by Lord Salisbury's in- 
credulity, and that he was resolved to execute what 
he had undertaken. ** I have already told my min- 
kters sa The only reason why Lord Salisbury shotdd 
thiM throw doubt upon my good intentions must be 
the intrigues of certain persons here, or else false 
statements have been made to cause such opinion.*' 
After some intermediate observations which Lord 
Salisbury did not quote (at the Brighton meeting 
where he read this historic document), the message 
went on: "I repeat I will execute the reforms. I 
will take the paper containing them, place it before 
me. and see myself that every article is put in force. 
This is my earnest determination, and I gi^e him 
my word of honor. I wish Lord Salisbury to know 
thia^ and 1 beg and desire that his lordship, having 
confidence in these declarations, will make another 
qieecb by virtue of the friendly feeling and dis- 
position he has for me and for my country. I shall 
iwait the result of this message with the greatest 
Mudety." So ran the famous message from Abdul 
Hamid to Lord Salisburj^— a significant indication 
oC the decadence of the Sultanate. Imagine the de- 
ifeodant of the fierce warrior who swore he would 
f«*d his horse with oats on tl>e altar of St. Peter's 
iu Eome. telegraphing to the Prime Minister of the 
lafidels, begging him to *' make another speech by 



virtue of the friendly feeling and disposition he has 
for me and for my country ! '' 

THE STORY OP A ** P. M. O." TELEGRAM. 

Mr. Oust, the brilliant and successful editor of the 
Pall Mall Oazette, who visited the Sultan this year, 
told me a curious story of his own experience, which 
better than anything else illustrates the present 
position of affairs at Yildiz. Mr. Oust saw a good 
deal of the Sultan, and at one of his interviews, 
Abdul Hamid informed him that it was his inten- 
tion to carry out some reforms which the Powers 
had not even asked for. He was going to do this, 
he said, as a proof of his good will and his anxious 
desire to meet the wishes of the Powers. Mr. Oust, 
thinking that it might please the Sultan, decided 
to send a telegram to the Pall Mall Oazette embody- 
ing the substance of the Sultan*s message. He 
drafted the telegram and sent it in to the telegraph 
office. 

Next morning a mounted messenger galloped in 
with a message from the Sultan summoning Mr. 
Cust at once to Yildiz. When he arrived there he 
found the Sultan in deep cogitation over the tele- 
gram, which had not been dispatched pending the 
Imperial pleasure. Would Mr. Cust consent to some 
alteration in the telegram ? ** That depends,'* said 
Mr. Cust, " upon what the alteration is.'' 

So the Sultan and his ministers set to work to r^ 
draft the telegram. After a time it was brought our 
Would Mr. Cust object to this form ? He glanced 
at it The amended imperially edited message 
began somewhat like this : ** Another proof of the 
beneficent goodness of His Imperial Majesty is," etc. 
** Nonsense ! " said Mr. Cust; ** it would only make 
the Sultan ridiculous to publish such a telegram in 
London." So the message went back to the Sultan. 
The poor man tried again *, then came another draft. 
It was equally impossible. A third time his advisers 
labored over the redrafting of this telegram. A third 
time their efforts were abortive. At it they went 
again, until at last, after seven mortal hours of in- 
cessant lucubration, the message came out in a form 
which, although i)erfectly inane, was not positively 
ludicrous. All the compliments were dropped, and 
the announcement which was made of his good in- 
tentions in the original telegram was toned down to 
nothing. Mr. Cust, who had only written the tele- 
gram at first thinking it would please the Sultan, 
consented to dispatch the finally revised version, 
which represented the net result of seven hours' 
deliberation. So he took it to the telegraph office 
and thought no more about it. 

Next morning, however, came another messenger 
from the Sultan. Again he had to go to Yildiz. this 
time to learn that the Sultan had delayed the dis- 
patch of the telegram in order that he might sleep 
upon it. He had slept upon it, and the result of his 
nieditations was that he thought on the whole the 
telegram had better not be sent ! Into the waste 
paper basket therefore it went, and there was an end 
of it. 



46 



THE REyiElV OF REyiEWS. 



REDUCriO AD ABSURDUM. 

But what a picture we have here of the irresolute 
fumbler who occupies the throne of Mohammed ! 
For these seven long hours the whole administrative 
machine of the Ottoman Empire was at a standstill, 
while Abdul Hamid and his Grand Vizier, with the 
aid of Osman the Victorious, and I know not how 
many pashas besides, concentrated their brains upon 
the momentous task of redrafting a trumi)ery tele- 
gram which was to be dispatched to the Pall Mall 
Gazette as a mere matter of courtesy to the Sultan I 
This is surely the ultimate of irrational centraliza- 
tion and imbecile vacillation. 

"THE DEVIL'S CHARIOT.'' 

The Sultan has not the gift of administrative per- 
spective. He bothers himself about the veriest trifles, 
prohibiting bicycling in and near Constantinople as 
immoral and ** dangerous to the State,*' and an offi- 
cer of an Italian corvette was taken into custody for 
having been found riding a bicycle, or a ** devil's 
chariot," as the Turks name it. No dictionary is 
allowed to circulate containing such words as evo- 
lution, equalit} , liberty, insurrection, as such words 
are likely to " excite the minds " of people. Again, 
theatrical pieces such as "Hamlet." "Macbeth," 
Victor Hugo's "LeRoi s' Amuse " (** Rigoletto") 
cannot be acted on any stage. " Othello " is al' 
lowed, but in a mutilated form. 

Even the Bible must be expurgated to please his 
censors. The passages which are particularly ob- 
jected to are those relating to the restoration of the 
Jews to Palestine, and to the Kingdom of Christ. - 
The phrases " Kingdom of Heaven, " *' of Gk)d," or 
" of Christ " must be omitted. The words ** Jew " 
and " Hebrew " must be left out. The words " Ac- 
cording to the law of the Jews " cannot be adn:iitted, 
because the Jews have no laws separate from that 
of other rayahs in the Ottoman Empire. The refer- 
ence to the "Queen of the South," contained in 
Matthew xii, 42, is for some reason ordered to be 
left out altogether. And all the time when these 
momentous trivialities are being discussed whole 
provinces are being desolated, and the great Empire 
is settling down to ruin. 

VI. WHAT IS TO BE DONE ? 

The atrocities which have recently startled the 
world in Armenia are nothing new. I doubt whether 
they should be regarded as a count in the indictment 
against Abdul Hamid. He is simply doing as 
Turks always do, and always will do as long as the 
Ottoman Empire exists. It would be as absurd to 
complain of a dog for biting or of a cat for mewing 
as to arraign the Grand Turk for resorting to that 
which has been for centuries the recognized method 
of maintaining the State. 

"LET DOGS DELIGHT, ETC., FOR 'TIS THEIR 
NATURE TO." 

No one knows this better than the Rev. Canon 
MacColl, who in his latest article expressly admits 



and asserts it in the following passage, which is aa 
true as it is vivid and powerful After referring to 
the saturnalia of horrors reported from Asia, the 
Canon says: 

There is, however, nothing new in this exhibitioh <A 
Turkish policy. These massacres of Christians are 
periodical in Tnrkey ; and they are never the result of 
local fanaticism ; they are invariably organized and or- 
dered by the Saltan and his ministers, for the purpose of 
keeping down the Christian i>opnlation. Abject coward- 
ice has made this Sultan more recklessly ferocious than 
his predecessors; that is alL The policy is the same, 
having at one time Greece for its theatre ; then Syria ; 
then Bulgaria and the Herzegovina ; then Armeniai. It 
is a deliberate system of pollarding the various Christian 
communities as each threatens to overtop its Mussul- 
man neighbors in population and prosperity. 

As to " abject cowardice " and recklessness of fe- 
rocity, those are points on which it is i)ermitted to 
differ from Mr. MacCoU. The present Stdtan is 
like his ancestors. As they did so does he. The 
massacre of Scio was quite as horrible as those of 
Sasun, and the horrors of Batak throw those of 
Erzeroum into the shade. 

THE sultan's SHARE IN THE ATROCITIES. 

I am not wishing to defend the atrocities. They 
are damnable enough in all conscience. Nor do I 
for a moment wish to imply that Abdul Hamid is 
not responsible for them. He is as responsible for 
them as a tiger is for its stripes and its carnivorous 
appetite. These things are of the essence of Turkish 
rule. Mr. MacColl believes that the Sultan is 
directly personally responsible for the massacres. 

He says: 

In my pamphlet on ** England's Responsibility Toward 
Armenia,'' and in an article in this month's Contem- 
pfirary Review^ I have proved, by an overwhelming mass 
of ofiftcial evidence, that Abdul Hamid has been engaged 
for four years in carefully maturing his plans for the per- 
petratioQ of the horrors which have lately roused the 
indignation of the civilized world. He it is who is re- 
sponsible, not the Kurds and Turks, who have only been 
the instruments of his cruelty. 

Possibly in the inner arcanum of his own con- 
science I doubt whether Abdul Hamid would even 
desire to repel this accusation. Probably he feels 
more chagrined at the incompleteness of his work 
than grieved because of the blood already shed. 

THE ARMING OP THE KURDS. 

There is little doubt but that in many cases the 
orders to kill emanated from the Sultan. But the 
worst sufferings inflicted upon the Armenians were 
due to the arming of the Kurds. Mr. Richard Davey, 
writing before the present outbreak, said of the 
Hamedyeh, as the Kurdish irregulars are named 
after the Sultan, their enrolment was one of the 
greatest mistakes ever made: 

The Saltan doubtless had in his mind the success of 
the Rassian Emi)eror with his Cossack regiments, when 
he gave permission for these barbarians to be supplied 
with uniforms and arms. The only distinction they ob- 
tained in the war of 1877 was for their blood-curdling 



ABDUL HAMID. SULTAN OF TURKEY: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 47 



artrodtieB on the poor wretches who fell into their 
hinds, and their diabolical mutilation of the dead. Their 
headquarters are at Melaigerd, on the Eastern En- 
phrates» and there are about thirty regiments of them 
registered in the area of the plateau, each regiment con^ 
sisting of from five hundred to six hundred men. They 
will not, and possibly cannot, accept discipline, and their 
n&tnral savageness is rendered ten times more dreadful 
when they are provided with modem arms and ammuni- 
tion and taught how to use them. 

THE ACTION OF THE TURKISH SOLDIERY. 

These gentry are responsible for much. But some 
of the later massacree were the work of the Turkish 
soldiers. The Times correspondent in Erzeroum, 
writing after the Armenians had been slaughtered 
in that city, gave a very vivid account of the mat- 
ter of-fact way in which the massacre had been 
ordered and executed. He says: 

The following is a conversation I had with the Turkish 
soldier who was one of three guarding our door after the 
affair. ^' Where were you when this thing commenced ? '* 
Answer : " In the barracks, playing cards. We were all 
called out by a signal from the bugle and drawn up in 
line. Onr ofAcer then said to ip, ' Sharpen your swords ; 
Uy^y you are to kill Armenians wherever you find them 
for six hours ; after that you are to stop, and the blood 
of any Armenian you kill after this is my blood ; the 
Annenians have broken into the Serai.' At the given 
fignal, which was just after noon," he said, " the troops 
^tarted for the Serai. We wondered how the Armenians 
coold get into the Serai. When we arrived there we did 
n<)t find any Armenians with arms, and I saw only one 
i^bot fired at us by an Armenian. We were ordered to 
kin every Armenian we saw, just as it was at Sasun," 
continued this soldier, who had been at Sasun ; ** if we 
tried to save any Armenian friend, our commanding 
officer ordered us to kill him ; we were to spare no one." 
Other soldiers told pretty much the same story. The 
fiddlers evidently had no great relish for their horrible 
work, but once begxm they did it thoroughly and 
brutally. 

Europe is of course horrified at this evidence of 
massacre organized as a government department 
But it is all in the regular way of business with the 
Turk And England, who through Lord Beacons- 
field and Lord Salisbury at Berlin in 1878, insisted 
upon intervening to save the Turk from the doom 
he 60 richly merited, is more guilty than the Stil- 
tan, who but acts according to his lights, and does 
as other Sultans have done before him. 

Like the children of Israel in Egypt, the Arme- 
nians have proved to be more than a match for 
their would-be destroyers. A race as tough as the 
Annenian takes a good deal of killing. They are like 
the Irish in one respect, like the Jews in another. 
In the Caucasus, by sheer dint of breeding and of 
crtft, they have converted Tiflis into an Armenian 
city, and rule it as the Irish have at times ruled New 
Ywk. The Armenian, we may depend upon it, may 
be harried and massacred, but he cannot be exter- 
minated. He is as indestructible as the Jew. We 



need have no fear as to his disappearance from 
Western Asia. 

THE SULTAN AS CHIEF CX)NBTABLE OP THE EAST. 

In dealing with these Eastern races we should 
never forget that the Sultan, and the Turks upon 
whose scimiters he relies, savages though they may 
be, are the only savages in Western Asia over whom 
we can exercise some degree of influence. The Sul- 
tan is a very i)oor policeman, but he is the only 
policeman there is. Granting that he is intrinsically 
as barbarous and ruthless at heart as any Kurdish 
chieftain whom he has enrolled in the Hamedyeh, 
he possesses three qualifications for the post of Con- 
stable of the East which no other savage in those 
parts can claim. First, he is the strongest; second, 
he is the easiest got at; and third, he is in posses- 
sion. Now we must either put some one else in his 
place or make the best of him. The great sin of 
England in the past has been that out of an insane 
jealousy of Russia she not only refused to put any 
one else in place of the Turk, but when, as in Mace- 
donia and in Western Armenia, whole provinces 
were delivered from her yoke, she made it a supreme 
object of her policy to restore the rule of the Turk 
in regions from which it had been ejected by the 
Russians. But even if England had taken the other 
line and had imited with Russia ia narrowing down 
the area of Ottoman domination, there would still 
have remained a wide region within which the Turk 
was the only possible Chief Constable. The prob- 
lem therefore would have been the same then as 
now, although it would have affected a smaller area 
of territory. That problem is in brief this. How 
far can Europe utilize a sovereign who regards him- 
self as the Shadow of Gk>d on Earth and Commander 
of the Faithful, as Chief Constable of Christendom 
in Western Asia and Eastern Europe ? 

THE ONLY SOUND POUCY. 

The main outlines of a sound policy in Turkey are 
quite clear. First, never lose any opx)ortuiuty, 
whether by cession outright or by the evidence of 
autonomous provincial governments, to exclude as 
much territory and as many people as possible from 
the rule of the pashas ; and, secondly, within the 
area which must perforce be left under their sway, 
keep them under constant surveillance, to check with 
premptory pressure at Constantinople the first in- 
cipient effort of the local authorities to substitute 
for the rdle of Chief Constable of Christendom the 
time honored part of massacrer of the . infidel. The 
Sultan will always prefer the latter rdle, and he 
must not be blamed for wishing to act according to 
his nature and according to his religion. He must 
be reckoned with as a constant force that, like a 
moimtain torrent, will always attempt to tear away 
the dam which is thrown across its bed. But the 
maintenance of the dam is the conditio sine qtba non 
of the utilization of the torrent. w. t. s. 



AT JERUSALEM FIVE YEARS HENCE. 

WILL THE TURKISH BREAK-UP BRING A RESTORED HEBREW COMMONWEALTH ? 



r T N the preceding article Mr. Stead deals rather 
L 1 with fact than with fancy, and he does not allow 
his constructive imagination to forecast very freely 
the future that awaits the realms nominally subject 
to the tottering throne of the Sultan. But it happens 
that our English contemporary has just now in- 
dulged in another and more extended piece of writ 
ing, in which his daring imagination revels without 
any restraint whatever in the domain of political 
prophesying. It has been his custom for several 
years to publish in England at Christmas time an 
"annual " in which, under the guise of fiction, he has 
discussed many of the blazing issues of the season, 
introducing real personages under thinly disguised 
fictitious names, and settling all sorts of vexed 
problems by virtue of the fine deeds or the wise 
words of his favorite characters. 

This year's ' annual is entitled " Blastus, the 
King's Chamberlain.'* Its hero is none other than 
the Right Honorable Joseph Chamberlain, Colonial 
Secretary. The story covers a period of some four 
or five years, beginning with the present season 
and extending into the openim? of the new century. 
Mr. Chamberlain becomes the dominating influence 
in the Salisbury cabinet, and his wonderful domes- 
tic policy is adopted, with the result of a beneficent 
social transformation of England ; while his colonial 
policies result in a no less favorable influence upon 
the outlying portions of the Empire. 

There is an interesting tale of love and private 
life running through the book, and this furnishes 
not the least of Mr. Stead's purpose. He endeavors 



to show that while the new developments of society 
are bringing women into public and social re- 
lationships which make close friendships between 
men and women quite inevitable, such friend- 
ships (between women and men other than their 
own husbands) may be entirely jx^'sible without 
the remotest departure from the strict monogamic 
ideal. 

That which concerns us most, however, for our pres- 
ent purpose, is Mr. Stead's imaginary account of what 
has happened to the Turkish Empire in the five 
years preceding the year 1901. The Sultan has been 
assassinated, the great powers have taken charge at 
Constantinople through a sort of committee of re- 
ceivers, and parts of Turkish possessions have been 
turned over to different European powers for ad- 
ministrative control. Finally it becomes necessary 
to do something with Syria, Palestine and adjacent 
regions ; and the outcome is the creation of a Jew- 
ish kingdom, the United States taking as much in; 
terest in the matter as the great European powers. 
From this point we will let Mr. Stead tell the story 
in his own words. It should be imderstood that the 
Marquis evidently means Lord Salisbury, Blastus 
means Mr. Chamberlain, Lord Adam means Duf- 
ferin (who is supposed to have become foreign sec- 
retary under Lord Salisbury), Mr. Hickory Beach 
means Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Mr. Joachim 
means Mr. Goschen, Sir Artegal means Mr. Arthur 
Balfour, and so on. Our extracts begin with a sum- 
moning of a British cabinet council at London.-- 
Editor of the Review of Reviews.] 



THE secret had been very jealously guarded, and none 
of the evening papers had anything more important 
on their news bills than a bloody murder in Hoxton. When 
the cabinet assembled at eight o^clock, notwithstanding 
the short notice, not one member was absent. Even the 
Duke had come up from Derbyshire in obedience to the 
imperative summons which had been issued that after- 
noon. He was not in the best of temper, as he had be?n 
compelled to disappoint a dinner-party in order to keep 
the engagement. But even his subterranean grumbles 
were stilled into silence when the Marquis asked Lord 
Adam to state the cause of the unexpected summons. 

LIQUIDATING THE BANKRUPT OTTOMAN K.STATE. 

Lord Adam began by reminding them of the extent to 
which Europe had been able to provide new governments 
for the wreck of the Ottoman Empire. After the Sultan 
had been slain, the wild orgie of massacre which followed 
had driven the Powers by the instinct of self-preserva- 
tion to subordinate their jealousies sufficiently to con- 
stitute for the Ottoman Empire a permanent Euroi>ean 
C!ommi8sion, which was in politics what the interna 
tional tribunal in Eg>T>t is in jurisprudence. This Inter- 



national Commission resembled a receiver in bankruptcy. 
All the provinces of the Ottoman Empire constituted its 
assets, and it undertook the work of liquidation with 
serious purpose. It had ready to hand in the Twenty- 
third and Sixty-first Articles of the Berlin Treaty, to- 
gether with the organic constitution framed by law be- 
gun by Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice's Commission in '7V-S0, 
the groundwork for the reconstruction of a government. 
Austria came down to Salonica, where the fron bier was 
made conterminous to that with enlarged Greece. The 
Commission sat at Constantinople, which remained the 
capital of the Ottoman Empire, the Sultanate being in 
Commission. The European provinces were occupied 
and administered by Austria under a European mandate. 
Russia ruled in Armenia, while Asia Minor, Syria and 
Mesopotamia remained under the government of Con- 
stantinople. Gendarmes recruited impartially from all 
the European countries, with a large infusion of the dis- 
banded regular soldiers of the Ottoman army, answered 
for order in Asia Minor. But Syria and Mesopotamia 
had remained an almost insoluble difficulty. It was in 
these regions that a mas.sacre had just occurred, which 
had horrified not merely Europe, but the world. Some 



AT JERUSALEM FI^E YEARS HENCE. 



49 



American missionaries had been impaled, and a whirl- 
wind of savage bloodthirst seemed to have jxassed over 
the land. There had been hasty conmiunications be- 
tween the great Powers, to whom was now added the 
rnivemment of the United States, and they had agreed 

r \ 




"HI BODE AT THE KURD, AND THE SWORDS FLASHED IN 
THE AIR." 

vith one voice that something most be done, and that at 

once. 

A HEBREW KINGDOM PROPOSED BY RUSSIA. 

'' AH this,'' said Lord Adam, who had been explaining 
the sitnation, ** is more or less ancient history to you, 
bat it is necessary to recall the progressive steps which 
hare kd to the reduction of the almost insoluble problem 
'jf the East to manageable dimensions. We are now face 
to face with a great inroblem precipitated by a great 
ntaetrophe, and we have offered for its solution a great 
proposaL I received this afternoon from the Russian 
Ambtarador a note, a formal invitation to attend a con- 
ference to be held at Constantinople for the purpose of 
advising immediate measures for terminating the an- 
■rrhy in Syria, and establishing a stable government in 
thoae territories. The note suggests tliat, when the 
"inference assembles, Russia is prepared to submit to 
the conference proposals for the reconstitution of a 
Hebrew Kingdom in the Land of Canaan, the basis of 
which should be the reassembUng of the scattered 
tribes around the throne of David, which it is proposed 
to re-establish on Mount Zion." 

As Lord Adam uttered the last words his listeners 
started with amazement. He stopped, and in a moment 
there was a buzz of conversation. Blastus was the first 
totpeak. 

"* The restoration of the Lost Tribes. Ah, but will the 
ti$b« go back ? What will your neighbors the Roths- 



childs say ? I wonder," said he, half aside. ** Will they 
exchange the flesh-pots of Buckinghamshire for an exile 
in the Land of Canaan ? " 

THE ROTHSCHILD-HIRSCH-BARNATO SYNDICATE. 

Lord Adam replied, " I ought to have added that the 
Russian note proxK>6ing the conference states that the 
Russian Gk)vemment is already in possession of formal 
proposals put forward by a syndicate of the house of 
Rothschilds, Baron Hirsch and Mr. Bamato, which 
undertakes, in return for a ninety-nine years' lease of 
the soil of Syria at its present value, to defray the whole 
expense of collecting the Jews from the two hemi^ 
spheres and re-establishing them in the Promised l^and." 

"H'm." said Blastus, *' that is a good bid. Talk 
about unearned increment — I should be very glad to have 
a one per cent, share in the profits of that syndicate." 

The Secretary of War asked what measures would be 
necessary in order to secure the quick establishment of 
the new regime. 

" What is wanted," said Lord Adam, " is the inmiedi- 
ate landing of a force of gendarmes supported by a few 
regiments of aU arms. There will be no organized resis- 
tance to such an occupation, but it would be necessary 
that the force should be accompanied by Maxim guns 
and a sufficient number of light cavalry." 

*' At whose expense ? " said Mr. Hickory beach, who 
as custodian of the treasury had a soul that was above 
or below flights of the imagination, and who had, on 
more than one occasion, come into sharp collision with 
Blastus by opposing schemes which the latter regarded 
as of the first imjwrtance. 

AMERICA AGREES. 

" The syndicate undertakes to guarantee all exx)enses," 
said Lord Adam. ** All that they wish is for the sanc- 
tion of the Powers." 

" Do you think," said Mr. Joachim, ** that the Powers 
will agree ? " 

^' I asked M. Lessar this afternoon what he considered 
were the chances of agreement. He said that Russia 
had already secured the assent of Germany, France, and 
the United States. In the latter country in particular 
the proposal, which had already obtained some degree of 
publicity, had created a perfect furore of enthusiasm." 

" Yes," said the Duke cynically, ** they think you are 
fulfilling the prophecies, and proving the inspiration of 
the Scriptures by a coup on the Stock Exchange 1 " 

** Yes," said the Marquis, *' and our people are just the 
same There is no move on the x)olitical chessboard that 
will wake up our pulpits so much as this proposal. My 
only regret is that the initiative is Russia's and not our 
own." 

The Council soon after broke up, while the inner Cabi- 
net remained to decide exactly what should be done in 
support of the expected decision of the forthcoming 
conference. 

HOW THE UNITED STATES WAS DRAWN IN. 

Meanwhile events had been moving in the East. The 
death of Delaware, an Englishman of official rank, inti- 
mately connected with the Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 
created a profound impression throughout Europe. As 
long as the semi-savage Oriental populations confine 
themselves to worrying each other, there is a disposition 
--1 the part of the civilized world to regard it as the 
iiatural, and, indeed, habitual pastime of the native 
races. When, however, the marauding tribe takes cap- 
tive some European traveler or American missionary, 
the Western world feels that matters are becoming seri- 



50 



THE REk'IElV OF REk'lEWS. 



ous. But when, as in the present 
instance, a great English official 
was killed and his secretary im- 
paled, there was not a chancery in 
£urox)e which did not recognize in 
a moment the significance of the 
occurrence. Owing to the impale- 
ment of some American mission- 
aries, the American fleet had al- 
ready involved the United States 
hopelessly in that intervention in 
European problems which it had 
been the aim and object of suc- 
cessive generations of American 
statesmen to avoid. But although 
not an American, Tartung was a 
Jew— a literary Jew, whose writ- 
ings were known throughout Eu- 
roi)e— andthe ghastly story of his 
death contributed materially to 
quicken the determination of the 
Powers to accept the Russian pro- 
posal for reconstituting the King- 
dom of Israel. 

KINO DAVID'S BOtmDAKIES. 

The conference was sitting at 
Constantinople, still deep in discus^ 
sion as to the boundaries of the 
proposed Jewish state, when the 
dispatch arrived announcing the 
tragedy in Mesoxx)tamia. It was 
agreed to complete the work of ad- 
ministrative partition of the Ot- 
toman Empire, while still sedulous- 
ly preserving as a useful diplo- 
matic formula its integrity and in- 
dependence. Great Britain was in- 
vited to dispatch a contingent of 
Sepoys from Bombay, who, advanc- 
ing down the Persian Gulf would 
undertake to answer for order in 
all those regions of the Ottoman 
Empire that lay between the fur- 
thest bounds of the resurrected 
Jewish Kingdom and the Russian 
outposts in Armenia and Kurdis- 
tan. The conference then applied 
itself to the task of delimiting the 
frontiers of the new kingdom. It was decided to follow 
as far as possible the frontiers as they had been traced 
at the close of the victorious campaign of Eling David, 
but it was further decided to throw into the Jewish 
monarchy the site of the ancient capital of the Tyrian 
kingdom, together with the whole of Lebanon. From 
Egypt therefore on the south, as far as Tyre and Sidon 
on the north, from the Mediterranean eastward as far 
back as Damascus, and almost to the River Euphrates, 
stretched the broad lands in which the Jews were to 
renew the glories of their ancient days. 

CHICAGO SPECULATORS IN THE HOLY LAND. 

What slight disposition there was on the part of some 
of the Powers to postpone definite decision was over- 
come by the intelligence that a multitude of smart specu- 
lators from Chicago had arrived at Jaffa and were busily 
engaged in buying up every available piece of real estate 
that was in the market. The Hebrew trio— Rothschild, 




THE CORONATION OF LORD ROSEBERY AS KING OF ISRAEL ON MOUNT ZION. 



Bamato and Hirsch— insisted that unless the decision 
were promptly arrived at, the financial basis of the en- 
terprise would be destroyed. France raised some diffi- 
culties as to the custody of the holy places, maintaining 
that it appeared strange to place the custody of the Holy 
Sepulchre in the hands of the representatives of the men 
who invoked divine vengeance on their own heads when 
they sacrificed their Messiah. But it was cymcally re- 
marked that the Jew was, at least, as good a Christian 
as the Mohammedan, and each of them possessed the 
one indispensable virtue which the Christians lacked : 
they could be relied upon to hold the balance with an 
impartial hand between the Christians of the Greek and 
Latin rites. So France, after a more or less theatrical 
protest, gave way, and the decision of the conference 
was accepted. 

WHO SHOULD BE KINO? 

The next day the Cabinet received the welcome intel- 
ligence that the Russian prox)osal for the reconstitution 



AT JERUSALEM FIVE YEARS HENCE. 



51 



of the Kfngiloin of Israel bad been nnanimoosly accepted 
If the Powers. A meeting was summoned in order to 
dtdde as to the person who shonld be invited to ascend 
the reoonstitnted throne of David and Solomon. 

When it met the Marqnis had no ideas on the subject. 

Lord Adam said, ^* I suppose he must be a Jew f " 

*'Not necessarily, " replied the Marquis. ** He must 
be connected with the Jews, closely associated with 
them, but the jealousy among the Jews themselves 
would be so great that it would be almost an imi>06sible 
task to find any one whom they would care to crown as 
King in Jerusalem." 

" Hm« is Joachim,'' said Blastus jokingly—** he is half 
a Jew. How would he do ? '' 

Joachim smiled somewhat grimly, but made no reply. 

'* I have an idea," said Sir ArtegaL 

** And what is that f " said his uncle. 

I BALFOUB PB0P08E8 R08EBEBT. 

** It seems to me what is wanted is some one whom the 
I Jews will accept. That is to say, he must be closely as- 
! eociated with the House of Israel. Next, he must be 
I v> fool, for the King of Israel must be more than a fig- 
' nre-bead. The man who reigns in Motmt Zion will need 
1 good deal of the wisdom of the serpent and a pretty 
atimate knowledge of foreign politics. He must also 
b« a man who is above ^suspicion of avarice. He will 
ksre to hold his own against the syndicate, and it is in- 
dapeasable that he should be many times a millionaire, 
acberwise Barney Bamato or Hirsch would always be 
approaching him with * inducements.' Now it seems to 
mt,^ Mid Sir Artegal, " that there is one man, and only 
(wman, in Europe who fulfills all the conditions." 
"* I know," said Blastus. '* You mean Liord Bosebery." 
" Precisely," said Sir Artegal. ** His son, who will sit 
■poQ the throne after him, is a Bothschild by lineal de- 
vent He has been Prime Minister of the Queen ; he 
kMenoa^ and to spare. What do you say to putting 
him forward as a candidate for the throne ? " 
T^ guggestion was no sooner mooted than it was ai>- 
proT«d unanimously. 
The Marquis and Lord Adam were appointed to wait 
spoD Lord Boeebery and secure his consent to his nomi- 
Bation. Lord Boeebery naturally hesitated. During 
Ike fhre years which had elapsed since the time when, 
vitb great dexterity and skill, he had succeeded in post- 
pndng for eighteen months the inevitable catastrophe 
which awaited the Liberal party the moment Mr. Glad- 
itooe*8 towering personality was withdrawn, he had 
vitdied with unceasing vigUance over the interests of 
the opposition. The time was not indeed such as called 
far in heroic or dashing policy of aggression. His task 
hsd rather been— by inperturbable good humor and the 
dB^j of genial confidence which nothing could damp, 
ad a courtesy which no reverse could ruffle — to accus- 
tcm his discomfited legions to keep themselves together, 
and to learn in adversity that discipline which, in the 
^y of their prosperity, they had so signally lacked. It 
bid also been his good fortune to accustom the British 
, pobtic for the first time in its history to the spectacle of 
• patriotic opposition whose first object was the promo- 
I tioii of the interests of the country, even at the sacrifice 
^ of their immediate party gain. 

I LOBD ROSKBERT ACCEPTS. 

It was early in the history of the administration that 
I^ord Boeebery had insisted upon assuring ministers of 
ihe cordial support of the opposition in all questions 



both at home and abroad on which the front benches 
were agreed. This enormously facilitated the task of 
constructive legislation. At the beginning of each ses- 
sion the leaders of the two parties met in conclave and 
decided what measures in the ministerial programme 
could be regarded as embodjring the common conviction 
of both parties. These measures were given the first 
place on the programme, while all contentious ones were 
reserved to be fought over in the later stages of the ses- 
sion. For tlus great and practical imi>rovement in the 
method of legislation Lord Bosebery was chiefiy, if not 
entirely, responsible. And this was only one of the 
many ways in which he had raised the droping spirits of 
his party, and accustomed the British elector to laugh 
with derision when any i>arty ranter ventured to de> 
notmce the Liberals as if they were lacking in loyalty to 
the Empire or in patriotic devotion. 

It was, therefore, a hard task for Lord Bosebery to 
desert the cause of the party to which he had rendered 
such yeoman's service in these years of adversity ; but 
here again personal feeling and party advantage were 
unhesitatingly subordinated to the vrelfare of the coun- 
try and the peace of the world. 

A SUCCESSFUL SOLUTIOIT. 

Lord Adam had no difficulty in convincing Lord Bose- 
bery— what indeed was sufficiently obvious to one who 
throughout all his career had been singularly well in- 
formed as to the secret currents of international politics 
— ^that there was no conceivable candidate so likely to 
receive the support of all the Powers as himself ; while 
more than one of the other nominations might, if 
pressed, easily dissolve the concert of Europe and light 
up the world with war. Hence, although Lord Bosebery 
had no hankering after royal state, and there seemed 
something almost grotesque in the position of crowning 
Archibald Primrose King of the Throne of David and 
Solomon, he admitted that even one's sense of the ridicu- 
lous must not be allowed to stand in the way of imperial 
duty. There was great lamentation in the Liberal camp 
when it was known that Lord Bosebery was likely to be 
nominated for the new throne, but all murmurs of dis- 
satisfaction were hushed when the English nomination 
was unanimously accepted by the conference at Constan- 
tinople and Lord Bosebery set forth, amid the enthu- 
siasm both of Jew and Gtontile, to undertake the duties 
of his new post. It was a great day in the history of the 
world when Lord Bosebery was crowned king in Mount 
Zion. 

No event of recent times provoked anything ap- 
proaching the enthusiastic interest with which this 
strange ,coronation was watched throughout Christen' 
dom. In the remotest villages In the Canadian back* 
woods, in settlers' cabins in the Australian bush, as well 
as in the crowded capitals of the English-speaking world, 
men and women read over with eager interest, not un- 
mixed with solemn awe, the prophecies of the seers of 
Israel, and thanked Qod that in their day they had been 
spared to see so marvelous a confirmation of the predic- 
tions of Holy Writ. The financial syndicate on their 
I)art did their business with thrifty hand. There was no 
wholesale exodus from the ghettos of Europe ; but the 
picked men of Jewry, carefully selected in every land, 
were formed into bands for colonization, and were con- 
veyed by steamship and by rail to the Valley of the 
Jordan. Then once more the rose bloomed in Sharon, 
and the Land of Canaan flowed anew with milk and 
honey. 



ISRAEL AMONG THE NATIONS. 

A REVIEW OF M. LEROY-BEAULIEU'S NEW WORK. 



THE campaign which has been waged against 
the Jews in certain parts of Europe for the last 
fifteen years has been disguised by the name anti- 
Semitism. Many have been deceived by this high- 
sounding phrase, which has lent a sort of academic 
dignity to that which is often nothing more than the 
empty talk of demagogues. Crouching in its shadow, 
socialists and nihilists have attempted to deal their 
deadly blows upon modem society. It is passing 
strange that France, whi^h ** ought to remain true 
to her traditions of justice and liberty," and which 
looked with horror upon Wagner's music merely 
because Wagner was bom across the Rhine, should 
have imported from ** old Germany, always ready 
for religious quarrels, and always imbued with the 
spirit of caste," the very last thing of which the true 
lovers of Germany can be proud—the anti-Semitic 
agitation. That the seeds sown in France have been 
unable to take root, is only natural in a country which 
has shed its blood in defense of the principles of lib- 
erty and justice, and which was the first to enfran- 
chise suffering Israel. It is a Frenchman— writing 
as a " Frenchman of old France," and as a Chris- 
tian- -who has given us the most straightforward 
and complete study of the various phases of this in- 
tricate question. If one would reproach M. Leroy- 
Beatdieu with anything, it is that he has taken too 
seriously many of the charges made by anti-Semitic 
orators clamorous for popular applause. But it has 
given him a chance to formulate the results of a 
study lasting over twenty-five years; and '* to see 
ourselves as others see us," especially when the eyes 
belong to a man of M. Leroy-Beaidieu's acumen 
and penetration, is as useful for us as it is for those 
to whom he especially addresses himself. Mrs. 
Hellman has done a most timely service in making 
Leroy-Beaulieu's work accessible to the English- 
speaking public. Less even than i^ France, can an 
agitation which would incite class against class, 
and faith against faith, take root in these United 
States. Should such an attempt be made, Mrs. Hell- 
man's excellent translation will go far to enlighten 
bur fellow-citizens on a campaign which is so for- 
eign to the fundamental principles upon which our 
state is built. 

M. Leroy-Bea alien is right seeing in the origin 
of anti-Semitism a political movement similar to 
that which produced the KtUturkampf. " While the 
liberal German press, partly led by Jews, was assail- 
ing the Church, the besieged party, trying to find 

•Israel Among the Nations: A Study of the Jews and 
Anti-Semitism. By Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu. Translated by 
Prances Hellman. 12mo, pp. 408. New York : G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 11.75. 



the weak spots in the lines of attack, make a sally in 
the direction of the Synagogue, where the trooxjs 
commanded by the Jew Lasker were encamped.'' 
But once let loose, the agitation and the agitators 
quickly got beyond the control of their mast^^rs. 
They had played into the hands of the most suscep- 
tible feelings of the people, of their most ignorant 
bias. What the result was, we know. Anti-Semi- 
tism became *' a war of religions, a conflict of races, 
a struggle of classes.'* From these three stand- 
points M. Leroy-Beaulieu discusses the question. 

Though M. Leroy-Beaulieu believes that relig- 
ious differences are no longer the cause of the hatred 
of the Jews, he is still of the opinion that ** a residue 
of religious antipathy is left at the bottom of anti- 
semitism." He is careful to make a distinction be- 
tween Biblical and Talmudic Judaism. In trjing to 
find the causes for this antipathy, M. Leroy-Beau- 
lieu gives the following as the difference between 
Judaism and Jewish ethics and Christianity and 
Christian ethics: '* Like the Old and the New Testa- 
ment, they have points of similarity and dissimilar- 
ity. Even when they agree, when both assert the 
same thing, there is between the old and the new 
law a difference in tone; there is a subtle shade of 
greater tenderness, of greater gentleness, in the 
daughter than in the mother. A Jew would say that 
one is more womanly, the other more virile ; that if 
the new law has more heart and feeling, the old 
law has more intellect. At any rate, the hereafter 
is less prominent in the old law. Herein lies per- 
haps, in regard to ethics, the main difference between 
them." 

THE CHARGE OP * ' EXCLUSIVENESS. " 

Both the Biblical and the Talmudic code are said 
to be exclusive. It cannot be denied that in many 
respects the Biblical code does breathe a spirit of 
national exclusiveness ; but " we must distinguish 
between political and religious laws, between that 
which pertains to the Jewish state and that which 
pertains to the Jewish faith." Nor is it to be won- 
dered at that in that great monument of literary and 
legal activity which we call the Talmud, we find at 
times expressions breathing scant liking for the 
Gentiles. These Gentiles are " the Greek subjects 
of Antiochus, the Roman subjects of Titus and 
of Hadrian, the magi of the Sassanid kings," who 
each in turn had tried to make Israel swerve froni 
the faith of its fathers. It is only natural that the 
Jews of the middle ages referred these expressions 
to their Christian fellow-men, whom it was impos- 
sible to call ** neighbors " and " brothers." " Dur- 



ISRAEL AMONG THE NATIONS. 



53 



ing hundreds of years onr Christian feeling of broth- 
eriM)od toward the Jews had been evinced only 
tiiroog^ pillage, the yellow wheel, the iron gates of 
the ghetto, and the fires of the autchda-fi, . . . 
Before assmning the right to ask the Jew to treat ns 
as brothers, it were well that we shotQd practice to- 
ward him a little of that Christian charity wherein 
are embodied the law and the prophets." 

The stiU graver charge has been made that the 
Jews "are the bom enemy of what they style 
* Christian civilisation .... a disintegprating 
force both from the moral and the religions as well 
as from the economic and national point of view. ' * ' 
To this M. Leroy-Beanlien answers: 

In aflBuming that the Jew inspires and, as it were, 
prompts Uie spirit of the age, do we not raise him to an 
eninenoe quite disproportionate to his real stature and 
ascribe to him an exaggerated supremacy? When we 
bbme the Jewish people or the Jewish religion for the 
orerthrow of certain moral, religious, social, .or political 
belief Ssare we not paying scant attention to history and to 
the genesis of modem ideas ? Is it not, on the iMtrt of Chris- 
tian nations, equivalent to getting rid of their own sins 
I7 loading them upon Israel, the scapegoat? . . . 
And how is it with the manifold and changeable systems 
IB which fluctuating modem thought has tried to find 
expreeeion? Which of these systems is Jewish? Is it 
poiitivism, evolutionism, determinism, pessimism? 
Despite the flexibility of his nature. . . . the Jew 
Gu have exerted but a secondary, and, taking every* 
thing into consideration, but a small influence on the for- 
mation of modem society. 

At least, for modem Judaism, the contrary is 
trae. Wherever the Jew has exerted any influ- 
ence he has done so spurred on by the very people 
whom he is charged with corrupting. And he him- 
■df has suffered more from the disintegrating forces 
tiian he could possibly have made others suffer; for 
the Jew is by nature conservative. ** This man, who 
11 pictured to us as the natural enemy of tradition, 
» sedulously occupied in conforming to tradition, 
h order to become a religious or a political solvent, 
the Jew must, if I may use the expression, become 
*de-iudaized.' This modem Israelite, depicted to 
« as the corrupting agency in our Christian civiliz- 
ation, is himseU a product of our civilization. The 
▼ims with which he charges the veins of society was 
Mt secreted by him ; it is only because he has been 
infected with it that he spreads its contagion. '' The 
eril from which our modem society is suffering, 
«y8 M. Leroy Beaulieu, lies much deeper, and its 
healing is to be sought in a very different direction 
to that toward which the anti-Semite turns. "Aryans 
■Dd Semites, de-christianized Christians, and de- 
jodaized Jews, are practically reverting to a sort 
of nnoonscious paganisuL Shem and Japhet, swept 
•fcng by the same wind, are slipping, side by side, 
4>wn the same declivity. Our clumsy Western races 
which the Gospel had with such diflftculty wrested 
from the worship of matter and force, are about to 
lerert to their old nature- worship, now stripped of 



the mythical adornments that once covered it with 
a veil of i)oetry. . . . Theidolatryof nature, the 
idolatry of man erected into a god, such is the new 
worship to which our Western civilization seems to 
be reverting; and this false worship of the human 
instead of the divine is perhaps more repugnant to 
the Old than to the New Testament, to Sinai than to 
Calvary." 

NATIONALITY AND RACE. 

This brings us to the second grievance, the na- 
tional one. The anti*Semitic movement arose in 
G^ermany at a time when the national feeling, not 
only in Germany but in all Europe, was at its height. 
The Jews had to suffer together with the Catholics, 
and to be considered ** non-G^erman.'' But this at- 
tempt to conf oimd nationality with race is no better 
than the Russian attempt to conf oimd it with unity 
of religion. It is an antiquated notion belonging to 
a remote past; for most of the European nations of 
to-day are a mixture of widely dissimilar elements; 
and "if it was possible for the Spanish Iberians, 
the Fins of Himgary and Finland to adapt them- 
selves to our Aryan civilization, it is diffictdt to see 
why the Semitic Jew shotQd not be able to do like- 
wise.** On the whole, it is not easy to see in 
what the difference between Aryan and Semite con- 
sists. Renan's beautiful generalizations in regard 
to the character of Semitic religious belief will not 
stand the test of a scientific examination. The fun- 
damental religious notions of both Aryan and Semite 
are identical. If it is in respect to character and 
disposition that the Semite — Jew or non-Jew — is 
radically different from the Aryan, M. Leroy-Beau- 
lieu has this to say: 

There is, at all events, one fact of which we too fre- 
quently lose sight, and which we dare not overlook. 
When we speak of Semitic harshness and narrowness, 
we must not forget that the Qospel, than which there is 
nothing sweeter, gentler, tenderer in all the world, has 
emanated from the Semitic tribes. Upon' that rocky 
Syrian soil has blossomed the lily of the valley, whose 
fragrance, after nineteen centuries, still perfumes the 
world. The most beautiful word in human speech, the 
word charity, fell from the lips of those sons of Shem. 
It was the Semites who proclaimed the glad tidings ; it 
was to a Semitic multitude and in a Semitic dialect that 
the Sermon on the Mount was preached; and it was by a 
Semitic i)eople, braving hunger and thirst, that the Nine 
Beatitudes were revealed to the ancient world. Here, 
again, if we would assail Israel in her race, her ancestors, 
and her Bible, we cannot reach her without touching 
Christ. 

This was the real Semitic conquest, and the Aryan 
spirit has never recovered from it. The most consistent, 
perhaps the only really logical, anti-Semites are those who, 
to rid themselves of the Semitic yoke, reject the New as 
well as the Old Testament, the manger of Bethlehem 
and the tablets of Sioai. The Slav or the Teuton who is 
unwilling to owe anything to the sons of Shem ought to 
go back to the Aryan gods, to Zeus, to Odin, to Pemn 
of the golden beard— unless he prefers to substitute the 
emanations of the impersonal Brahma for the Creative 



54 



THE REk'lEW OF RE^IEi^S, 



God of Gtonesia. It is only by freeing itself from all 
Christian ideas that the world can be " de-semitized.'' 

ABE MODERN JEWS PURELY SEMITIC ? 

But granting that such differences do exist,. the 
pure Semitic character of Israel's blood is by no 
means assured. The propaganda made by the Jews 
in the Roman Empire, at Alexandria, in Russia, has 
brought in much that is surely non-Semitic. It is 
even thought that many of the simple Gauls were 
converted to Judaism. The very strict laws of the 
Church against intermarriage are proof that such 
intermarriages did occur. Our author hazards the 
statement: " For whole centuries thousands of Jew- 
ish families have been gathered to the bosom of 
Christianity by means of conversion, forced or vol- 
untary. There is probably not a single European, 
and hence not a single American nation, that 
is quite free from all admixture with the Sem- 
itic Jews." These conclusions are confirmed by a 
study of the anthroi)ological side of the question. 
Although M. Leroy-Beaulieu gives a description of 
what he considers the predominant Jewish type, he 
admits that it does not fit. ** The Jews of all coun- 
tries do not possess the same anthropological char- 
acteristics ; they vary sometimes in Jews of the same 
country." For race has not been the sole element in 
the formation of the Jew. ** Israel is much less the 
offspring of a race than the work of history. Two 
influences in especial have combined to form the Jew 
and have given him, in all cotmtries, an appearance 
peculiar to himself- -age-long isolation and tradi- 
tional ritual, his social confinement and his religious 
practices. He has been matured by two opposite 
agencies: the confinement to which we have con- 
demned him, and the practices with which he him- 
self has tied himself down. It may be said that our 
canonists and his rabbis have had an equal share in 
fashioning him. The best evidence of this is the 
fact that, with the gradual removal of the barriers 
that surrounded the old Jewries, the typical and 
characteristic peculiarities of the Jew seem to be 
fading away. " 

Of the practices by means of which the Jew as- 
sisted the Christian world in keeping himself shut 
out from all intercourse and forming of him a new 
race, M. Leroy-Beaulieu has the following to say : 
'* Judaism is not. like Christianity, an almost entirely 
spiritual religion. . . . Talmudic Judaism is, in 
more than one respect, a combination of practices per- 
taining to the body ; it is as much a religion of the 
body as of the soul. . . . Israel alone understood 
and practiced the laws of moral and physical purity. 
She was so attached to these laws that, like the 
Maccabeans, she preferred death to violation of 
them." But in order to keep the race in this state 
of physical purity, an almost entire separation from 
all out«ide influences was necessary. It is almost 
certain that without the law— in its double aspect, 
physical and spiritual — the Jew would never have 
been able to survive the middle ages. It preserved 



the vitality as well in his body as in.his spirit. " The 
Jew, particularly in the large Jewries of the East, is 
often small and ptmy; he looks wretched, sickly, 
shrunken and pale. But all this should not deceive 
us; under the frail exterior is concealed an intense 
vitality." In addition to this, through his suffering, 
the Jew became the result of a process of selection, 
pitiless in the severity of its application. ** All that 
proved too weak, bodily and spiritually, was elimi- 
nated from the race, either by death or baptism. Is- 
rael was like a family in which the children of each 
successive generation were exposed at birth." These 
phenomena of a physiological nature were aided by 
others of a more spiritual nature, which the law 
also did its best to conserve, " the family spirit of 
the Jews, their devotion as parents, the care of the 
mother for her children, the chastity of the mar 
riage relation, etc. " Their inmiunity from certain 
diseases, especially those of a parasitical character, 
is due to the same law, which strove to make of Israel 
" a people that should be healthy and holy, * sanus et 
sanctus.' The Jew is distinguished by the predom- 
inance of his nervous over his muscular system, and 
therefore more prone to spinal and cerebral diseases. 
But all these peculiarities are due to his historical 
environment. That they are not due to any racial 
peculiarities is seen by the fact that they ** diminish 
as the Jew assimilates himself to the surrounding 
population. . . . And even when the Jew's body 
appears to us broken and degraded, this is less the 
result of years than of suffering. There is sap in 
them still, and to convince ourselves of this it is 
often sufficient to transplant them from the poor soil 
of the Eastern Jewries to the rich land of the West. " 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OP THE JEW. 

Perhaps the most interesting part of the book is 
that treating of the psychology of the Jew. M. Le- 
roy-Beaulieu has alwajrs had a taste for '* compara- 
tive national psychology " — a science founded by two 
Jews, Lazarus and Steinthal. Here is his estimate 
of the Jewish mind : 

In the case of the Jew the development of the mind 
has outstripped that of the body. I do not know a mora 
intellectual race. The Jew lives mainly by his head. 
His strength lies less in his arms than in his brain. We 
reproach him for not always supporting himself by the 
labor of his hands ; but he would often be at a loss to do 
so, since he has rarely muscle enough. On the other 
hand, he has force enough in his brain to make up for the 
weakness of his body. In his feeble frame there reside 
frequently a lucid mind and a strong will. Contrary to 
the ancient Greek and the modem Enghshman, the Jew's 
superiority does not consist of a nice balance between 
body and soul. No other race has so often proved the 
fallacy of the mens sana in corporesano. 

The Jew adapts himself to everything ; he is fit for 
everything ; he feels at ease everywhere, consequently 
he succeeds in everything. 

The centuries have trained him to this nimbleness 
of mind, this intellectual agility. Everything has con- 
tributed to it ; his historic education, the persecutions 



ISRAEL AMONG THE NATIONS. 



66 



ind the hmniliations to which he has been subjected, the 
oocopAtions forced upon him, the various civilizations 
ind countries through which he has iMissed. No other 
nee has been trained in such mental gymnastics. The 
Jews are like those poor children whose limbs have been 
broken and whose bones have been dislocated in all pos- 
sible feats of agility; they can take with ease the most 
mirvelous flights, the most perilous leaps, always land- 
ing upon their feet. 

There is another characteristic of the Jewish mind; its 
hiddity, distinctness, clearness, accuracy. The Jewish 
intellect is a faultlessly exact piece of mechanism; it is 
u nicely adjusted as a pair of scales. 

These traits he also poeseesee as an inheritance 
from his ancestors. The ancestor, however, which the 
world knows, which literature and the drama have 
perpetuated—** the money-changer, the broker, the 
second- hand dealer, the usurer " — is not the only one 
to whom be owes all this. There is another ances- 
tor, whom Lessing has pictured to us so beauti- 
fdly. 

This forefather, the oldest and most beloved by Israel, 
is the rabbi, the sage, the Talmudist. It is not true that 
(or twenty centuries IsraeVs soul was absorbed in bank- 
ing and speculation. The traffic in gold was for a long 
time but a means of subsistence for the Jews, the only one 
pomitted to them. It was not the publican nor the 
finsnder whom the sons of Israel honored and aspired 
1,^ to emulate; it was the rabbi, the interpreter of the law, 
the scribe, the scholar, the Hakham. Israel was a nation 
of students before she became a nation of money-makers. 
She has always remembered this. The Jew has had a 
twofold education, two entirely different teachers whose 
leanns he learned simultaneously. While, in the hands 
of the money-changer and the broker, he was being 
tnined to precise calculations, to a practical sense, to 
the knowledge of men and things, under the guidance of 
the rabbi, the ffakhcan, he acquired the habit of theo- 
retical speculation, of intellectual study, of scientific ab- 
itnction. These two warring tendencies in human life 
ftos met and became, as it were, blended in Israel. Of 
the two directions in which man's activity is tempted to 
qiend its^f, the one most prized by the select of Israel, 
Bost sought after by this race apparently given over to 
Bsterial cares, was invariably the spiritual one. In the 
eld Jewries the banker has ever been less esteemed than 
the scholar, the money-changer less than the student. 
H soch is not now the rule, it is because, through our 
Bfinenoe, Israel has fallen away from her traditions. 

This strength of mind, however, has been gotten 
It the cost of character. M. Leroy-Beaulieu sees 
enoogh energy in the Jew, but a want of inflexibil- 
ity. This is also the result of his historical environ - 
nent^ not fixed in his nature. His conscience was 
never allowed full play, the meaning of the word 
*• honor " he never had a chance to learn. 

The Jewish conscience has not emerged unscathed 
fnxn the ghetto. It became narrowed under the influ- 
«w»of the tribal spirit, confused by casuistry, weakened 
^ penecution and finally almost extinguished by suffer- 
ing Scorned by all his surroundings, excluded from the 
oomaoD law, cheated of his human righ t h by o ther human 
^ tmng^ the Jew thought himself justified in taking many 
Kberties with those who took every liberty with him. 



Deprived of the weapons of the strong, he resorted to the 
devices of the weak, to cunning, trickery and deceit. 
And so the ages have succeeded in warping the con. 
science of that people in whom the word conscience has 
had its origin. It matters little that this moral deterio- 
ration was due less to their own teachers and casuists 
than to our laws and our persecutions; the fact remains 
the same; and this conscience, thus warped and twisted, 
cannot straighten itself all at once. 

The Jew also shrinks from violence and is not im- 
pulsive. He has had to learn to control his passions 
— at the cost of a certain amount of character. He 
has become supple in his nature, and this makes 
him successful in life, " to which fact he owes most 
of his enemies. ** Can he regain the full measure of 
his character ? M. Leroy-Beaulieu thinks he can. 

THE OLD HEBREW POETRV. 

Of a i)eculiar Jewish genius in any particular field 
of work, M. Leroy-Beaulieu is unable to find any 
trace. The old Hebrews had such a genius, the 
glory of which no one can take from them. " Her 
lips, like those of the son of Amos, have, been 
touched by the live coal from the altar, and they 
had no words for things profane. " 

We may question the historic value of the Jewish 
books, but not their poetry; a poetry impersonal and 
spontaneouR, welling up from the depths of the popular 
soul. If there is anything in the world really inspired, 
high above the empty writings of rhetoricians and pol- 
ishers of phrases, is it not these very books, artless and 
unstudied, eternally alive, in which so many men of all 
nations have felt the breath of the Spirit of God ? That 
which is really true, really characteristic of the race, is 
the fact that the Hebrews have not invented anew kind 
of hterature; in this sense they have had no art or liter- 
ature, no drama, epic poem, i>ainting dr sculpture. That 
which is furthermore true is, that the Hebrew (and, if 
you wish, the Semitic) genius was confined to a narrow 
bed between two rocky walls, whence only the sky could 
be seen; but it channeled there a well so deep that the 
ages have not dried it up, and the nations of the four 
comers of the earth have come to slake their thirst at 
its waters. 

The arts and sciences in which the Jews have at- 
tained the greatest distinction are music, drama, 
I)oetry, medicine, mathematics and philology. But 
there is absolutely nothing distinctive about their 
attainments in these subjects; on the contrary, they 
may prove the very reverse — ** a secret likeness of 
disposition, an indisputable intellectual kinship ** 
between the two races. The only thing remarkable 
about the success of the Jews is the wonderful 
quickness with which they have achieved it; the^ 
fewness of their number, when compared with that 
of their competitors. And this may be explained 
by hereditary selection, by the sudden outburst of 
pent-up mental activity, by their training in the 
Talmudic schools and a perfect adaptabilitv to all 
manner of circumstances. *' By virtue of their mi- 
grations through all countries and their contact with 
all civilizations, the Jews have acquired a strange* 



66 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



plasticity which renders them everywhere capable 
of assimilation with their fellow- countrymen of 
Aryan stock. " But there still does seem to be some 
difference between the Jew and Christian which, 
however, M. Leroy-Baanlien has not explained with 
his usual lucidity. 

I do not know whether the soul of the Semite differs 
sensibly from that of the Aryan; but I perceive that the 
soul of a Jew has at times a different ring from that of 
a Christian. This is due to the fact that unlike ours it 
was not cradled in the manger of Bethlehem, and that 
religion leaves upon human souls a more lasting impress 
than is commonly imagined. It is due also, and in no 
less degree, to Israel's long humiliation. I freely admit 
then that we mav differ from the Jews in certain char- 
acteristics and shades of feeling; but in this I can see no 
disadvantage to us or to our civilization. 

Nor is the term ** Jewish spirit ** any more pre- 
cise. It is the spirit of modem democratic com- 
mercialism, which M. Leroy-Beaulieu calls several 
times "Americanism," but which he styles more 
justly neo-paganism. It is certainly not the spirit 
which yon find in the Jewish communities of the 
East. It is certainly not the Semitic, the Jewish 
spirit. 

For two thousand years our souls have been kept alive 
by the ideal bequeathed to us by the sons of Judah. We 
have been fed on the manna transmitted by the Beni- 
Israel, no matter which was the divine hand that caused 
it to rain upon their tents. The prophets of Ephraim 
and the axx>6tles of Galilee have been the world's pro- 
claimers of idealism. The thirst for the ideal that 
consumes the Christian soul has come to us from these 
men. Oi)en their Book, their Bible; it has been for 
entire nations a well of perennial freshness whence they 
have drawn streng^th and nobihty of souL By virtue 
of it the Aryan peoples have become gradually imbued 
with the Semitic spirit; their souls have been uplifted 
and their hearts have been strengthened by it. 

On the contrary, the Jew has suffered as much as 
the Christian by the spread^of neo-paganism. 

Let us not flatter ourselves; all is not clear gain for 
the Jew in his contact with us. As with the Orientals- 
be they Christians or Moslems— sudden contact with our 
civilization is often fatal to him. He is subject both to 
the contagion of our ideas and to the infection of our 
vices. From these diseases he has no immunity. His 
moral code is not to blame for it: the Jewish code is the 
same as the Christian. There is merely a difference of 
shades; both codes are based on the same faith in Gk)d 
and on the same Decalogue. What is true of the Jew, 
perhaps even more than of the Christian, is that in aban- 
doning the rites and the faith of his ancestors he rarely 
succeeds in preserving intact the morahty incorporated 
in that faith and hidden in those rites like the kernel in 
the nut. This is especially true with regard to sexual 
morality, chastity, that frail virtue which, in order to 
withstand the tempest of the passions, appears to require 
a religious prop, and, as it were, a divine teacher. 

THE JEWISH MESSIAH. 

What the Jew has thus lost, he can regain. *' The 
fount of lofty sentiments has not run dry in the sons 



of Israel." The Jew has still retained his ideaX, 
which it calls the Messiah, or the Messianic time. 

One might call it a bourgeois ideal, and, if it is permis- 
sible to combine the two words, a material ideaL It; 
does not lose itself in the clouds or the azure heavens; 
its object is this earth and its reahties; its aim is the 
estabUshment of peace and the diffusion of happiness 
among men. It is what has been called the material 
ideal of the Jew, an ideal " of the earth, earthy," or, it 
you will, of the needy broker or the enriched banker, bu^ 
not so very despicable after all,since it can be traced to the 
ideal of the prophets— the reign of justice on earth. ** And 
the time will come when every man wiU be able to sit 
peacefully in the shade of his vine and hisoHve tree.*' 
Material or not, such has remained the Jewish ideal 
throughout the ages; and it matters little that the Jew 
has brought this terrestrial ideal of ancient Israel down 
to his own level ; no one can deny that it corresponds to the 
ideal of the new age, to the humanitarian dream be- 
queathed to modem peoples by the eighteenth century, 
which, despite all its Utopias and follies, was after its 
own fashion an idealistic century. 

Such a Messiah is not so far removed from the 
Messiah of the Aryans which they call Progress ; 
nor from the hope of Christianity in a Kingdom of 
God on earth. ** The grand Semitic vision embodied 
in the Christian idea reappears in the Church as well 
as in the Synagogue. '' 

As regards Jewish particularism of dress, speech 
and names, M. Leroy-Beaulieu shows that it has 
not been as great as is generally supposed. '* On 
the contrary, in every land they have been strongly 
influenced by the Gentiles, and have so thoroughly 
adopted the language, usages and dross of their 
Christian neighbors that after centuries of exile 
they often still retain the' impress of the countries 
inhabited by their forefathers. " Where such a par- 
ticularism does exist, it is in every case due to ad- 
verse legislation. This is his summing up of the 
question: 

The Jew, at least the Western Jew, is tired of keeping 
apart from us; he has given up the half compulsory and 
half voluntary particularism so long displayed by his 
forefathers. Whether we examine dress, or language, 
or names, or anything that distinguishes men outwardly, 
we always reach the same conclusion: that the modem 
Jews have set their heart on becoming like us. To ac- 
complish this they take as much pains as their most 
fanatical ancestors could possibly ever have taken to 
isolate themselves from us. 

Facts speak clearly. Wherever no hindrance is inter- 
posed by law or custom the Jews endeavor to national- 
ise themselves; the majority are careful to thlx)w off all 
that can make them appear as a separate people. Even 
when they are thrown into contact with two or more 
nationalities they incline to blend with one of them, 
most frequently with that one which is more firmly 
rooted in the country. Not only do they try to show 
themselves Frenchmen in France, Germans in Germany, 
Englishmen in England, Americans in the United States, 
but, what is much more meritorious, they strive to ap- 
pear Poles in Poland, Danes in Denmark, Hungarians in 
Hungary, Czechs in Bohemia, Bulgarians in Bulgaria. 



ISRy4EL AMONG THE NATIONS. 



57 



The JewB preserve the character of a separate people, 
ind kx>k upon themselves as a nationality, only in those 
ooontries where they live in compact masses in the midst 
of diverse nationalities: or where, as in Russia and 
fioomania, the laws of the State prohibit them from 
blending with the natives, from considering themselves 
Bnasians or Bonmanians. To quote an expression of 
Leon Tolstoi, the Jew, threatened from without, curls 
i^ack upon himself and retreats into the shell of his ez- 
c.ofliveness. 

POWER OP ASSIMILATION. 

As the ancient national feeling passes away, the 
Jews become more and more bound up with the na- 
tional aspirations of the people among whom they 
dwell " Of all the foreigfners who do ns the honor 
to settle among OS, those who most quickly become 
French are perhaps the Israelites." Yet this power 
of quick assimilation is apt to bring them into 
trouble, especially in the France of to-day, ** which 
showers upon these naturalized citizens of yesterday, 
Qt of to-morrow, all its favors, all its distinctions, 
aU its good-will, all its offices." In this resi>ect, M. 
Leroy-Beanlieu thinks the claims of the anti-Sem- 
ites have not been entirely groundless. Although 
the hope of a restoration to Palestine has been 
given up by the gpreat majority of Western Jews, 
still nationality has for so long a time been united to 
religion as to make its complete separation a matter 
0/ some difficulty. 

In this respect Israel is still in a period of transi- 
tion. She is passing out of the stage of an ethnic 
croup, into that of a confessional group. After hav- 
ing been so long a people, it will soon be only a relig- 
km. This transformation, which is nearly completed 
in the West, has only just begun in the East. Encased 
far a kmg time in its nationality as in a pi*otective tegu- 
ment, Judaism has only half extricated itself; while its 
bead and upper body have emerged completely, its feet 
and lower limbs are still imprisoned in the national 
ifaeath. 

And when once fully extricated, what is this Juda- 
ism to become for the Jews ? ** A church whose 
monbers believe themselves descended from the 
same father, and look upon each other as brothers 
bcfond by ties of blood- This is the reason why the 
Jews exhibit a solidarity unparalleled in any other 
rtligion This is the reason why the most 

ikeptical Jews are inclined to place the religious above 
tlM^ national bond— since for them the religious and the 
ridal bond are identical— and to consider themselves 
Jews before considering themselves Frenchmen, English- 
men or Germans. This is the cause finally of that cos- 
ntopolitan spirit which enables so many of them to wan- 
der without a pang of regret from one country to 
another, and of that light-heartedness with which they 
make themselves at home wherever they are able to set 
up their shops. 

Here as everywhere the past explains the present. The 
Jewish sentiment, streng^thened by centuries of common 
suffering and anxiety, is perpetuated by a sort of atav- 
ism, even when it is not fomented by the annoyances 
and apprehensions of the present. It survives even in 
Qiose Jews who have broken loose from the traditions of 



Israel, and have become thoroughly incorporated in the 
modem nations. How many have remained Jews with- 
out retaining any of the practices of the Mosaic laws. 

This ** international cosmopolitanism," however. 
M. Leroy-Beaulieu does not consider to be an evil 
On the contrary, 

whatever the partisans of State-omnipotence may 
think, it is fortunate for hiunanity that its two great 
spiritual bonds, country and religion, are not always of 
equal compass, and that the one embraces what the 
other excludes. If the limits ot religion were to coincide 
with the boundaries of states, there would be danger of 
our frontiers becoming hermetically sealed against the 
passage of ideas and affections. Our dual system has 
its advantages. Unlike the ancient city-state, every 
nation in our day includes a number of religions, just as 
every religion embraces a number of nations. This is a 
point in which the modem world is superior to the an- 
cient. 

PRBBENT PROBLEMS OF THE RACE. 

One word more of greater interest perhaps to us. 
M. Leroy-Beaulieu has carefully watched the trans- 
formation which modem Judaism is now undergoing 
** toward its perfected state" of a world-religion. 
He rightly sajrs that it presents x)eculiar diffictdties, 
for the ** ceremonials, rites, race-traditions, are not 
merely external coverings to be stripped off at will, 
but, more or less, a part of its very being. " And no 
one could formulate better than he has done, the 
hopes and aspirations of modem Judaism, purified 
of all tribal spirit and national dross. 

Then, at last, Jewish faith, freed from all tribal spirit 
and purified of all national dross, will become the law of 
humanity. The world that jeered at the long suffering 
of Israel will witness the fulfillment of prophecies de- 
layed for twenty centuries by the blindness of the scribes 
and the stubbornness of the rabbis. According to the 
words of the prophets, the nations will come to learn of 
Israel and the peoples will hang to the skirts of her 
garments crying: ** Let us go up together to the moun- 
tain of Jehovah, to the house of the Lord of Israel, that 
he may teach us to walk in his ways." The true, spirit- 
ual religion for which the world has been sighing since 
Luther and Voltaire will be imparted to it through 
Israel. To accomplish this Israel needs but to discard 
her old practices, as, in spring, the oak shakes off the 
dead leaves of winter. The divine trust, the legacy of 
her prophets, which has been preserved intact beneath 
her heavy ritual, will be transmitted to the Gentiles by 
an Israel emancipated from all enslavement to form. 
That hour will mark the birth of a religion truly univer- 
sal and authoritative, at once himian and divine. Then 
only, after having infused the spirit of the Thorn into 
the souls of all men, will Israel, her mission accom- 
plished, be able to merge herself in the nations. 

Is the realization of such a dream —carried often 
unconsciously by Jews — within the reach of Israel ? 
M. Leroy-Beaulieu thinks not. He believes that 
Judaism is so intimately bound up \inth its ancient 
forms and ceremonies, that in order to become uni- 
versal it ** must begin by suppressing itself." But 
he has had no chance of studying the reform move 
ment within the Synagogue in the only country' where 



60 



THE REk'lEU/ OF REVIEWS. 



tendents and officials. The Jew as a charity di- 
rector directs. And he brings to the management of 
his trost the same qualities of business sagacity, of 
unerring judgment and practical common sense with 
which he runs his store on Broadway. Naturally 
t^ result is the same. 

The system of Jewish charities is altogether ad- 
mirable. There is no overlapping or waste of ef- 
fort. Before charity organization had been accepted 
as a principle by Christian philanthropy the Jews 
had in their United Hebrew Charities the necessary 
clearing house for the speeding and simplifying of 
the business of helping the poor to help themselves. 
Their asylums, their nurseries and kindergartens are 
models of their kind. Their great hospital, the Mojmt 
Sinai, stands in the front raak in a city full ot re- 
nowned asylums. Of the 8,000 patients it harbored 
last year 89 per cent, were treated gratuitously. The 
Aguilar Free Library circulated last year 253,849 
books, mainly on the East Side, and after ten years' 
existence has nearly 10,000 volumes. The managers 
of the Baron de Hirsch Fund have demonstrated the 
claim that he will not till the soil to be a libel on 
the immigrant Jew. Their great farm of 5. 100 acres 
at Woodbine, N. J., is blossoming into a model vil- 
lage in which there are no idlers and no tiamps. At 
the New York end of the line hundreds ot children, 
who come unable to understand any other language 
than their own jargon, are taught English daily, 
and men and women nightly, with the Declaration 
of Independence for their reader and the sttrry 
banner ever in their sight In a marvelously short 
space of time they are delivered over to the ptvJblic 
school, where they receive the heartiest welcome as 
among their best and brightest pupils. 

Their technical schools prove every day that the boy 
will most gladly take to a trade, if given the chance, 
and that at this, as at everything 
he does, he excels. Eighty per 
cent, of the pupils taught in the 
Hebrew Technical Institute earn 
their living at the trade they 
learned. These trade schools are 
the best in the land* Most thor- 
oughly do these practical men 
know that the problem of poverty 
is the problem of the children. 
They are the to-morrow, and 
aj^ainst it they are trying to pro- 
vide with all their might. It was a 
Jew, Dr. Felix Adler, who first 
connected the workshop with the 
school in New York as a means 
of training and discipline. There 
is not now a Jewish institution or 
home for children in which the in- 
mates are not trained to useful 
trades. The Educational Alliance 
which centres in the great He- 
brew Institute, with its scope 
*' Americanizing, educational, so- 



cial and humanizing/' is a vast net in which the 
youth of the dark East Side tenements are caught 
and made into patriots and useful citizens. And the 
work grows with the need of it The funds are 
always forthcoming. 

Our public schools are filled with devoted Jewish 
teachers, the ranks of the profession in New York 
overflow with eminent men professing Judaism. 
Their temples and s3magogues are centres of a social 
energy that struggles manfully with half the i)er- 
plexing problems of the day. There is no Committee 
of Seventy, no Tenement House Conmiittee, no 
scheme of philanthropy or reform in which they are 
not represented. Was ever a sermon.preached from 
Christian ptdpit like that which stands to-day in 
Rutgers Square done in stone and bronze ? Where 
the police clubbed the unoffending cloakmakers, 
gathered lawfully to assert their rights that meant 
home and life to them, a Jew built a beautiftd foun- 
tain, the one bright spot in all the arid waste of 
tenements, "to the City of New York,'* and na 
where shall the seeker find the name of the giver 
graven in the stone. It remained for a ** Christian " 
Board of Aldermen to wantonly insult a man whose 
very name is synonymous with gentleness and be- 
nevolence, by refusing through the hot ^^ummer to 
turn on the water because the member^rom the 
ward ** had not been consulted " and so had suffered 
in dignity. 

On the whole, Mayor Strong spoke fairly for the 
metropolis and its people when, in the spirit of the 
letter to the Newport Jews from George Washing- 
ton, of which a part is here given in facsimile, and 
which was tht most prized exhibit at the fair, he 
congratulated theut' upon their notable achievements 
and praised their puMic spirit. The facts bear him 
out, I think. 




AT WORK IN THE HEBREW TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, STUYVESAfr ST. 



THE JEIVS OF NEiV YORK. 



61 




KINDEBOARTEN (HEBREW FREE BCHOOt. ASSOCIATION), HEBREW INSTITUTE. 




8EWINO CLASS (EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE), HEBREW INSTmm. 



62 



THE REyiElV OF REI^/EIVS. 



I spoke of the orthodoxy of the slnin. In more than 
a physical, sanitary respect is it the salvation of the 
East Side. Jewish liberaIiauU»kes a different course 
in New York on the Avenue and in the tenement. 
With still its strong backing of the old faith moral- 
ity, it runs uptown to philanthropy, to humanitar- 
ianism. The work of Dr. Felix Adler, the founder 
of the Ethical Society, whose congregation is very 
largely Jewish, is an outgrowth of Judaism. " Be- 
ligioQ and humanity '* is the watchword of the ad- 
vanced Jew, sufficiently indicating his spirit. In 
the slum the loosening of the old ties letsAn unbelief 
with the surrounding gloom aiW leads directly to 
immorality and crime. The danger besets especially 
the young. Whether it be the tenement that cor- 
rupts, the new freedom, or the contrast between the 
Talmud schools, to which the children are sent when 
young, and the public school, the fact appears to be 
that crime is cropping out to a dangerous degree 
among the Jewish children on the Blast Side. The 
school explanation was suggested to me by the fact 
that the Talmud schools, which are usually in dark 
and repulsive tenement rooms, become identified in 
the child's mind from babyhood with his faith. By 
contrast the public school appears so much more 
bright and beautiful. The child would be more than 



human did he fail to make a note of it. And these 
children are very human. 

Whatever the explanation the danger is there, but 
their wise men are prei)aring to meet it upon its 
own ground. The Hebrew Free School Association 
gathers into its classes in the Hebrew Institute theee 
children by thousands every day, while under tkkB 
same roof the managers of the Baron de Hirscli 
Fund are giving their teachers instruction in English 
and fitting them for their task as religious instructors 
uxK)n an American plan that shall by and by elim- 
inate^the slum tenement altogether. 
/ The Jew in New York has his faults, no donbt, and 
sometimes he has to be considered in his nistoric 
aspect in order that the proper allowance may be 
made for him. It is a good deal better perspective, 
too, than the religious one to view him in, as a 
neighbor and a fellow citizen. I am a Christian 
and hold that in his belief the Jew is sadly in error. 
So that he may learn to resi)ect mine, I izisist on 
fair play for him all round. That he has received 
in New York, and no 6he has cause to regret it ex- 
cept those he left behind. I am very sttre that our 
city has to-day no better and more loyal citizen than 
the Jew, be he poor or rich^and none she has less 
need to be ashamed of. Jacob A. Bns. 



^"^^ O^a^-^cZuT'^u^ ^ a^^t4/ ^h/" aJ^/;^^7rv ^l^e,^t^e^6 it/i^ 
^^Ou^'Uj Ut^o^ Jv*"^^*^^^ iJ*^^ t^^ie^Xf ^aZic ^ .T'.^^te A /9naA^ 

^U^f%^ fiiiAjg^ 'Zi^finJt0 ^l^a-^ 




ADOLPH MENZEL, ILLUSTRATOR. 



A SKETCH BY VALERIAN GRIBAYEDOFF. 




DnwB by y. OiibajMoir. 



ADOLPH MENZEL. 



FOR months past the Grerman Empire has been 
celebrating with more or less befitting cere- 
monies the aniversaries of those great victories of a 
qnarter of a century ago, which sealed the unity of 
tiie nation and raised it to the front rank of Euro- 
pean powers. The closing month of this year, how- 
erer. has witnessed the celebration of another anni- 
Teraary in the Fatherldnd. one that could produce 
DO pangs, no feelings of resentment beyond the 
frontier, since it records a triumph not on the blood 
stained field of battle, but in the arena devoted to 
the gentler arts of peace —in other words, the cele- 
bration of the life work of that dean of European 
painters and illustrators, Adolph Menzel ! 

On the eighth of December Menzel attained the 
ripe old age of four score years, strong in frame and 
*4rith mental faculties unimpaired, and the entire 
oation, from Emperor William down —himself as our 
fnmtispiece shows, an active promoter of the graphic 



arts —united to pay him the respect- 
ful homage due to his great genius 
and his brilliant achievements. 
Titles, public banquets, the presen- 
tation of gold medals and congpratu- 
latory addresses from all parts of 
the Empire were but a few of the 
many honors showered ui)on the 
veteran ; for the nonce politics, the 
great questions of state, and all 
other matters of current interest 
were relegated to the background 
— the man who nearly half a cen- 
tury before had by his almost un- 
aided effort brought his fellow- 
workers to a realization of the truth 
in art, had become the sole object 
of his countrymen*s attention and 
grateful consideration ! 

My pen falters at the thought of 
attempting to even outline the ca- 
reer of so gigantic a figure, as is 
Menzel's within the narrow limits 
of a magazine article. His range 
was so wide, his triumphs so va- 
ried, that volumes alone could do 
justice to the subject Whether 
as a painter in oil or aquarelle, a 
draughtsman on wood or stone, an 
etcher or a wielder of the drawing 
I)en, he stood by all accord head 
and shoulders above his contemxx>- 
raries. He was equally at home as 
an exponent of historical scenes or 
as a delineator of contemporary 
events. His fancy knew no bounds, 
but at the same time a conscien- 
tious attention to niceties of detail 
is as much apparent in his least pretentious sketch as 
in his most ambitious work. To the writer, an hum- 
ble worker in the field of pen and ink portraiture, 
one of Menzel's greatest services to the cause of art 
lay in his demonstration of the value of a line in 
black and white illustration and even had he never 
enriched the world with those masterpieces on can- 
vas, the pride and glory of his countrymen and the 
delight of art lovers the imi verse over, he would 
still be entitled to a front rank among the artists ^of 
the century for his incomparable drawings on wood 
of scenes from the life and times of Frederick 
the Great. With these drawings he not only brought 
into the world a superb creation of his fecund 
brain, but he pointed the way to others and among 
these were men who bore such names as Fortuny. 
Vierge, D^taille and Abbey ! 

Adolph Menzel first saw the light of day in the 
town of Breslau, Silesia, six months after the battle 



64 



THE REyiElV OF REyiEWS. 



of Waterloo. His father, a lithographer, intended 
the son for the same calling and the boy's early 
years were therefore passed in the humdmm exist- 
ence of the small provincial workshop. A t the age 
of fourteen, however, the family left their native 
town to settle in Berlin and it was here that the 
boy first obtained an opportunity to follow his nat- 
ural bent and occupy his spare time with a study of 
the art treasures on view in the public sralleries. The 




Kiauced from a drawing by Mensel. 

FREDERICK THE GREAT. 

elder MenzePs death in 1882 proved a temporary 
setback to the youth's aspirations, inasmuch as he 
suddenly found himself at the age of seventeen the 
sole support of the entire family. His courage did 
not forsake him during the trying period which 
followed involving, as it did, constant labor and self- 
denial, but his first individual effort at illustration 
published in 1834 betrays in the very irony of its 
conception the downcast feelings that oppressed 
him. 

His next undertaking, twelve handsome litho- 
graphed pages illustrating various striking episodes 
from the history of Prussia, published in 1837, 
shows on the one hand, the thoughtful student of 
history, and on the other, the coming master, who at 
the very outset of his career has decided to throw 
over the artistic traditions of the day and is breaking 
a path for himself through the thickets of conven- 
tionalism. His progress now continues with giant 
strides. At the age of twenty-four he has already 
completed a series of remarkable drawings dealing 
with scenes from the seventeenth century, an oil 
painting entitled ** Trial Day," replete with local 



color and dramatic force ; two drawings on wood. 
'* Franz von Sikkingen " and *' Guttenberg," and an 
untold number of lithographic designs and ara- 
besques, one in particular, the Lord's Prayer, a 
brilliant piece of decorative drawing. 

Remarkable as his acheivements may have been 
before this period, the year 1839 must always be 
considered the real starting point of MenzeVs tri- 
umphs, for it was then that he received an order 
from the Leipsic publisher, J. J. Weber, for the 
illustration of " Kugler's History of Frederick the 
Great." This task occupied three years and witli 
its conclusion Menzel sprang with one bound into 
royal and popular favor. And well he might. 
Those four hundred designs drawn in pencil on 
wood and reproduced in facsimile, had served a 
double purpose : First, that of giving new life to 
the almost defunct art of wood engraving in Ger- 
many, secondly, of stirring the patriotic emotions of 
the people at large by bringing vividly before their 
minds in language more eloquent than that of the pen, 
more potent even than the strain of battle marches, 
that long period of alternate triumph and defeat, 
that awful struggle against tremendous odds, which 
finally gave the young Prussian Monarchy its place 
among European nations. Since a hero is indis- 
pensable to every druna, so Menzel subordinated his 
characters to the figure of the great King, whose over- 
towering personality it is which pervades the entire 
work. We see him in every phase of his checkere<l 
career, — on the battlefield in victory or defeat, at 
the camp-fire surrounded by his faithful adjutants, 
at Sans Souci during the ** piping times of peace,'' 
entertained by Voltaire's witticisms or his own 
flute playing. Menzel has possibly idealized his 
hero at times, but with it all, what a conscientious 
regard for historic truth in all the details of com- 
position, accoutrement and architectural acces- 
sories ! Looking at these four hundred drawings, 
perfect gems of art in their way, one feels that like 
the true artist on the stage who loses his own i>er- 
sonality in his part, Menzel has transplanted himself 
back to the eighteenth century in spirit and has 
grasped the genius of the times. Although the 
subject matter calls more often for dramatic treat- 
ment, he develops a wealth of humor when in 
lighter vein, and all by such direct and simple treat- 
ment, both in the matter of composition and tech- 
nique ! Not the least successful are his head and 
tail pieces, graceful conceits which show him to be 
a master of decorative fancy. 

To some it may appear that I am devoting an un 
due proportion of my limited space to this particular 
branch of Menzel' s art and that his marvelous his- 
torical and genre paintings should be given the 
precedence in any description of his work. While 
this is in a measure true, I cannot lose sight of the 
fact that as the illustrator of Frederick the Great's 
life and times Menzel proved a pioneer in an until 
then utterly neglected field and that his influence 
has extended even to this continent, where the art. 



ADOLPH MENZEL 



66 



of line drawing is now enter- 
ing upon its prime, thanks to 
the efforts of the great Ger- 
man's disciples. 

Menzel followed np Ms suc- 
cess in the early forties with 
a still more ambitions work on 
KJinilAr lines, two hundred illus- 
trations for an edition de luxe 
of the works of the great 
Frederick, in which his pre- 
vious efforts were even sur- 
passed. This and two other il- 
lustrated books on the Prus- 
sian army occupied his time 
until 1849, when he threw down 
the pencil to grasp the brush 
and palette and enter upon still 
farther triumphs. His can- 
vases for the first decade dealt 
almost exclusively with the 
subject that had brought him 
fame and honors in the field 
of illustration. Best known 
among these perhaps are the 
*' Breakfast at Sans Soucf 
with the King and Voltaire as 
the inrominent figures, and a 
** Muaicale at Sans Souci,'' the 
centre figure being the mon- 
arch himself in the act of play- 
ing his flute. Both of these 
canvases are masterpieces of 
drawing, color and composi- 
tion. Another canvas showing 
Frederick at night in the camp 
at Hochldrch exhibits great 
power of expression and a mas- 
terly conception of dramatic ef- 
fects. And all these years, while engaged in book 
illostration and in the preparation of his numerous 
elaborate works in oil, the little giant —he is barely 
five feet in stature —still finds time to explore other 
regions. His series of " Essays in Etching *' dis- 
ciome new beauties to the lover of line drawing, his 
*^ Easays on Stone with Brush and Scraper," im- 
part a fresh impetus to the lithographer's art and 
his albxun of the *' Magic of the White Rose," pub- 
lished in 1854, proves a revelation to aquarellists. 
With the unification of the Fatherland, Menzel says 
adien to the past and devotes his talents to 




Reduced from « drawing by MenxeL 

ZIETEN, FREDERICK THE GREAT'S DASHING CAVALHY LEADER. 

the glorification of the present, but while depict- 
ing the splendor and luxury of the court of Em- 
peror William L, he does not disdain to dip into the 
life of the humbler classes for inspiration, and his 
scenes from the workshops of the German manu- 
facturing centres are fraught at once with a rugged 
realism and the truest human sympathy. Possibly it 
is for this reason that the toilers among his country- 
men were as enthusiastic in feting the anniversary 
of the master's birth as the proudest nobleman in 
the land. The masses are sometimes grateful when 
least expected to be ! 



>0->H 




^4-^Oc 



SOUTH CAROLINA'S NEW CONSTITUTION. 



" This constitution, adopted by the people of South Carolina in Convention assembled, shall he in force 
and effect from and after the Slst day of December, in the year 1895.'' 



THE remarkable new body of organic law which 
the constitution-makers at Colnmbia, South 
Carolina, completed on the night of December 4, after 
more than two months of exceedingly earnest and 
determined labor, becomes operative on January 1, 
The new constitution, when put to the final test, re- 
ceived 115 affirmative votes, while only seven mem- 
bers of the convention voted nay. The portion of 
the document that is chiefly significant to the people 
of South Carolina is that which relates to the suf- 
frage. But before proceeding to explain the new 
restrictions upon the exercise of the voting privilege 
in South Carolina, it may be well to recite briefly 
certain facts in the sphere of statistics and also cer- 
tain facts in the sphere of political and constitu- 
tional history. First, as to the statistics : 

NBORO PRBPONDBRANOB. 

The xx>pulation of South Carolina by the census of 
1890 was 1,151,149, distributed between the races as 
follows : total number of whites, 462,008 ; total 
number of colored persons, 689, 141. Thus the colored 
I)eopie were practically fifty per cent, more numer- 
ous than the white, the excess of colored being 227,- 
000 (while precisely fifty per cent, of the whites 
would be 281,000). Gtovemor Evans has estimated 
the total population for 1895 at 1,270,000. Allowing 
for a slight possible exaggeration, we may consider 
the population on January 1, 1896 as being a million 
and a quarter in round numbers, of whom 500,000 
are white people, and 750,000 colored people. To 
compare the relative numbers in a different way, it 
may be said that now, as for some time i>ast, three 
people out of every five belong to the colored race. 
The census of 1890 found 285,606 males of voting age, 
of whom 102,657 were white, and 182,949 were 
colored. The excess of colored voters would appear 
much less proportionately than the excess of colored 
population. I am disposed to doubt the i)erf ect ac- 
curacy of these statistics as to numbers of voters. 

PBRCENTAOBS OF ILLTTBRACY. 

The same census gives the total population above 
the age of ten years as 802,406, of whom 860,705 were 
absolutely illiterate. The percentage of illiteracy 
among the whites was nearly eighteen per cent 
(17.9), amounting to 59,438, while illiteracy among 
the colored population extended to 641 per cent, or 
301,262 persons. We have no statistics to indicate 
the relative percentages of illiteracy among the male 
X)opulation of voting age. But for both races the 
percentage would be considerably higher than the 
figures given above, inasmuch as the school facili- 



ties have reached a larger proportion of the young 
people now between the ages of ten and twenty-one 
than of persons above the voting age. The illiteracy 
of adult males, particularly, is very much higher 
among the negroes above the voting age than among 
the young colored people under twenty-one. It is 
conservative, therefore, to estimate the illiterates 
among grown up colored men in South Carolina as 
fully seventy-five per cent of the whole number. 

THB *'FOUpTBBNTH AMBNDMBNT. " 

Th6 Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States was proposed by Congress on 
June 16, 1866. On July 28, 1868, it was declared to 
have been ratified by thirty of the thirty-six states, 
and it went into effect thereupon as a part of the 
fundamental law of the nation. Section 2 of that 
Amendment reads as follows : 

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
states according to their respective numbers, cotmting 
the whole number of persons in each state, excluding 
Indians not taxed. Bat when the right to vote at any 
election for the choice of electors for President and 
Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in 
Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, 
or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to- 
any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty- 
one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in 
any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, 
or other crime, the basis of representation shall be re- 
duced in the proportion which the number of such male 
citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty-one years of age in such state. 

RBOONSTRUCrriON POLmCJS. 

It was in that same year that South Carolina, in 
accordance with the so-called reconstruction policy, 
adopted the constitution under which it resumed ita 
place in the sisterhood of states. That constitution 
of 1868 fully recognized the amendments to the na- 
tional constitution ; and inasmuch as the white men 
who had taken part in the Confederate cause were 
not enabled for a time to resume their normal atti- 
tude in the political life of their own state, the newly 
enfranchised negroes, under the lead of so-called 
" carpet-baggers,'* or post-bellum immigrants, and 
sustained by Federal troops assumed the govern- 
ment of South Carolina. Laws were made by negro 
legislators, many of whom were absolutely illiterate. 
A negro governor pursued a course of scandalous ex- 
travagance and misgovemment. The debt of the 
state was enormously inflated, and the situation, to 
use the mildest possible language, was a gravely un- 
fortunate one for both races. 



SOUTH CAROLINA'S NEIV CONSTITUTION. 



67 



THB ONE OREAT ISSUE. 

After a time the white race asserted itself, and by 
the effective use of measnres which it is not my 
pnrpoee here to discnss, regained complete control 
of state, county and municipal governments, and of 
representation in the national (ingress. Gradually 
the great bulk of the colored voters gave up all at- 
tempt to participate in politics. Nevertheless they 
were legally voters, they were in the large majority, 
and the white race felt its position to be insecure. 
Property owners feared lest the possibility of negro 
domination might tend not only to keep white immi- 
grants from coming into the state but also to gradu- 
ally drive away many of the existing white families, 
and thus that the recognition of the danger of negro 
supremacy might in itself actually hasten the con- 
smnmation so greatly dreaded. It was under these 
circumstances that the new constitutional conven- 
tion was elected. Great care was taken to make it 
a white men's convention ; and it was perfectly un- 
derstood that restrictions upon the franchise were 
the one paramount object of the convention. 

THE ** MISSISSIPPI PLAN." 

Many plans were discussed, some of which involved 
intricate schemes of plural and multiple votes in 
recognition of different classes of property holders. 
The state of Mississippi several years before had 
practically disfranchised the great mass of colored 
voters by excluding illiterates, while qualifying the 
exclufiion by an arrangement which permits the en- 
rollment of men of voting age who, though not able 
to read the constitution themselves, can intelligently 
explain any section of it if read to them by the reg- 
istering officer or magistrate. In practice, this dis- 
cretion puts a dangerously arbitrary power into the 
hands of registration officers. At present it is said 
to be used chiefly for the benefit of illiterate white 
men. How it may be employed in years to come, 
when parties may be more evenly divided, no one 
can telL A similar arrangement has been under dis- 
cussion in Louisiana for some time past ; but many 
competent and conservative men in that state 
severely criticise the discretionary feature. 

After much discussion the Soul^ Carolina conven- 
tion decided to adopt the Mississippi plan for the 
period of two years, and to keep on the enrollment 
lists for life the entire body of those who should be 
fortunate enough to get themselves enrolled before 
Janoary 1, 1806. After that date the loophole is 
closed ; and the qualifications become rigid. No new 
voter can be registered after 1897 unless (1), he can 
both read and write any part of the constitution, or 
else (2). as the only alternative, he can show that he 
owns and has paid taxes upon property assessed at not 
leas than $800 by the official assessor of his township 
or district 

THE KKW SOUTH CAROLINA SUFFRAGE PLAN. 

The new constitution was not submitted for rati- 
fication to the voters of the state, but was directly 
proannlgated by the convention itself. It is fair to 



estimate that from two- thirds to three- fourths of the 
colored voters will be at once disfranchised. It is 
probable that twenty-five per cent, of the white 
voters are illiterate. How many of these will be 
denied enrollment on the ground that they cannot 
understand and explain a portion of the constitution 
when read to them, it would not be possible to esti- 
mate in any way. It should be observed that by its 
expressed terms the new constitution discriminates 
against nobody. On its face it merely calls either for 
a very limited amount of learning, or a moderate de- 
gree of intelligence without any learning at alL Any 
man who will take the trouble to learn to read 
within two years may get himself enrolled. If he 
waits longer than two years he must learn writing 
in addition to reading, or as an alternative he must 
cultivate industry, frugality, and temperance, and 
save up $300. This is by no means an easy thing to 
do, but it is possible. However much or little one 
may sympathize with the action taken by this con- 
vention, it can hardly be doubted that the premium 
thus placed upon a rudimentary education and apon 
the acquisition of property will almost certainly 
supply a definite and positive incentive to the indi- 
, vidual and to parents, which must immensely stimu- 
late the colored race to more rapid progress in civili- 
zation. 

The precise wording of the parts of the new con- 
stitution which relate to registration methods, as 
well as to the terms of the franchise, seem to be im- 
portant enough for our reproduction at considerable 
length. They are as follows : 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ENROLLMENT. 

(a) Residence in the state for two years^ in the county 
one year, and in the polling precinct in which the elector 
offers to vote four months, and the payment six months 
before any election of any poll tax then due and payable; 
provided, however, that ministers in charge of an organ- 
ized church and teachers of pubUc schools shall be en- 
titled to vote after six months' residence in the state, if 
otherwise qualified. 

(6) fiegistration which shall provide for the enroll- 
ment of every elector once in ten years, and also an 
enrollment during each and every year of every elector 
not previously registered under the provisions of this 
article. 

(c) Up to January 1, 1898, all male persons of voting 
age applying for registration who can read any section 
in this constitution submitted to them by the registra- 
tion officer, or understand and explain it when read to 
them by the registration officer, shall be entitled to 
register and become electors. A separate record of all 
persons registered before January 1, 1898, sworn to by 
the registration officer, shall be filed, one copy with the 
clerk of the court and one in the office of the Secretary 
of State, on or before February 1, 1898, and such persons 
shall remain during life qualified electors unless disquali- 
fied by other provisions of this article. The certificate of 
the clerk of the court or secretary of state shall be 
sufficient evidence to establish the right of said citizen 
to any subsequent registration and the franchise under 
the Umitations herein imposed. 

(d) Any person who shall apply for registration after 
January 1, 1896, if otherwise qualified, shall be registered; 



G8 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



provided that he can both read and write any section of 
this constitution submitted to him by the registration 
officer or can show that he owns and has paid all taxes 
collectible during the previous year on property in this 
state assessed at three hundred dollars or more. 

(e) Managers of elections shall require of every elector 
offering to vote at any election before allowing him to 
vote proof of the payment of all taxes, including poll tax, 
assessed against him and collectible during the previous 
year. The production of a certificate or of the receipt 
of the officer authorized to collect such taxes shall be 
conclusive proof of the payment thereof. 

if) The General Assembly shall provide for issuing to 
each duly registered elector a certificate of registration, 
and shall provide for the renewal of such certificate 
when lost, mutilated or destroyed, if the applicant is still 
a qualified elector under the provisions of this constitu- 
tion or if he has been registered as provided in sub-sec- 
tion (c). 

RIGHT OP APPEAL. 

Section 5. Any person denied registration shall have 
the right to appeal in the Court of Common Pleas, or 
any judge thereof, and thence to the Supreme Court, to 
determine his right to vote under the limitation imposed 
in this article, and on such appeal the hearing shall be 
de novo^ and the General Assembly shall provide by law 
for such ai)i>eal and for the correction of illegal and 
fraudulent registration, voting, and all other crimes 
against the election laws. 

Section 6 disqnalifiee from being registered or 
from voting all persons convicted of an enumerated 
list of crimes, and also idiots, insane persons, and 
paupers supported at the public expense. It is pro- 
vided that the presence or absence of students at in- 
stitutions of learning shall not affect either the gain- 
ing or losing of a residence, the same arrangement 
applying also to persons engaged in the civil or mili- 
tary service of the United States or absent on the 
seas as sailors. 

REOISTRATION SYSTEM. 

It is also provided that until the first of January, 
1898 

the registration shall be conducted by a board of three 
discreet persons in each county, to be appointed by the 
Governor by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate. For the first registration provided for under 
this constitution, the registration books shall be kept 
open for at least six consecutive weeks, and thereafter 
from time to time at least one week in each month up to 
thirty dajrs next preceding the first election to be held 
under this constitution. The registration books shall 
be public records open to the inspection of any citizen at 
all times. 

Section 9. The Gteneral Assembly shall provide for the 
establishment of polling precincts in the several counties 
of this state, and those now existing shall continue until 
abolished or changed. Each elector shall be required to 
vote at his own precinct, but provision shall be made for 
his transfer to another precinct upon his change of resi- 
dence. 

Section 10. The General Assembly shall provide by 
law for the regulation of imrty primary elections and 
punishing fraud at the same. 

Section 11. The registration books shall close at least 
thirty days before an election, during which time trans- 



fers and registration shall not be legal; provided, persons 
who will become of age during that period shall be 
entitled to registration before the books are closed. 

MUNICIPAL VOTERS. 

Section 12. Electors in municipal elections shall possess 
the qualifications and be subject to the disqualifications 
herein prescribed. 

This section proceeds to state that it will be neces- 
sary for the municipal voter to have procured a cer- 
tificate of registration from the registration officers 
of the county, this certificate showing him to be an 
elector of a precinct included in the incorporated 
city or tovni in which he desires to vote as a munic- 
ipfd elector. It is also required that he must have 
been a resident within the corporate limits at least 
four months before the election and have i>aid all 
taxes due and collectible for the preceding fiscal 
year. 

Section 18 declares that in authorized and special 
municipal elections in any city or town for the pur- 
pose of the issue of bonds there must be as a condi- 
tion precedent a petition to the General Assembly 
signed by a majority of the freeholders of said city 
or town, as shown by its tax books, and at such elec- 
tion all electors who are duly qualified in the manner 
already explained and have paid all taxes, state, 
county, and municipal, for the previous year, shall 
be allowed to vote, a majority vote being necessary 
to authorize the issue of such bonds. 

Sections 14 and 15 make the usual provisions pro- 
tecting electors from arrest on election day while at 
the polls or going to them or from them, and provid- 
ing that no civil or military power shall at any time 
exercise the power to prevent the free exercise of the 
right of suffrage. 

IS THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT VIOLATED? 

The question is naturally raised whether or not 
South Carolina and Mississippi by their franchise re- 
strictions have subjected themselves to a diminu- 
tion of the number of their representatives in Con- 
gress under the section of the Fourteenth Amend- 
ment already quoted in this article. It may be said 
in the first place that Massachusetts and California, 
by the adoption of the educational test, stand to- 
ward the Fourteenth Amendment in precisely the 
same position as these two southern states. Theo- 
retically, any state which by restrictions upon the 
exercise of the ballot makes its legal electorate a 
body smaller than the full number of male inhabi- 
tants twenty -one years' old, has subjected itself to a 
reduction of its representation in Congress in propor- 
tion to the number of males above the age of twenty- 
one who are excluded from voting by the restrict- 
ive enactments. For example, if a state should 
raise the voting age to twenty -five or thirty 
years, and one-third of the former voters were 
thus excluded, its representation would be lia- 
ble to a corresponding reduction. If it had twelve 
seats in Congress it would lose three. Practically, 
however, it must be an exceedingly difficult task for 



SOUTH CAROLINA'S NEIV CONST/TUT/ON. 



69 



Ocmgress or the conrts to become legally and offi- 
cially cognizant of the actual results of any state law 
placing restrictions upon the franchise. The ques- 
tion has not been made a practical issue in the case 
of Mississippi and it is not likely to be brought 
within the purview of serious discussion. As re- 
gards Massachusetts, it has not been considered that 
the proportion of illiteracy is large enough to take 
into account Nevertheless, if we mistake not, a 
strict, theoretical enforcement of the Fourteenth 
Amendment would deprive Massachusetts of one of 
her thirteen seats in the House of Representatives. 

OTHER PARTS OF THE NEW INSTRUMENT. 

Although the article of the new constitution which 
we have thus discussed at so much length contains 
f>y far the most sweeping of the innovation, there are 
Yoany other interesting provisions in the new consti- 
mtion. Some of them are very old-fashioned and 
conservative, as, for instance, the prohibition of 
divorce, while others go to the opposite extreme of 
novelty and radicalism. These various provisions 
relating to the exercise of the voting privilege, are 
contained in Article IL ; this article being entitled 
'' Right of Suffrage. " Article I. consists of an elab- 
orate '* Declaration of Rights,'^ similar in most re- 
spects to the bill of rights which a majority of the 
state constitutions enumerate in defense of the gen- 
eral principles of liberty. 

THE LEGISLATURE. 

Article HL relates to the Legislative Department 
of the state government. It is to be observed that 
South Carolina insists upon retaining the regular 
yearly session, all the other states having adopted 
the biennial session plan, excepting New York, 
New Jersey, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. It is re- 
quired that the first session of the legislature elected 
under this new constitution shall convene in Colum- 
bia on the second Tuesday in January, 1897, and ses- 
sions thereafter shall occur annually at the same 
place and time of year. Members of the G^eneral 
Assembly shall not receive any compensation for 
more than forty days in one session ; provided that 
this limitation shall not affect the first four sessions 
of the Gteneral Assembly under the general constitu- 
tion. 

The House of Representatives consists of 124 mem- 
bers, each county constituting one election district 
Election of members of the House are to be held 
eveiy other year, and the members are to be appor- 
tioned to the counties in the ratio to population. The 
Senate is composed of one member from each county 
elected for four years. Elections are to be on Tuesday 
after the first Monday in November, 1896, and every 
flecond year thereafter. Each member is to receive 
fire cents mileage for every mile to and from the 
ienon. and further compensation is to be fixed by 
law. 

EZSMPnONS AND ASSESSMENTS. 

The General Assembly is required to enact laws 
exempting from attachment, levy and sale under 



any process issued from any court to the head of any 
family residing in the state, a homestead in land, 
whether held in fee or in lesser estate, to the value 
of $1,000, and to every head of a family in the state, 
whether entitled to a homestead exemption in land 
or not, personal property to the value of $500 Any 
person not a head of a family shall be entitled to a 
like exemption in all necessary wearing apparel, tools 
and instruments of trade, not to exceed in value the 
sum of $300. 

All taxes upon property, real and personal, shall 
be laid upon the actual vfdue of the property taxed, 
as the same shall be ascertained by an assessment 
made for the purpose of laying such taxes. 

LEGISLATIVE PROHIBITIONS. 

It is forbidden to donate, directly or indirectly, any 
lands belonging to or under control of the state to pri- 
vate corporations or individuals, or to railroad compa- 
nies. Nor shall any such land be sold to corporations 
or associations for a less price than that for which it 
can be sold to individuals. This is not to be con- 
strued as preventing the General Assembly from 
granting a right of way not exceeding 150 feet in 
width as a mere easement to railroads across state 
lands. 

The General Assembly is forbidden to enact local 
or special laws in a series of enumerated matters, 
and it is provided that in all other cases where ^ 
general law can be made applicable no special law 
shall be enacted. It shall be the duty of the General 
Assembly to enact laws limiting the number of acres 
of land which any alien or any corporation controlled 
by aliens may own within the state. 

THE EXECUTIVE, ETC. 

Article IV. deals with the Executive Department 
of the state government. 

The governor is to be elected for two years. No 
person shall be eligible to the office of governor who 
denies the existence of the Supreme Being, or who 
at the time of such election has not attained the age 
of thirty years, and who shall not have been a citizen 
of the United States and a citizen and resident of 
the state for five years next preceding the day of 
election. 

Other state officers provided for by the constitution 
are the lieutenant governor, who is to preside in the 
Senate without a vote unless the Senate be equally 
divided, a secretary of state, a controller general, 
an attorney general, a treasurer, and adjutant and 
inspector general, and a superintendent of education. 
These officers are all elected by the voters of the 
state for terms of two years. 

Article V. deals with the Judicial Department, 
and Article VL with Jurisprudence. Under this 
article it is provided that the General Assembly shall 
pass laws allowing differences to be decided by ar- 
bitrators to be appointed by the parties who may 
choose that mode of adjustment. 

Article VU. deals with the counties and county 
government. The organization of counties and ^ 



70 



THE REI/IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



townships is left to the legislature. It is provided 
that the General Assembly may provide such a 
system of township government as it shall think 
proper in any or all the counties, and may make 
special provision for municipal government and the 
protection of chartered rights and powers of muni- 
cipalities. 

MUNICIPAL QUBSTIONa 

Article Vin. is on municipal corporations and 
police regulations. It is evident that the South 
Carolina reformers have adopted some of the new 
ideas about mimicipal monopolies. The constitu- 
tion is careful to make possible the direct ov^mership 
and operation of city supply services, whenever the 
incorporated cities and towns wish to adopt such a 
policy, as the following section will clearly show : 

No law shall be passed by the General Assembly grant- 
ing the right to construct and operate a street or other 
railway, telegraph, telephone, or electrical plant, or to 
erect water or gas works for public use, or to lay mains 
for any purpose without first obtaining the consent of 
the local authorities in control of the streets or pubUc 
places proposed to be occupied for like purposes. Cities 
may acquire by construction or purchase and may operate 
water works systems and plants for furnishing light, and 
may furnish water Iknd lights to individuals and firms, 
or private corporations, for reasonable compensation; 
provided that no construction or purchase shall be made 
except upon a majority vote of the electors in said cities 
or towns who are qualified to vote on the bonded indebt- 
edness of said cities or towns. 

It is provided that no city or town shall hereafter 
inaugurate any bonded debt which, including exist- 
ing bonded indebtedness, shall exceed eight per cent 
of the assessed value of the taxable property therein. 
Cities and towns may exempt from taxation by gen- 
eral or special ordinances, except for school pur- 
poses, manufactories established within their limits 
for five consecutive years from the time of the estab- 
lishment of such manufactories; provided that such 
ordinances shall be first ratified by a majority of 
such qualified electors of such city or town as shall 
vote at an election held for that purpose. 

NO *'PINKERTON MEN" NEED APPLY. 

The general agitation of the labor unions against 
the class of private watchmen known as ** Pinkerton 
men " has conquered public opinion in South Caro- 
lina so completely as to have placed the following 
section in the new constitution: 

No armed police force or representatives of a detective 
agency shall ever be brought into this state for the sup- 
pression of domestic violence, nor shall any other armed 
or unarmed hody of men be brought in for that purpose 
except upon the application of the General Assembly or 
of the executive of this state when the General Assem- 
bly is not in session, as provided in the constitution of 
the United States. 

TE[E LIQUOR TRAFFIC. 

Senator Tillman and Governor Evans were suc- 
cessful in securing due constitutional recognition of 
fhoif avstem of state liquor dispensaries. The system 
^solutely required, but it is permitted. The 



whole subject of the regulation of the liquor traffic 
is dealt with in the following section : 

In the "^xercise of the police power the General Assem- 
bly shall have the right to prohibit the manufacttu^ and 
sale at retail of alcoholic liquors or beverages within 
the state. The General Assembly may hcense persons 
or corporations to manufacture and sell at retail alcoholic 
liquors or beverages within the state under such rules 
and restrictions as it deems proper, or the (General As- 
sembly may forbid the manufacture and sale at retail of 
alcohoUc liquors and beverages within the state, but 
may authorize and empower state, county and mtmicipal 
officers, all or either, under the authority and in the 
name of the state, to buy in any market and retail 
within the state liquors and beverages in such packages 
and quantities, under such rules and regulations as it 
deems expedient; provided that no license shall be 
granted to sell alcohohc beverages in less quantities 
than one-half pint, or to sell them between sundown and 
sunrise, or to sell them to be drunk on the premises; and 
provided, further, that the General Assembly shall not 
delegate to any municipal corporation the power to issue 
licenses to sell the same. 

AS TO OORPORATIONS 

Article IX. deals with corporations. This article 
undertakes to hold corporations strictly accountable, 
provides against discrimination in charges by trans 
portation companies, forbids the consolidation of 
corporations, provides that stock or bonds shall not 
be used by any corporation except for labor done or 
money or property actually received or subscribed, 
and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness 
shall be void Corporations shall not engage in any 
business except that specifically authorized by their 
charters or necessarily incident thereto. The Q^ne^^ 
Assembly is required to enact laws to prevent all 
trusts, combinations, contracts, and agreements 
against the public welfare, and to prevent abuse, 
unjust discriminations, and extortion of all charges 
of transporting and transmitting companies, and 
shall pass laws for the supervision and regulation of 
such companies by commission or otherwise, and 
shall provide adequate penalties to the extent, if 
necessary for that purpose, of the forfeiture of their 
franchises. 

A railroad commission of three members is estab- 
lished by the constitution, upon the lines of the exist- 
ing commission. Railroad corporations are made 
liable for injuries sustained by their employees, and 
any contract waiving such liability is null and void. 

NOVEL TAX PROVISIONS. 

Article X. , which is devoted to Finance and Tax- 
ation, enters with considerable detail into questions 
regarding taxes and the management of revenues 
and public indebtedness, but it contains little that 
is of exceptional interest except the provision in a 
single sentence that ** the General Assembly may 
provide for a graduated tax on incomes and for a 
graduated license on corporations and business call- 
ings." 

The exemption of Confederate veterans from the 
payment of the poll tax for school purposes, while 



SOUTH CAROLINA'S NEIV CONSTITUTION. 



71 



the reterans who fought in the Union armies will 
have to pay the tax, must inevitably canse at least a 
slight amount of irritation and criticism in certain 
quarters. Clearly no offensive discrimination was 
intended. The general government has cared very 
liberally for Union veterans by its pension laws, and 
the Southern States have had to contribute their 
share towards the pension frmd. 

EDUCATION. 

Article XL deals with Education. The General 
Assembly is required to provide for ** a liberal system 
of free public schools for all children between the 
ages of six and twenty-one years/* and for the divi- 
sion of the counties into suitable school districts. An 
annual tax of one dollar must be assesssed on all tax- 
able polls in the state between the ages of twenty-one 
and sixty years, excepting Confederate soldiers 
above the age of fifty years, the proceeds of which 
tax shall be expended for school purposes in the sev- 
eral school districts in which it is collected. 

Provision is further made for the levy of a prop- 
erty tax for school purposes. 

Separate schools shall be provided for children of the 
white and colored races, and no child of either race shall 
ever be permitted to attend a school provided for the 
diildren of the other race. 

Article XH, which treats of Charitable and Penal 
Institutions, declares : 

All convicts sentenced to hard labor by any of the 
courts in this state most be employed upon the public 
works of this state, or of the counties, or upon the public 
highways. 

OONFEDSRATB PENSIONS. 

It is a very interesting and significant fact that 
Article XHL of the new constitution, entitled ** Mil- 
itia." which in its first section, provides the usual 
and familiar arrangements for the enlistment and 
organization of the citizen soldiery of the State, pro- 
ceeds in the concluding section to make the follow- 
ing requirement concerning the pensioning of Con- 
federate soldiers : 

The Oeneral Assembly is hereby empowered and re- 
quired at its first session after the adoption of this con- 
stitntion to provide such proper and hberal legislation 
a» win guarantee and secure an annual pension to every 
indigent or disabled Confederate soldier and sailor of 
this state and of the late Confederate States who are 
citizens of this state, and also to the indigent widows of 
Confederate soldiers and sailors. 

Article XIV. treats of Eminent Domain; Article 
XV. of Impeachment, and Article XVL of Amend- 
ments and Revisions of the Constitution. The proc- 
ess provided is the adoption of a proposed amend- 
ment by a two-thirds vote of each House of the 
Legislature, and submission to the voters of the 
stole. 

Article XVTL deals with *' Miscellaneous Mat- 
ters," some of which are highly important. 

CX>NCERNINa WOMEN. 

South Carolina has for a long time held a unique 
pontioD as the only State in the Union which refuses 



to grant divorces for any cause whatsoever. It is ex- 
ceedingly interesting to note the fact that the new 
constitution does not alter the state's policy in this 
regard. Marriages between the two races are abso- 
lutely forbidden. The age of consent is fixed at 
fourteen. Married women are accorded full rights of 
property. The sections in which these four rules are 
laid down read as follows : 

Divorce from the bonds of matrimony shall not be 
allowed in this state. 

The marriage of a white person with a negro or mu- 
latto or person who shall have one-eighth or more negro 
blood shall be unlawful and void. 

No unmarried woman shall legally consent to sexual 
intercourse who shall not have attained the age of four- 
teen years. 

llie real and personal property of a woman held at the 
time of her marriage, or that which she may thereafter 
acquire, either by gift, grant, inheritance, device, or 
otherwise, shall be her separate property, and she shall 
have all the rights incident to the same to which an 
unmarried woman or a man is entitled. She shall have 
the power to contract and be contracted with in the 
same manner as if she were unmarried. 

NO LOTTERIES, GAHBLINO OR PRIZE-FIGHTS. 

The South is evidently awake to the requirements 
of an enlightened public sentiment concerning such 
demoralizing spectacles as prize-fights and such 
harmful institutions as lotteries. These two clauses 
are embodied in the new constitution : 

All prize fighting is prohibited in this state, and the 
General Assembly shall provide by proper laws for the 
prevention and punishment of the same. 

No lottery shall ever be allowed or be advertised, by 
newspapers or otherwise, or its tickets be sold in this 
state, and the General Assembly shall provide by law at 
its next session for the enforcement of this provision. 

Much more remarkable, however, than the prohi- 
bition of prize-fighting and lotteries is the following 
section which forbids any public officer to gamble 
or to bet, under penalty of losing his place : 

It shall be unlawful for any person holding an office 
of honor, trust or profit, to engage in gambling or bet- 
ting or games of chance; and any such officer upon con- 
viction thereof shall become thereby disqualified from 
the further exercise of the functions of his office, and 
the office of said person shall become vacant as in the 
case of resignation or death. 

THEI8H ESTABLISHED BT LAW. 

Among other miscellaneous matters comprised in 
Article XVII. of this remarkable constitution, there 
is retained from former constitutions the following 
I>erpetuation of the old-fashioned disabilities deemed 
necessary to protect citizens against atheism : 

No iierson who denies the existence of a Supreme 
Being shall hold any office under this constitution. 

Such provisions, well meant though they be, are 
more likely to provoke doubt in the minds of half 
educated young men of good conscience but un- 
settled convictions, than to promote reverence and 
strengthen faith. 

Albert Shaw. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



CONDITIONS FOR AMERICAN COMMERCIAL AND 
FINANCIAL SUPREMACY. 

THE leading article in the Forum for December is 
on " Conditions for American Commercial and 
Financial Supremacy/' by Paul Leroy-Beaulieu, the 
distinguished French political economist. The first 
section of his article, dealing with state issues of 
paper money, receives a certain timeliness from 
President Cleveland's recommendation in favor of 
withdrawing the greenback from circulation; the 
second section, treating of silver and bimetallism, is 
on a subject never untimely in this country. 

M. Leroy-Beaulieu's point of view appears in his 
opening paragraph: "There is much surprise in 
France and throughout the continent of Europe that 
a nation so great, so rapidly growing, so richly en- 
dowed in character and material resources as is the 
American people, should allow its development to 
be trammeled by frequent and severe crises, and that 
it should either be unable to discern their causes or 
lack decision to remove them from its path. The Eu- 
ropean accustomed to the study of financial phenom- 
ena is struck by two facts peculiar at present to the 
United States: On the one hand, the issue of an enor- 
mous volume of paper money redeemable in specie, 
it is true, by the public treasury; on the other hand, 
the hesitation shown by the American people in ac- 
cording legal monetary pre-eminence to gold, and 
the dreams of bimetallism, national or international, 
in which they indulge." 

WHEN THE ISSUE OF GREENBACKS IS PERMISSIBLE. 

In setting forth his views on these two points M. 
Leroy-Beaulieu is sympathetic, but says plainly what 
he believes to be the truth regarding our financial 
conditions. With reference to the first point he says 
it is not an unusual phenomenon, but rather a common 
practice that a state involve4 in a great war should 
issue, directly or indirectly, considerable amounts 
of paper money. In fact, he regards such a practice 
to be a necessity not to be avoided by a people en- 
gaged in a struggle of vital importance. If a great 
war were again to break out in Europe or elsewhere 
it is more than probable that the belligerents, the 
moment war was declared, would issue large 
amounts of paper money. He points out that Eng- 
land and France, as well as Russia, Austria and Italy, 
have at one time or otner been obliged to create re- 
sources for themselves by the issue of paper money. 
It is so common a practice indeed that M. Leroy- 
Beaulieu has only one exception to cite, and that is 
Prussia in her war against Austria, in 1866, and in 
that against France, in 1870. But while thoroughly 
approving of this method of financing war M. Le- 
roy-Beaulieu cannot give his sanction to the contin- 
uaqce of paper money in circulation after the occa- 



sion for its issue has x)as8ed. He looks upon paper 
money only as a provisional expedient, to be al^- 
doned as soon as possible. This has been the Euro- 
pean practice. England, for instance, immediately 
on the re-establishment of peace in 1815, devoted her- 
self to the suppression of the pai)er money issued to 
meet war expenditures, and France, after the peace 
of 1871, likewise set about to repay to the Bank of 
France the advance made to the government during 
the war. By 1819 there was no trace left of the war 
money in England, and at the present moment in 
France there is no reminder in the French monetary 
system of that frightful confiict with Germany. 

The view taken by England and by France as 
well as other European countries was not adopted 
in the United States after the war of secession. Yet 
the American paper money issues — greenbacks —had 
the same origin as the ^iglish and French issues, 
namely, to secure provisional resources for the treas- 
ury in the time of war, when it was difficult, even 
impossible, to obtain them immediately and of suffi- 
cient amount by public loans. ** The fact seems to 
have been overlooked." says M. Leroy-Beaulieu. 
** that these greenbacks were a temporary expedient 
that ought not to be long continued after peace was 
established. The American Government showed a 
zeal most praiseworthy in itself in reducing its 
bonded debt; but it neglected to redeem its urgent 
floating debt, as in like circumstances had been done 
by the English and French governments. It appears, 
indeed, that at one time the government realized that 
its paper currency ought to be abandoned. If I mis- 
take not, a law of April, 1866, directed its redemp- 
tion in monthly instalments. That was the true 
financial policy, but it was soon abandoned. The 
belief obtained that the situation would be suffi- 
ciently improved and strengthened by the resumption 
of 8x>ecie payments in 1879. This, in my judgment, 
was a great and vital error, the evil influence of 
which has been, and is yet, seriously felt in the en- 
tire monetary and financial situation of the United 
States. A government is ill-fitted and ill-equipped 
to maintain paper money in circulation, even if the 
paper is redeemable in specie. The redemption 
alone is in itself a great trouble and a continual em- 
barrassment.'' 

REGARDING A FIDUCIARY CURRENCY. 

Continuing, the writer has this to say regarding a 
fiduciary currency — ^that is, paper accepted by the 
public with confidence, representing specie, and pay- 
able in specie on demand. ** It must not be a rigid, 
uniform currency. It ought to be elastic and va- 
riable, following the movements of both domestic and 
foreign trade. The means constantly required to 
adapt the fiduciary currency of a country to its 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



73 



changing needs are in part personal, in part material, 
in their nature. By this I mean that on the one 
hand the persons who distribute and direct the fidu- 
ciary currency must have special and rare qualities 
—experience, tact, and nimbleness of mind ; and that, 
on the other hand, these persons must possess certain 
powers and methods for regulating the supply and 
demand of both the fiduciary currency and metallic 
money. 

** Now it is apparent that the government and the 
functionaries who represent the government, and 
who must act by fixed and always identical rules, 
have neither the personal nor material means to keep 
a fiduciary currency flexible, so that it will now 
contract, now expand, and combine in harmony 
with specie, especially gold, and so prevent either 
an excessive and dangerous exportation of gold or 
its exaggerated and sui)erfluous accumulation. It is 
only men used to business and banking from early 
youth, and interested, moreover, in maintaining 
affairs in a healthy condition, who can have suffi- 
cient experience, insight and decision to take the re- 
quired steps at the right time for the increase or re- 
duction of the fiduciary currency according to the 
actual and always changing needs of the country. 
An immovable rigid fiduciary currency is an absurd- 
ity. In the calmest years this currency must vary ac- 
oordinff to seasons and circumstance& ** 

M Leroy-Beaulieu is of the opinion that the 
United States should cease to issue and distribute 
fiduciary money. This task, he sasrs, should be re- 
mitted to the banks. The transition would be easy 
m thf) present state of American credit Either the 
creation of a public bank on the model of the Bank 
of England and the Bank of France, or resort to a 
syndicate of the banks, complying with certain con- 
ditiotts. would be a practical solution. 

SILYEB AND BIMETALLISM. 

The other question discussed by M. Leroy-Beau- 
lieu in this article is that of silver and bimetallism. 
His views on this subject are as pronounced as those 
upon paper money. They are suggested in this sen- 
tence: ** The hesitation shown by so rich a country 
as toe United States to adopt a single gold standard 
and reduce silver to the rank of subordinate or sub- 
sidiary coin is most surprising to Europeans." He 
is therefore a monometallist, and declares that ** the 
United States would have an immense advantage in 
the possession of a solid metallic currency, resting 
on the metal adopted by the chief civilized countries, 
and which by its great value and small volume is 
akme suited to the uses of a rich people. ** 

OOMMXROIAL POSSIBILmBS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

"Placed between Europe and Asia, the United 
States can aspire to take from England, in the course 
of the next century, the commercial and financial 
rapremacy heretofore enjoyed by that country. For 
this triumph it will not suffice to possess in abund- 
ance ooal, iron, cotton, intelligent workmen, and bold 
«kd enterprising employers; it will require equally. 



perhaps indispensably, a monetary system that is 
definite, rational and unchangeable. It is beyond 
dispute that the uninterrupted rigime of the single 
gold standard in England since the beginning of the 
century; the certainty that gold can always be pro- 
cured in London; the security and precision result- 
ing for every bill of exchange on London and for all 
British engagements — all these conditions flowing 
from the monetary system of Great Britain have 
contributed in a marked degree to assure to that 
country its financial hegemony. At the present 
moment throughout Europe, and even in France, 
prudent people try to have a part of their fortune in 
pounds sterling, because it is known that pounds 
sterling are the only true money, that is to say, 
money that is not exposed to change by new legal ar- 
rangements. It is not known exactly what the dollar 
will be, or the mark, or even the franc. The whims 
of legislators may change them in the future, as they 
have changed them in the past. On the contrary 
there is a rooted confidence among men engaged in 
finance the world over that the pound sterling will 
always be a piece of gold of 7 grammes and 988 miUi- 
gnunmes, 916.66 fine, and that England will never 
commit the blunder of putting gold and silver on 
the same footing as money. Thus the pound ster- 
ling, all the world through, especially when long 
contracts are to be made, is not only the money par 
excellence ; it is the only money, and in it alone can 
be placed almost absolute confidence. 

GIVE THE DOLLAR THE QUALITIES OF THE POUND 
STERLING. 

'* If the United States are to attain a commercial, 
and still more a financial position equal to that of 
England, the dollar must be given the qualities of 
tue pound sterling; that is, there must be no sort of 
doubt that it is a gold dollar, and that never for any 
reason or under any pretext that which is caUed a 
dollar shall be paid in silver. Then all nations will 
have the same faith in the dollar that they have in 
the pound sterling. As the United States have a 
territory infinitely more vast than that of England, 
a territory full of the most varied resources and in 
which capital can find great opportunities of profit, 
that country will become the chosen land for the 
capital of the whole world. The old nations, with 
narrow territory already almost completely in use, 
such as (besides Great Britain) France, Belgitmi, 
Switzerland, and recently G^ermany- -all these stren- 
uous producers of savings that they no longer know 
how to employ will direct their overflowing capital 
toward the United States. All that is lacking is a 
completely solid monetary system to enable the 
American people to profit by a large part of the cap- 
ital accumulated in such enormous quantities by the 
old nations of Europe. " 

He attributes the faU of prices during the last 
quarter century not, of course, to the proscription of 
silver by the monetary legislation of the principal 
European nations, as is held by the bimetaUists and 
silver agitators, but to the considerable increase in 



74 



THE RE^IEiy OF REI//EIVS. 



the production of most commodities and the progress 
in industrial methods, and in the application of 
science to this production. This is the real cause of 
the decline in prices, he says, and it is chimerical to 
hope to raise them artificially. He declares that the 
bimetallist agitation has less chance of accomplish- 
ing anything to-day than it had four or ten or fifteen 
years ago, for the reason that most of the great 
countries have accustomed themselves to the single 
gold standard, established either by law or practice. 
He makes the sweeping statement that there is not 
a single European country in a normal financial con- 
dition that attaches the slightest importance to bi- 
metallism. From time to time some minister utters 
in Parliament a few equivocal words on the subject 
seeking to avoid stripping the bimetallists absolutely 
of all hope. M. Leroy-Beaulieu warns America not 
to be duped by these ambiguous expressions. '* At 
bottom, not a country, not a government of Europe 
has the least wish to make the least change in the 
established monetary system — that is, in the pre- 
eminence of gold and tfie secondary and circum- 
scribed function of silver." 

THE SURE ROAD. 

He considers that there is but one course worthy 
of a great nation like the United States. '* It is not 
to persist in trying to rehabilitate silver; it is defi- 
nitely to recognize the pre-eminence of gold, and to 
make of this metal the sole keystone of the American 
monetary system. Silver will never be anything but 
subsidiary money for the Western nations. The 
United States Treasury will without doubt lose a 
part of the sums it has so imprudently sunk in the 
purchase of silver. But this loss is of no importance 
for so rich and progressive a people ; it is of no con- 
sequence compared with the solidity the gold stand- 
ard will give to the American monetary system and 
American credit." 



THE SECRET OF ENGLAND'S GREATNESS. 

MR. A. J. WILSON thus expounds the secret of 
England's greatness in the December ntmiber 
of the Investors' Review : ** But although wars 
founded our dominion, it has not been sustained by 
war, nor is its greatest attribute that of conquest 
with arms in hand. England is great to-day because 
she has cultivated the arts of peace, and filled the 
world with the products of her industry. Splendid, 
nay heroic, as our people's qualities are, the finest 
genius of the race is not expressed in the successful 
warrior, but in the inventor and handicraftsman, by 
whose perseverance, ingenuity and toil we have 
risen to an unrivaled i)osition as leader in that peace- 
ful exchange of commodities between nation and 
nation by means of which the whole world has been 
made happier and the lot of humanity immeasurably 
changed for the better. Our true imperial domina- 
tion is expressed in the figures of our foreign com- 



merce, is seen in the millions upon millions of tons 
of our shipping engaged in circulating the products 
of our industry and of that of every people under 
the sun. Ours is an empire of barter and exchange 
of commodities ; and we have done more to spread 
the benefits of civilization in the world, to lift man- 
kind in all parts of the earth out of the dead uni- 
formity of uncivilized routine, than any great 
nation the world ever saw before." 



THE "GERMAN VOTE" AND THE PARTIES. 

IN the Forum for January that great class cf 
Americans who at our elections cast what is 
called the ** German vote " get a sympathetic hear- 
ing. Their advocate is Mr. Frederick William 
Holls, a prominent member of the New York bar, 
and himself of German descent. Mr. Holls writes 
from the point of view of a Republican, and has no 
apology to offer for eo doing. He discusses his sub- 
ject apropos of the recent election in New York 
State, where the German Americans held the bal- 
ance of power, his article on the whole being the 
strongest argument against the literal interpretation 
and strict enforcement of so called '' blue laws " 
that has appeared in any of the periodicals during 
the last few years. It must compel wide attention. 

In the overthrow of Tammany in 1804 the German 
Americans had borne a conspicuous part; but in the 
political contest last November the great body of 
them supported the regular Democratic ticket This 
change of front is explained by Mr. Holls : 

" On May 6, 1895, the new Police Ck>mmis8ion, 
bi-partisan by law, was completed, and once more 
the poHce force of New York was controlled by men 
of the highest charater and standing in the com- 
munity. Among the problems which confronted the 
new Commission none seemed more difficult in some 
respects, and in others so simple, as that of the sup- 
pression or tolerance of open saloons and beer-gar- 
dens on Sunday. The letter of the law was perfectly 
clear, and it is a great mistake to suppose that it 
was entirely ignored in the Tammany rigime. On 
the contrary, though considered obsolete by the pub- 
lic at large, i1;s occasional enforcement was the most 
potent weapon for blackmail in the hands of the 
corrupt Tammany police force. The publican who 
paid tribute to his captain or roundsman was left 
unmolested, whereas his poorer or more refractory 
competitor was beset by spies in the shape of police 
men in citizens' clothes, or paid hirelings and stool- 
pigeons, who first caused him to commit the offense 
of selling them liquors and then ruthlessly dragged 
him before a Tammany police justice, where his re- 
sistance to regular blackmail was speedily broken. 
A more infamous system of oppression, and a more 
criminal prostitution of governmental power it is 
difficult to imagine ; but perhaps its most vicious 
feature was the introduction, into the administra- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



76 



tioQ of petty criminal law in this city, of the system 
of ^ee and agents provocateurs. While no reason- 
able man can deny the necessity for the employment 
of detectives in the case of crimes and felonies which 
are dangerons to the pablic weal, their use for the 
purpose of detecting violations of mere police ordi- 
nances or administrative regr^lations has always 
been regarded as wrong and demoralizing to the last 
degree. More infamous still are the practices of 
sworn officers of the law resorting to mendacity and 
deceit to persuade barkeepers to break the law for 
the porpose of making arrests, and the hiring of ont- 
aders with public money at an agreed sum for eacn 
arrest and a higher sxmi for each conviction. In no 
branch of the law has the difference between mala 
in se and mala prohUnta been more carefully pointed 
out than in that branch of administrative law which 
treats of permissible methods for the prevention and 
detection of crime ; and in no branch of administra- 
tion is the maxim more dangerous than 'the end 
justifies the means.' The older class of emigrants 
from continental Europe are perfectly familiar with 
the outrages committed by the police, using similar 
methods, with reference to political offenses, and 
consequently, among Americans of German biith, 
the hostility to the spy system, with its attendant 
scandals, is peculiarly deep-seated." 

UNPOPULAHITY OF SUNDAY RAIDS. 

"From the point of view of the liberal-minded 
American, and more especially the one of German 
hirth or descent, ifke New York Sunday raids were 
therefore utterly unjustifiable ; and that the politi- 
cal effect would be far-reaching was soon evident. 
The danger that the cause of municipal reform 
would be confounded with the Sunday raid became 
apparent, and it is a significant fact that no political 
convention for the nomination of candidates for the 
city election openly indorsed the new policy. A 
change in the law was demanded by all, and it was 
perectly understood that that change should be in 
the direction of liberality, although a referendum on 
tiie maintenance of the present policy was perhaps 
most frequently advocated. 

"When the so-called 'Fusion' ticket against 
Tammany was nominated, great care was taken to 
avoid any indorsement of the course of the Police 
Commissioners, and it was hoped that under these 
cricumstances the G^erman- American friends of good 
government might be induced to defeat Tammany 
once more. These hopes were doomed to disappoint- 
ment, and although it was known that great bitter- 
ness of feeling existed against the new policy, the 
formal indorsement of Tammany Hall by the Ger- 
man-American Reform Union came as a clap of 
thunder out of a dear sky to all who had counted 
upon continued assistance from that quarter in the 
struggle for purer city government. It may be said 
with truth that no greater blow to the prestige of 
German- Americans as friends of good government 



under all circumstances has ever been dealt. From 
the point of view of practical politics it was a 
blunder worse than a crime, for by it the German- 
Americans ran into the danger of almost, if not 
quite, losing the sympathy of the one great political 
body which, had the power as well as the inclina- 
tion to modify the law in a liberal sense,— the great 
body of liberal-minded Republicans It made all 
the friends of German ideals of freedom and social 
progress grieve, and furnished their detractors with 
the most available catch- words and arguments. Ac- 
cordingly on the platform and in the press, * beer, ' 
'Sunday beer,' the *beer and delicatessen party,' 
and similar terms, were freely applied to the aims 
and principles of that entire section of the commu- 
nity which in truth, at this particular juncture, 
represented truly American ideals at least as faith- 
fully as any other. It was hard to blame any one 
for thinking that the larger portion, at least, of the 
German- Americans set the enjoyment of their Sun- 
day beer above their regard for law and order and 
for decency in local government ; and yet it would 
be rank injustice to the gn^eat mass of Ger- 
man-Americans in New York City to assert this 
view.' 

The great fact remains that the platform of the 
Fusionists, while it did not indorse the Sunday raid 
and the spy system, failed to condemn them as vig- 
orously as many German- Americans— to whom the 
whole question was one of principle— condenmed 
them in their own minds. The desire for complete 
harmony of thought and action, to which allusion 
has been made before, was therefore not gratified to 
its fullest extent by a vote for the Fusion ticket. On 
the other hand, many conscientions voters believed 
that a Tanmiany victory this year, when the offices 
to be filled were few and comparatively unimportant, 
with the practical assurance of further Tammany 
victories to come provided the obnoxious and un- 
justifiable administrative policy was continued, 
would do more to clear the atmosphere and to 
insure a modification of the law than anything else 
which could happen. " 

THE MISTAKE OP THE PtJSIONISTS, 

« Had the great mass of German voters in New 
York City been convinced that a vote for the Fusion 
ticket did not mean and would not be interpreted 
as an indorsement of the weekly saloon raid, with 
its attendant features of spies and informers, their 
votes would have defeated Tammany as decidedly 
as in 1894. It was the fatal weakness of the rival 
organization and its leaders that they did not with 
sufficient emphasis condemn the administrative 
blundering of which the deplorable situation of the 
last campaign was only the inevitable result. Thus 
an impression of disingenuousness — unjust but real 
— ^was created, which even the noble and eloquent 
aiypeals of Mr. Carl Schurs could not wholly re- 
mova" 



76 



THE REI/IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



MR. ROOSEVELT ON CIVIC DUTIES. 

IN the Outlook's "magazine number/' dated De- 
cember 21. Mr. Theodore Roosevelt signs the first 
of a series of sketches by different authorities on 
the general subject of " The Higher Life of Ameri- 
can Citiea" The President of the Police Commis- 
sion begins by talking straight out from the shoulder 
about the duty and necessity of working hard, and 
in the thick of the fight, if one wants to add any- 
thing appreciable to the statues of our urban life. 

DILBTTANTEISM CX)UNTS LITTLE IN REFORM. 

** To sit at home, read one's favorite paper and 
scoff at the misdeeds of the men who do things is 
easy, but is markedly ineffective. It is what evil 
men count upon the good men's doing ; and hitherto 
there has been this justification for such a belief 
among bad men— namely, that as a rule the cor- 
rupt men have been perfectly content to let their 
opponents monopolize all the virtue, while they 
themselves have been permitted to monopolize all 
the efficiency. Rather than sit at home alone and 
do nothing, it is better that the friend of decent 
government should go out and meet other men who 
think as be does and combine with them ; but let 
him remember here also, that though occasionally 
good is done when two or three hundred excellent 
gentlemen of .refined tastes meet in a parlor and 
listen to papers on city government, yet this is not 
in itself by any means sufficient. We need such 
work, and real good is accomplished by doing it ; 
but it is ineffective if not supplemented by work of 
an entirely different kind. The man who in the 
long run will count for most in bettering municipal 
life is the man who actually steps down into the 
hurly burly, who is not frightened by the sweat and 
the blood and the blows of friends and foes ; who 
' haunts not the fringy edges of the fight, but the 
pellmell of men.' He must meet foes as well as 
friends, and, above all, he must get accustomed to 
acting with men who may be persuaded to work 
with him for a common object, but whose ideas are 
not identical with his own." 

OUR POUTICAL DUTIBS CX>ME FIRST. 

Mr. Roosevelt runs over the wide field in which 
real earnest, hand-to-hand work can make the at- 
mosphere of our city life finer and purer, and 
quickly gets all the rest of them off his hands to con- 
centrate on those civic duties that we should natu- 
rally expect would appeal to him most strongly. 

'* At least it can be said that there is greater room 
for reform in our political life than almost any- 
where else. There are shortcomings enough and to 
spare on all sides ; but compared to the proper 
standard we fall further below in politics than in 
almost any other branch of our life or labor. 
Moreover, political life is something in which every 
man, indeed every woman, should take an active 
and intelligent interest. There is no other reform 



for which the entire x)opulation should work or 
indeed could work ; but every man, worth being 
an American citizen at all, is bound if he does liis 
duty to try to do his part in politics. The life of 
the home, the man's relation as husband and father, 
the woman's as wife and mother —these are all tb at 
should come before our political life. In the long 
run no amount of material prosperity, no comnaer. 
cial success, can atone for the debasement of public 
life, for the lowering of political ideals. " 

We have recently at various times had oppor- 
tunities to present to our readers Mr. Roosevelt^s 
honest and emphatic views on what should be, as 
he says, the elementary truths of political life and 
management— the necessity of having officials who 
are not venial and who will insist on carrying out 
the laws they pretend to work under. Of the late 
campaign in New York City Mr. Roosevelt says : 

THE VAXUE OF OOMBINATION IN POLITIOS. 

*' It would be difficult to wish a more excellent 
object lesson upon the need of what may be called 
' team- play ' in politics. There must be some loyalty 
and some organization among good men, or they are 
at the mercy of the bad. It is impossible that a 
thousand intelligent men can ever nominate a ticket 
every name on which will be acceptable to every- 
one of the thousand men. But, if they are going to 
accomplish anything, they have got to support the 
ticket solidly. It is very necessary that the man- 
agers of the machine should understand that decent 
men will not tolerate dishonest action on their part, 
and stand ready to bolt any ticket if such action is 
rendered necessary by considerations of decency and 
morality. It is no less necessary, however, that it 
should be understood that this action of bolting is 
not normal, but is*to be resorted to only when fully 
justified : and this applies quite as much to bolting 
a fusion ticket representing the best thought of the 
decent men of both parties as to bolting a regular 
party ticket in state or national affaira In every 
case where a man bolts he does a certain amount of 
damage, if only by weakening his influence for good 
with the organization which he leaves, and he should 
always consider this and make up his mind whether 
the amount of good he does in some given case will 
or will not be outweighed by the impending eviL 
As a matter of fact, he will find that circumstances 
continually arise in which the conflicting elements 
have different weight, so that it would be right for 
him to bolt at one time and wrong for him to bolt at 
another. In the present instance serious harm was 
done, and, so far as any unprejudiced observer can 
see, not a particle of good accomplished. Many Re- 
publicans and Democrats who were reluctant to enter 
into any combination with one another found their 
views strengthened, and it mil be a difficult matter 
to prevent them from ruiLoing straight tickets in 
the future. If they do run such straight tickets the 
fault win rest primarily with those who bailed to 
support the fusion ticket this year." 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



77 



EXPLORING THE ANTARCTIC CONTINENT. 

A CAPITAL feature of the January Century is 
C. E. Borchgrevink*s account of ** The F j«t 
Landing on the Antarctic Continent. ' ' In the fall of 
1894 the Antarctic, a bark of 820 tons and an en- 
gine which could achieve the thrilling speed of five 
knots an hour, sailed from Melbourne toward the 
South Pole in search of the right whale, and Mr. 
Borchgrevink joined the expedition as the represent- 
ative of the Royal G^eographical Society of Victoria. 

COLOR OF ANTARCTIC BIRDS. 

The expedition proceeded by way of Campbell Is- 
land and Stewart Island^ from which point the bark 
safled with fresh hands on November 18. '* It was 
remarkable/' the writer says, *'to see how the 
plumage of the birds gradually changed into lighter 
and lighter colors as we drew southward, altering 
with the colors of the surroundings. Whether the 
birds, like the polar hare, also changed their color 
with the seasons, I had not ^ opportunity to notice ; 
but it is clear that within the Antarctic Circle also 
Mother Nature takes care of all her children, and 
protects the defenseless from the eye of their larger 
enemies by giving them an invisible clothing. It 
was thus almost imi>06sible to discover the magnif- 
icent white petrel when it was on the dazzling 
8DOW. It was likewise difficult to discover the white 
seal when it stretched itself on the ice-fioes. 

THE OUTLOOK FROM THE CROW'S NEST. 

** On December 7 1 sighted the edge of the ice-pack 
from the crowds nest, and shot my first seal, which 
was of the white kind, its skin being injured by 
several deep scratches. It was cold up in the white 
cask on the maintop that morning. Before us were 
the ice-fields, with the strong ice-blink in the air 
above us; and as we drew near to the edge the 
mow-white petrels became more and more numer- 
oua They are of the size of an ordinary pigeon, 
but much more graceful Their large eyes are deep 
black, as are also their bold, curved beak and their 
elegant webbed feet They seemed almost trans- 
parent as with spread, quiet wings they soared in the 
air about the crow's nest, where I was hanging on 
to one end of a large telescope heavy enough to lift 
me in seesaw fashion far out of the nest every time 
Ilet it glide too far out over the upper edge of the 
barreL Like the pricking of pins the snow crystals 
blew against my face, and I had continually to dry 
the telescope glasses with my woolen mittens, as the 
vapor from my breath settled on the lenses in num- 
beriesB crystals and formed an extra sheet of glass. 
But they were glorious, those hours on the lookout ! 
The air was generally clear, and the human eye 
oould see. even from the deck, great distances 
within those southern latitudes. Only from the 
crow's nest can one fully appreciate the supernatural 
charm of Antarctic scenery. Up there you seem 
liftod above the pettiness and troubles of every-day 
Hfe. Tour horizon is wide, and from your high 
position you rule the little world below you. On- 
ward, onward stretch the ice-fields, the narrow 



channels about the ship are opened and closed again 
by current and wind, and as you strain your sight 
to the utmost to find the best places for the vessel 
to penetrate, your eyes wander from the ship's bow 
out toward the horizon, where fioes and channels 
seem to form one dense, vast ice-field. Ice and snow 
cover spars and ropes, and everywhere are perfect 
peace and silence. 

** We always observed the white, shining refiec- 
tion of the ice-fields in the air, and we were thus 
warned from afar even of the presence of a narrow 
stream of ice or an iceberg. This ice-blink and the 
presence of the white petrel never deceived us.*' 

PECUUAR MARKS ON THE SEAL8. 

** We shot several seals, but seldom saw more 
than one or two together, and never more than seven. 
Most of them had scars and scratches on their sMns. 
Sir James Ross noticed similar wounds, and supposed 
that they had been inflicted by the large tusks with 
which tiie sea- leopards are provided. My opinion, 
however, is that these scars must be traced to an 
enemy of a different species from the seal. The 
wounds are not like the ordinary wounds inflicted 
by a tusk. Varying from two to twenty inches in 
length, they are straight and narrow; and where 
several of them were together on one animal, they 
were too far apart to be produced by the ntmierous 
sharp teeth of the seal That this unknown and 
destructive enemy of the seal in those waters is of a 
superior and more dangerous kind than the seals 
themselves I conclude from the fact that the 
wounded seals never had any scars about their heads 
and necks, which undoubtedly would have been the 
case if battles had been fought among themselves. 
That the grampus, or swordfish, is doing mischief 
down there I do not doubt; but 1 feel just as sure 
that of the seals we shot but few received their scars 
from the sword of the grampus or from the tusks of 
other seals. If my opinion holds good, it may serve 
as an explanation of the strange scarcity of the seals 
in regions where one would think that tiiese animals 
would be found in abundance. 

THE FIRST LANDING ON THE ANTARCTIC CONTINENT. 

** On the 2dd we were again at Cape Adare, and 
the coast-line presented a most original and mag- 
nificent aspect, the huge snow-capped peaks shining 
and glittering with singular whiteness and beauty 
in the glorious light of the sun of noon and midnight. 

** Icebergs of large size were everywhere to be 
seen, and showed distinctly whether they were 
broken from the big barrier or discharged from the 
glaciers on Victoria Land Like fairy palaces were 
these masterpieces of nature floating about, so clean, 
so pure that the eye of mortal man seemed unworthy 
of such beauty — beautiful beyond description, terri- 
ble in their gigantic majesty, the crystals of their 
walls glittering in the sun, while caves and arches 
were half hidden in a mist of azure blue, and about 
them the ocean, roaring sometimes with great fury, 
threw waves far up against their i)erpendicular 
sides, to fall back again in clouds of foam. 



78 



THE REI^IHIV OF REI^IEIVS, 



** We landed at Cape Adare that night, being the 
first human creatures to pat foot on the mainland. 
A peculiar feeling of fascination crept over each of 
us, even to the most prosaic natures in our boat, as 
we gradually drew near to the beach of this un- 
known land. Some few cakes of ice were floating 
about, and looking over the side of the boat I even 
discovered a jelly-fish, apparently of the common 
light blue, transparent kind. I do not know 
whether it was to catch the jelly-fish or from a 
strong desire to be the first man to put foot on this 
terra incognita, but as soon as the order was given 
to stop pulling the oars, I jumped over the side of 
the boat. I thus killed two birds with one stone, 
being the first man on shore, and relieving the boat 
of my weight, thus enabling her to approach land 
near enough to let the captain jump ashore dry- 
shod. '» 

ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION OP THE FUTURE. 

Concerning the expeditions which will undoubt- 
edly penetrate into this terra incognita, Mr. Borch- 
grevinksays: 

** I believe that Cape Adare is the very place where 
a future scientific expedition might safely stop even 
during the winter months. From the spot where 
we were several accessible spurs lead up to the top 
of the cape, and from there a gentle slope runs on 
to the great plateau of Victoria Land. The presence 
of the penguin colony, their undisturbed old nests, 
the api)earance of dead seals, which were preserved 
in Egyptian mummies and must have lain there for 
years, the vegetation of the rocks, and lastly the fiat 
table of the cape above, all indicated that here is a 
place where the powers of the Antarctic Circle do 
not display the whole severity of their forces. 
Neither ice nor volcanoes seemed to have raged on 
the peninsula at Cape Adare, and I strongly recom- 
mend a future scientific expedition to choose that 
place as a centre of operations. On this particular 
spot there is ample space for house, tents and pro- 
visions. 

** I myself am willing to be the leader of a party 
to be landed either on the pack or on the mainland 
near Colman Island. From there it is my scheme 
to work toward the south magnetic pole, calculated 
to be in latitude TS** 5', longitude 150* E. Should 
the party succeed in penetrating so far into the con- 
tinent, the course should, if possible, be laid for 
Cape Adare, there to join the main body of the ex- 
pedition. As to the zoological results of future 
researches, I expect great discoveries. It would in- 
deed be remarkable if on the unexplored Victoria 
continent, which probably extends over an area of 
4,000,000 square miles, there should not be found 
animal life hitherto unknown in the Southern hem- 
isphere. It is of course a possibility that the un- 
known land around the axis of rotation might be 
found to consist of islands joined only by perpetual 
ice and snow; but the appearance of the land, the 
color of the water, with its soundings, in addition 
to the movements of the Antarctic ice, point to the 



existence of a mass of land much more extensive 
than a mere group of islands.'' 

COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES. 

Mr. Borchgrevink's descriptions of the intensely in- 
teresting animal life, and the superb phenomena of 
almosphere and water, would be well worth quoting: 
if we had more space to devote to this really impor- 
tant expedition. Considered from a commercial 
point of view he regards it as a failure, ** because 
we did not find the right whale, so valuable for its 
whalebone. The Antarctic was fitted out for the 
hunt of that particular kind of whale; nevertheless 
I have no doubt that the commercial result of the 
expedition would have been much better had we 
worked under more favorable auspices. 

'* I do not by any means consider the fact of our 
not having met with the right whale in those seas 
as conclusive proof of their non-existence in the bay 
at Victoria Land. The Antarctic found the ri^ht 
whale at Campbell Island in the winter-time; the 
boats fastened to five of them, of which, however, 
only one was caught. Now, to me it does not seem 
improbable that these whales go south to the bay of 
Victoria Land, where Ross saw them, in the sum- 
mer, and return north in the winter. It would seem 
incredible that a man of Sir James Ross' standing, 
supported as he was by able scientists and expe- 
rienced whalers, should have made a grave error 
when he said that this valuable whale was to be 
found in large numbers in those southern latitudes. 

"The difference in the appearance of the blue 
whale, as we found it there, and the right whale in 
the method of spouting is so striking that even the 
most casual observer could not easily be deceived. 
Very possibly, had we peneti*ated further into the 
large open bay discovered by Ross in ^he vicinity of 
the volcanic peaks Erebus and Terror, we too would 
have found the right whale in great numbers. W© 
saw very many blue whales, but had not the appli- 
ances to take them. 

*' As I remarked at the International Geographical 
Congress, we found few seals. They increased, how- 
ever, in ntmiber as we worked eastward, and seemed 
afraid of the land. All of the seals that we met 
on the shore showed much uneasiness, and speedily 
made for the water, a fact which strengthened my 
belief in the existence of a large enemy of the seal 
on the continent. I do not doubt that the seals con- 
gregate together in larger numbers at some places 
on the bay. 

*' I consider the guano-beds which we discovered 
of great commercial importance, and they ought to 
be well worth the attention of enterprising business 
men. The specimen which 1 brought back with me 
contains a large percentage of ammonia. 

" Furthermore, from the analysis of the specimens 
of rock which I brought back with me, the possible 
and probable presence of valuable minerals on the 
continent is proved, although the lava and the vol- 
canic aspect of the coast-line do not speak favorably 
for the presence of heavy metals near the surface. " 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



7» 



THE AIR CAR. 
The Latest Rival of the Balloon. 

IN the National Review for December Lieut. B. 
Baden Powell expounds his patent plan for en- 
abling men to ascend into the air. He says he has 
been up with it 400 feet high, and if this can be done 
aB he describes it, kite-flying will soon become a 
recognized branch of military strategy. Here is his 
description of his machine: 

ITS MECHANISM. 

"" The latest machine consists of a varying number 
( usually four to six) of sails, of a flattened hexagonal 
shape, looking not xmlike the square sails of a ship. 
These are connected, one behind the other, to the 
ground line, from which latter is suspended a basket 
car. A parachute is spread out above the car in case 
of accident. The number of kites used depends 
upon the strength of the wind, and thus, the stronger 
the pressure, the less is the area presented, so that 
the strain on the retaining ropes is always about the 
same. This apparatus has now been tried on a num- 
ber of occasions and under many different circum- 
stances of weather, and although through lack of 
wind, or rather insufficiency of kite-power, it has oc- 
casionally not lifted as well as I should have liked, 
and frequent mishaps, the results of inexperience, 
hare occurred, yet on the whole it has behaved very 
well, and has generally carried its man easily and 
steadily to a considerable height. I have myself 
been lifted over a hundred feet high, and had I not 
be^ firmly held down by a rope I might have risen 
much higher. Never once have I experienced the 
least uncomfortable motion. When the car has been 
let op to the full extent of the rope, equivalent to a 
height of some 400 feet, it has invariably floated 
steadily and welL 

*' Now this machine packs up into two bundles, 
twelve feet long, and a small basket of ropes, each 
ol which can be easily carried by one man. A very 
few minutes are required to uni)ack and set up the 
apparatus. The whole i>araphemalia, including all 
ropes, canvas, poles, basket, spare gear and covers, 
actually weighs but 110 pounds, and I have no doubt 
but that this weight might, if necessary, be consider- 
ably diminished. 

** MODUS OPERANDL" 

*'Ttie machine is started thus. The kites are 
opened out and laid on the ground and connected 
together. The main ground line is attached, and 
the car, with its parachute, is fixed in place. The 
pilot kite is let up to its full height, so that one is 
enabled to judge by its pull of the strength of the 
wind. Its Ihie then being attached to the next kite, 
the whole system is carried aloft, each kite ' draw- 
ing * as it gets clear of the ground, the car being 
held down. The aeronaut then gets into the basket 
and the * regulator line ' is pulled taut, which causes 
the kites to bring their full power into play, and the 
whole thing rises, lifting the car straight up. By 
I of the regulator, of which the man in the car 



has control, the ascent can be graduated to a nicety, 
so that at any moment he can lower himself, quickly 
or slowly, to the ground again. It is a beautiful 
motion, this floating in midair, and the ability to 
regulate the ascent gives great confidence; a factor 
decidedly wanting in a balloon, when you rise right 
up without being able to stop or descend, except with 
the assistance of those below. 

ITS SERVICEABILITY. 

** On the whole, then, though not yet quite per- 
fected, I think we may say that sufficient evidenco 
has been gained to show that, with a very little im- 
provement the invention should undoubtedly prove 
serviceable. It thus becomes difficult to foresee 
what limits can be put to the use of an apparatus 
which might be made so light that each man could 
almost carry on his own back an atrial coracle to lift 
him high above the heads of his enemy. The trans- 
port of a balloon section is composed of six wagons, 
which, if loaded with air-cars instead, could carry 
enough apparatus to lift 150 men I There is no 
reason why a rope a couple of miles long should not 
be used; and if only the wind blows in the right 
direction, or it a point to windward can be attained, 
a position may be taken up right over the enemy's 
heads whence explosives can be dropped on desirable 
spots. 

*' Besides these, there are innumerable other uses^ 
some minor, some important, to which it may be ap- 
plied. Not only is it the army which may be as- 
sisted. At sea, where the wind is usually steadier, 
and where there are neither trees nor buildings to 
interfere with the lines, there is, I believe, a great 
scope for the air-car. Floating high above a man- 
of-war (by which it might be towed in calms)*, a dis- 
tant view could be obtained, in which the enemy*s 
ships could be descried at vast distances. And during 
an action is it not too much to suppose that the ma- 
chine might be floated over a hostile vessel to dis- 
charge a torpedo from above ? 

** Turning now to more peaceable ideas. As a 
means of rescue from shipwreck a kite has often 
been suggested, but seldom utilized. A simplified 
air- car could be stowed away with the greatest of 
ease on the deck of any ship, and might prove of 
supreme importance in case of disaster.^' 



THE BODY AS A WATER-ENGINE. 

IN Longman's Magazine for December Sir Ben- 
jamin Ward Richardson reprints the address 
which he delivered to the National Temperance 
League on the ** Physical Foundations of Temper- 
ance.'* This is his own summary of his paper: 

*' 1. That the body as an engine of life is a water- 
engine, and was never intended to be worked at the 
temperature provided for it by any other fluid than 
water. 2. That from a purely physical point of 
view alcohol is too light a fluid for the purpose. 8. 
That alcohol contains an element, carbon, which is 



80 



THE REI^IEIV OF REl^IEH^S. 



not wanted for the natural part water plays in the 
living creation. 4 That by well diluting alcohol it 
may, as indeed is too often seen, make a kind of liv- 
ing world, but that such a world is one having two 
leading false qualities, a shortly-endowed bodily 
mechanism and an idiot*s mind, neither of which 
objects is of the selection and manifestation made 
for us by the Giver of Life." 



LfeSE-MAJESTfe OR MADCAP WILLIAM? 
Liberty of the Press in Germany. 

A FEW weeks ago, when the murder of a manu- 
facturer by a man said to hold anarchist opin- 
ions was reported from Alsace-Lorraine, the Q^rman 
Emperor, in a telegram to the governor, commented 
as follows on the case: ** Another victim of the rev- 
olutionary agitation fanned by the socialists ! If 
only the German nation would bestir itself ! " What 
the Emperor wished his people to do is not quite 
clear; but it is evident that he ascribed the blame 
for the murder to the social democrats, and that 
his telegram fanned the Q^rman police into bestir- 
ring themselves to institute prosecutions for any 
utterances in speeches or in the press which might 
by any possible means be construed into Uae^majesti 
or high treason. So far *' this father of his people. " 

AWAY WITH SOCIAL DEMOCRACY ! 

Since the Breslau Congress was held the prosecu- 
tions for Uae-majesti bid fair to beat the remarkable 
record of the previous year. In the month of Octo- 
ber the fines amounted to 2,941 marks($735), and the 
imprisonments to ten years and one month. In No- 
vember the convictions have been equally numerous 
and severe— and equally absurd. Herr Liebknecht, 
for instance, has been sentenced to four months* im- 
prisonment for some utterance in his inaugural ad- 
dress at the congress. He took care not to mention 
the Emperor at all, therefore his judge decided that 
his hearers might take his remarks as allusions to 
the Emperor, and it was in the possible meaning 
which others might attribute to his words that lay 
UsemajesU. Such a view to take of a speech may 
well be alarming. Next we may expect absolute si- 
lence to be construed into lise-majesU, and there will 
be an end to freedom of silence as well as of speech 
imder the rule of the young madcap on the throne. 
Herr Liebknecht, who is about seventy, has suffered 
so many terms of imprisonment for his opinions that 
he may at least join St Paul with ** In prisons more 
frequent." 

THE ** PREUSSISCHE JAHRBUCHER. ' * 

More childish still is the prosecution of Dr. Hans 
Delbrtick, the editor of the Preussische JahrbUcher. 
In the October number of his review, in an article 
entitled " The True and the False Cartell,'* he com- 
mented as usual on the political situation in Ger- 
many. About a month after his remarks were sud- 
denly alleged to be insults to the political police, and 



he has been summoned to appear before the tribunal 
whose conduct he ventured to criticise. Under these 
circumstances it is interesting to return to the arti- 
cle and discover, if possible, which are the offend- 
ing passages. 

RIDICULOUS ATTITUDE OP GOVERNMENT. 

Dr. Delbrftck considers that the government lacks 
both decision and courage. Last year it made itself 
ridiculous by its anti-revolutionary campaign, and 
the only party which reaped any advantage was the 
social democracy. This mistake is now being re- 
peated when there is absolutely no danger of violence 
on the part of the socialists. Are not the German 
Empire and the army to be depended upon ? Those 
who think otherwise can only be cowards or traitors 
or fools. 

Repressive measures are not needed. What use is 
it to prohibit a few meetings, confiscate a few jour- 
nals, or prosecute a few editors who may be acquit- 
ted, or at best achieve cheap martyrdoms ? Social 
democracy only laughs at such weakness, and intel- 
ligent people shrug their shoulders. 

The German socialists include not only socialists 
and revolutionists with convictions, but a large 
number of orderly skilled workmen, who only join 
the party because they feel that the social- conditions 
and legislation in Germany do them grievous wrong. 
In many ways it must be admitted German legisla- 
tion has done much for the working classes, but there 
are still departments of social life in which Germany 
is far behind other countries. 

In Prussia the great mass of the people is unrepre- 
sented in Parliament, not because they have not the 
franchise, but because they are practically prevented 
from exercising it freely. There is need for reform 
here, but a law that will enable workmen to form 
organizations is even more urgent. The present un- 
worthy police restrictions are an insult to honest 
men, and it is from the discontented mood thus 
aroused in the people that social democracy derives 
its life blood. 

AN EDITOR'S REJOINDERa 

Dr. Delbrfick continues his criticisms in the No- 
vember number, but his article on the treatment of 
the social democrats was already in print when he 
received the summons which has roused almost the 
whole European press into indignation at the high- 
handed conduct of the German police. Meanwhile, 
Dr. Delbrfick learns that his case is not a conflict 
with the political police, but with the police; but he 
is in no way intimidated by the probabihty of pun- 
ishment hanging over him, and in the December 
number of his review he is even more outspoken 
about the blundering policy that has been adopted. 

He puts all blame on Herr von Koller. the Min- 
ister of the Interior, and the Chief of the Police, and 
thinks that but for their stupidity the nation would 
have responded heartily enough to the Emperor's ap- 
peal If only there was method in their madness ! 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



81 



THE TOILERS' PARADISE. 

What New Zealand is Doln^ for Labor. 

WUIa I write these wordu the fan and long glores of onr 
" general servant '' are lying on the kitchen dresser. She 
Is an excellent servant, and the dresser Is a rery clean 
one. She is going oat to-night in foil erening costmne to 

the W Boating Club Ball. This club Is composed 

chiefly of yonng workingmen. Her invitation comes 
through the captain, a well-known barrister, the secre- 
tary and treasurer, who will introduce to her plenty of 
partners-all in swallow-tail coats t I anticipate that 
her programme will be filled up at once. She will meet 
there and may dance in the same set with the daugh- 
tera of the Premier of New Zealand and other notable per- 



1"*HE foregoing extract is a foolrnote in the article 
entitled '' Adult Male Labor in New Ze^ 
lind,** which Mr. Edward Reeves has contributed 
to the WeMminster Review for December. It is a 
very interesting paper, carefully written, almost 
eaQcyclopsedia in its detail as to labor conditions of 
the most advanced of the English colonies. Mr. 
Beeves quotes the following testimony from the 
United States Consul at Auckland as to the success 
with which the New Zealand government has min- 
istered to the needs of the working population: 

AK AMERIOAK TESTIMONY. 

'* * The land laws of this cotmtry (New Zealand) 
are oniqne. having no parallel in the modem world 
that I am aware of. The tendency of legislation is 
to force the earth-grabber to either sell, subdivide, 
or improve his land so it will produce what nature 
intended it should, thereby administering to the 
wants of the people and placing the land within the 
TMch of those who desire homes, ... to check, 
if not absolutely prevent, the acquisition of vast 
estates in the hands of individuals or companies, to 
the detriment of the people, but without directly in- 
terfering with the laudable accumulation of thrift 
and industry. . . . The poor, the workingman 
and the struggling small^ farmer and mechanic are 
idieved frcHn the burdens of taxation as much as 
ponble. . . . The hours of labor are shortened 
to eight per day, and to the constant worker is given 
a half- holiday in every week, besides at least half 
a dosen full holidays in the year, tmder full pay, 
thus affording him more time for rest, recreation and 
intellectual development than is enjoyed by his fel- 
few- workers in any part of the world. . . . The 
admisBion of pure air and genial sunshine into the 
workroom and factory is compelled tmder govern- 
ment supervision. . . . There is a general diffu- 
sion of wealth, no great poverty, and not a single 
millionaire, as far as I know. . . . The men 
who have inaugurated these honest Christian re- 
forms are animated by a sincere desire to promote 
the universal welfare, to resist the aggression of the 
ftrong, and lend a helping hand to the weak and 
lowly. You may call these principles by any name 
you choose, but the facts are as herein related. . . 
The people of New Zealand are blessed beyond all 
<*her«.''* 



THE BOONOMIO RESULTS. 

The consul's evidence, however, wiU probably im- 
press the public less than Mr. Reeves' own story as 
to the fan and long gloves of the general servant 
who is going out to a ball with the daughter of a 
prime minister. Mr. Reeves explains the labor laws, 
the Arbitration act and the other measures that 
have been taken to emancipate the workers. Meas- 
ured by economic results wages are lower now than 
they were in 1877, but as the price of food necessary 
tor maintenance has fallen to an even greater ex- 
tent, the x)Osition of the worker is improved. A 
laborer's daily wages have fallen from seven and 
sixpence to six and threepence, and an artisan's 
wages from ten shillings and sixpence to eight and 
threepence. As he can buy the same quantity of 
food for one shilling and tenpence three farthings 
that cost him formerly three shillings and twopence 
halfpenny, the i)osition of the laborer is improved 
and that of the artisan not much impaired. Vege- 
tables cost the colonists only the labor. Potatoes 
are sold at three pounds for a penny and oatmeal 
costs a penny a pound. The price of plain wearing 
apparel is twenty per cent, cheaper than seventeen 
years ago. The following is Mr. Reeves' sketch of 
what the laborer of the future will be if he advances 
along the lines which New Zealand has now mapped 
out: 

THE LABOBER OF THE FXTTURE. 

" Part of the money squandered formerly by his 
father in the public- house is now spent by his mother 
in buying good clothes for him. * Her child must be 
dressed as well as the best of them,' for he sits beside 
their employer*s children at school There the edu- 
cation, like the legislation for him, is based on com- 
mon sense. He is not left to books and his inner 
consciousness to form ideas of a forest or a factory. 
He is taken to see them. Free periodical excursions 
of whole schools by railway are organized. Coun- 
try children come to town, where they are received 
by school committees, who conduct them over mu- 
seums, newspaper offices, gas works, ocean steamers, 
and explain ever3rthing. A thousand town children 
see a field of waving yellow wheat reaped and bound, 
write essajTS on the matter, and ever after distinguish 
this grain from barley or oata Scholarships are for 
the i)oorest laborer's son if he be clever, technical 
workshops if he be of a mechanical turn, state farms 
if he lean to agriculture. Built up with good food, 
good clothes (no trivial it«m in the formation of 
character), sound education, athletic games, he 
emerges from school to join hLs mates in the friendly 
societies, the trade unions, among the * Knights of 
Labor ' of a working world; to make new friends 
in the handsome workingmen*s clubs, on cricket and 
football grounds, at their boating and yachting 
club balls. On Saturday nights he walks through 
town or village, his wages in his pocket, his wife by 
his side, busy with the thoughts of Sunday's dinner; 
perhaps a prettily dressed baby daughter in his amis, 
or in a handsome go cart. What does he love more 



82. 



THE REt^IElV OF REI^IEIVS. 



than he loves that child ? Had he a half a dozen 
daughters he would not fear for them. 

*' The old world terror of absolute i)enury is un- 
known to him. Ladies, botmtiful and idle, rich 
X>ersons (who, impelled by a pleasurable emotion, 
miscalled charity, itch to sharpen the teeth of be- 
nerolence on the bones of poverty) cease their efforts 
to degrade him. If he be left without friend or em- 
ployment he seeks the kindly aid of the Labor Bu- 
reau. If there be no room for him in any trade or 
job, he goes on the land, to the kauri gumfield, to 
the * bush section,' which government will par- 
tially clear for him, to the state sawmill of the al- 
most inexhaustible forest. He cannot starve,^* 



ABOUT CONDUCTING. 

IN Part V, just issued, of the fourth volume of 
Wagner's '* Prose Works," as translated by Mr. 
Wm. Ashton-EUis, we have an installment of some 
thirty x>Ag^ of the famous essay entitled *' About 
Conducting." Originally it was contributed as a 
series of articles to the Neue Zeitachrift f&r Musik in 
1869-70; immediately after it was republished in 
pamphlet form at Leipzig. 

By mere coincidence, probably, this treatise is 
much referred to in an interesting article on the art 
of conducting in the Newe Deutsche Rundschau for 
October. In it Herr Felix Weingartner, the well- 
known Berlin conductor, recapitulates Wagner's 
ideas, and then writes a critical study of the con 
ducting of Hans von BtUow, one of Wagner's most 
devoted adheronta Wagner does not attempt to set 
up a system, however, but has simply jotted down 
his personal observations, appealing for justification 
not to other conductors, but to the musicians and 
singers who alone have a right to know how they are 
conducted. Yet these, he says, can certainly never 
decide the question until for once at least they have 
had the experience of being well conducted. 

How all-important this matter of conducting has 
become for the comi)oser may be gathered from 
Wagner, whose words are thus rendered by Mr. 
Ellis: ** Unquestionably the guise in which their 
works are brought to the public's ear can be no mat- 
ter of indifference to composers; for the public, very 
naturally, can get the correct impression of a musi- 
c€d work from nothing save a good performance, but 
is unable to distinguish between the correct impres- 
sion and the badness of the work's performance." 

Aiter explaining what were the faults in the Ger- 
man orchestras of the old school and the reasons for 
the unfitness of the conductors to cope with the more 
complicated modem orchestral music, Wagner de- 
scribes some of the conductors of his day: ** These 
are the gentlemen," he says, ** who * bring out ' an 
opera in a fortnight, are capital hands at ' cutting,' 
and write * cadenzas ' for prime donne to interpolate 
in other people's scores." 

Even Mendelssohn and Meyerbeer lacked energy, 
that energy which nothing but a selt-confidence. 



backed by genuine force of character, can give: 
" Everjrtliing, alas ! was artificial here: calling, tal- 
ent, culture — ay, faith, love, and hox>e. . . . Both 
were confronted, in the Berlin orchestra, with the 
self -same obstacles that had always barred the way 
to any good in this department; but those very ob 
stacles were just their duty to remove, since they 
were amply armed for the bout as none besides. 
Why did their strength forsake them ? Api>arently 
because they never had any. They left the thing in 
its rut." 

The initial step toward reformation came from the 
executants themselves, and not from the survivors 
of the old dispensation: *' This is plainly ascribable 
to the great advance in technical virtuosity. The 
boon conferred on our orchestras by the virtuosi of 
their various instruments is -past all questioning: it 
would have been complete if the conductors, partic- 
ularly amid such circumstances, had only been what 
they should be. . . . But with the pianoforte 
teachers nominated by ladies-in-waiting, and so forth, 
the virtuoso, of course, shot high above their heads; 
in the orchestra he played somewhat the same r6/e 
as the prima donna on the boards. " 

WAONEB'S EARLY DISAPPOINTKENT9. 

Referring to the strange impression of discontent 
made upon him in his youth by the orchestral ren- 
dering of some German classical music, Wagner 
writes : '* Things that had seemed to me so full of life 
and soul when reading the score I scarcely recognized 
in the form wherein they skimmed before the audi- 
ence, for the most part quite unheeded. Above all 
was I astonished at the mawkishness of the Mozart 
ian cantilena, which I had imagined to be so full of 
charm and feeling." 

Similarly, with Beethoven's Ninth Symphony as 
performed at Leipzig: '' Myself I had copied out the 
score of that sjonphony, and made a pianoforte ar- 
rangement of it. Imagine my amazement to receive 
the most confused impressions from its perform- 
gjiQQ \ — ay, to feel at last so disheartened that I 
turned my back for awhile on Beethoven, having 
been thrown into such utter doubt about him. . . 

" My most thoroughgoing lesson was a hearing of 
that despaired-of * Ninth Symphony ' at Paris in the 
year 1839, played by the so-called Conservatoire or- 
chestra. ... In every bar the orchestra had 
learned to recognize the Beethovenian melody, which 
plainly had escaped our brave Liepzig bandsmen of 
the time. The orchestra sang that melody. That 
was the secret. And it had been laid open by a con- 
ductor of no esi)ecial genius— Habeneck. The beauty 
of that rendering I stiU am quite unable to de- 
scribe." 

There is one particular passage in the first move- 
ment expressive of discontent, unrest and longing. 
In dealing with it, Wagner continues: ** Never have 
I succeeded in getting even the most distinguished 
orchestras to execute it so abolutely evenly as I heard 
it rendered thirty years ago by the Paris musicians. 
This one passage, the of tener its remembrance has 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



83 



recurred to me in later life, the clearer has it shown 
me the principles of orchestral delivery. The man- 
ner of the moods it expresses we never learn until 
we hear the passage executed as the master himself 
conceived it, and as I never yet have heard it realized 
save by those Paru bandsmen. To a Frenchman 
to play an instrument weU means to be able to make 
it sing." 

Old Habeneck, though entirely wanting in '* genial- 
ity," had found the prox>er tempo for every beat, and 
as nothing but a correct conception of the melody 
can give that tempo, it is obvious that nothing but 
the most conscientious diligence on the part of 
conductor and orchestra could have brought about 
snch a result But Wagner had never met any Ger- 
man conductors who could really sing a melody; to 
them music was only *' an abstraction, a cross be- 
tween syntax, arithmetic and gymnastics." 

As to Wagner's conducting, Herr Weingartner 
quotes the testimony of Ftirstenau, the old Dresden 
flantist, who says that the musicians tmder Wagner's 
baton often felt that they were not being conducted 
At alL Every one seemed able to follow his own 
feeUngs, and yet all played wonderfully together. 
It was Wagner's powerful will which acted, though 
quite unconsciously, on his musicians, so that while 
each one imagined himself free to play as he was 
moved, he was carrying out Wagner's intentions all 
the while. It was all so easy and smooth, and was 
a real delight 



WHEN VICTORIA WAS CROWNED. 
Some Reminiscences of Long Ago. 

IN the Woman at Home the illustrated articles 
now appearing about Queen Victoria contain 
lome interesting reminiscences of the coronation 
few persons now living remember. 

The writer says that on her accession the girl- 
queen became extraordinarily popular, and this 
popularity made itself felt inmany ways, some of 
which were the reverse of agreeable : ** Mothers 
loved her because she was such a good daughter ; 
girls adored her because she was one of themselves, 
and they smoothed and braided their hair to look like 
the Queen, adopted her favorite colors of pink and 
blue, and thanked their good fortune if they 
chanced to be fair, blue- eyed and petite, while the 
taU, dark girls were correspondingly unhappy. 
Wise matrons mindful of the sad death of the Prin- 
cesB Charlotte with her firstborn son, hoped the 
Queen would not rush into the perils of marriage 
and maternity too soon, and some even thought it 
nds^t be safer for her to copy the example of Eliza- 
beth in abjuring wedlock altogether. The young 
folks did not mind so long as she married for love. 
The condition of susceptible young men was indeed 
tragic Some shot themselves and some went mad 
all for love of the Virgin Queen. One gentleman 
of position was reduced to weeding the Round Pond 
In Kensmgton Gkurdens in the hope of obtaining a 



sight of her, and when the Queen left for Bucking- 
ham JPalace he had his phseton in readiness and 
drove in front of her carriage all the way to town. 
He continued to make himself so intrusive that 
the authorities were obliged to take him in hand. 
Charles Dickens was one of the youths who had a 
severe attack of Queen fever ; happily he recovered, 
or we should not have received anything from his 
pen beyond the * Pickwick Papers. ' His youthful 
aberration must have come to the great novelist's 
memory with amusement when, at the climax of 
his fame, he was commanded to lunch with the 
Queen at Windsor, and received from her hands a 
copy of her Majesty's 'Tour in the Highlands,' 
inscribed with the words : * From the humblest to 
the most distinguished author in England. ' " 

What a far-away time it seems to which the fol- 
lowing statement refers : " The Queen was her 
own housekeeper so far as housekeepers permitted, 
and she managed things right royally, but never 
contracted a debt. She arranged dinner-parties, had 
delightful impromptu dances, picnics on Virginia 
Water, little evening concerts, at which she fre- 
quently sang herself, and organized riding and driv- 
ing parties. She was in the saddle most days for 
two or three hours, attended by a gay calvacade of 
ladies and gentlemen." 

After describing the way in which the maiden 
monarch passed her day, the writer says that after 
dinner ** the Queen had one little rule which one 
notes with interest. She would not allow the gen- 
tlemen to remain over their after dinner wine more 
than a quarter of an hour, and always remained 
standing in the drawing-room until they made their 
appearance." 

INOIDBNTS OP THE DAY. 

Coming to the coronation itself, one or two in- 
cidents are mentioned which most i)eople have for- 
gotten : ** The coronation, with its various cere- 
monies, civil and religious, lasted more than four 
hours, and throughout the Queen played her part 
with wonderful composure. Care had been taken 
to provide a crown suitable for her small head, 
but no one had thought about reducing the size of 
the orb, which she was required to carry in her tiny 
hand. ' What am I to do with it ? ' she asked in 
concern. ' Carry it, your Majesty,' replied Lord 
John Thynne. * Am I ? it is very heavy, ' the Queen 
answered in a tone of amazement However, it 
was too late for protest, and she obeyed the exi- 
gencies of the situation. The coronation ring had 
been made to fit the little finger. The Archbishop 
declared that by the rubric it must be forced upon 
a larger finger. The result was that the finger was 
so much swollen that it had to be bathed in iced 
water before the ring could be drawn off. " 

In the November number the story is "brought 
down to the autumn of 1842, the year in which the 
Queen took her first trip by rail and in which two 
attempts were made to kill her, both fortunately 
abortive. 



84 



THE REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



"THE BRAVEST DEED I EVER SAV^." 
Related by Archibald Forbes. 

ARCHIBALD FORBES has seen so many brave 
deeds that it was with some natural cnriosity 
that we tnmed to his paper in Pearson* » Magazine 
under this title. The deed which he selects as the 
bravest that he ever saw was the rescue of a wounded 
trooper, which won for Lord Charles Beresford the 
Victoria Cross. He thus tells the story: 

" Colonel (now General Sir) Redvers Buller had 
been ordered to make a reconnaissance before Cete- 
wayo's Kraal of Ulundi. Beresford led the advance, 
Buller bringing on the main body. Beresford, on 
his smart chestnut, with the white ticks on withers 
and flanks, was the foremost rider of the force. The 
Zulu chief bringing up the rear of the fugitives sud- 
denly turned on the lone horseman who had so out- 
ridden his followers. A big man, even for a Zulu, 
the ring round his head proved him a veteran. The 
muscles rippled on his shoulders as he compacted 
himself behind his cowhide shield, marking his dis- 
tance for the thrust of the gleaming assegai 

** It flashed out like the head of a cobra as it 
strikes; Beresford's cavalry sabre clashed with it ; 
the spear head was dashed aside; the horseman gave 
point with all the vigor of his arm and the impetus 
of his galloping horse, and lo ! in the twinkling of 
an eye the sword point was through the shield and 
half its length buried in the Zulu's broad chest. The 
gallant induna was a dead man, and his assegai 
stands now in a comer of Beresf ord's mother's draw- 
ing-room. 

** The flight of the groups of Zulus was a ccdculated 
snare; the fugitives in front of the irregulars were 
simply a decoy. Suddenly from out a deep water- 
course crossing the plain, and from out the adjacent 
long grass sprang up a long line of several thousand 
armed Zulus. At Buller's loud command to fire a 
volley and then retire, Beresford and his scouts rode 
back toward the main body, followed by Zulu bullets. 

'* Two men were killed on the spot. A third man's 
horse slipped up and his wounded rider came to the 
groimd, the horse nmning away. Beresford, riding 
behind his retreating party, looked back and saw 
that the fallen man was trying to rise into a sitting 
posture. 

** The Zulus, darting out in haste, were perilously 
close to the poor fellow, but Beresford, measuring 
distance with the eye, saw a chance of anticipating 
them. G^alloping back to the wounded man, and 
dismounting, he confronted his adversaries with his 
revolver, while urging the soldier to get on his horse. 

** The wounded man bade Beresford remount and 
fly. Why, said he, should two die when death was 
inevitable but to one ? The quaint resourceful humor 
of his race did not fail Beresford in this crisis; he 
turned on the wounded man and swore with clinched 
flst that he would punch his head if he did not assist 
in the saving of his life. 

** This droll argument prevailed Still facing his 
foes with his revolver, Beresford partly lifted, partly 



hustled the man into the saddle, then scrambled up 
himself and set the chestnut a-going after the other 
horsemen; another moment's delay and both must 
have been assegaied. 

*' A comrade fortxmately came back, shot doiwn 
Zulu after Zulu with cool courage, and then aided 
Beresford in keeping the wounded man in the saddle 
till the laager was reached, where no one could tell 
whether it was the rescuer or rescued who was the 
wounded man so smeared was Beresford with bor- 
rowed blood. 

** Gk>ing into Beresford's tent the same afternoon^ 
I foimd him sound asleep and roused him with the 
information, which Colonel Wood had given me. 
that he was to be recommended for the Victoria 
Cross. 

** * Get along wid your nonsense, ye spalpeen ! ' 
was his yawning retort as he threw a boot at me, and 
then turned over and went to sleep again." 



EUGENE FIELD AND THE CHILDREN. 

THE January McClure's has a most pleasing 
group of Eugene Field's poems for children, 
prefaced by a short article in which Cleveland Mof- 
fett relates many pretty anecdotes of the late poet's 
great fondness for the little ones. We quote some 
of these : 

** A characteristic incident occurred on Field's 
marriage day. The hour of the ceremony was all 
but at hand and the bridal party were waiting at 
the church for the bridegroom to appear. But he 
did not come ; and. after an anxious delay, some of 
his friends went in search of him. They found 
him a short distance away, engaged in settling a 
dispute that had arisen among some street gamins 
over a game of marbles. There he was, down on 
his knees in the mud, listening to the various ac- 
counts of the origin of the quarrel ; and it was only 
on the arrival of his friends that he suddenly recol- 
lected his more pressing and more pleasant duties. 

IN DR. GUNSAULUS' HOME. 

" Dr. Gunsaulus, of Chicago, who was one of Mr. 
Field's most intimate friends, tells a story of Field's 
first visit to his house that shows how quick the 
poet was to make himself at home with children. 
For years the httle ones in the Doctor's household 
had heard of Eugene Field as a wonderful person ; 
and when they were told that he had come to see 
them their delight knew no bounds, and they ran 
into the library to pay him homage. It was in the 
evening, and, presumably. Field had already dined ; 
but he told the children with his first br^h that 
he wanted to know where the cookery was. They, 
overjoyed at being asked a service they were 
able to render, trooped out into the kitchen with 
Field following. The store of eatables was duly 
exposed, and Field seized upon a turkey, or what 
remained of one from dinner, and carried it into the 
dining room. There he seated himself at table, 
with the children on his knees and about him, and 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



85 



fell to with a good appetite, talking to the little ones 
all the time, telling them quaint stories, and mak- 
ing them listen with all their eyes and ears. Hav- 
ing thus become good friends and pnt them qnite at 
their ease, he spent the rest of the evening singing 
Ixillabies to them, and reciting his verses. Naturally, 
before he went away the children had given him 
their whole hearts. 

MR. field's own children. 

'* On his own children he bestowed pet names— 
' Pinney,' * Daisy,' * CJooghy,' * Posey ' and * Trotty ; ' 
and they almost forgot that they had others. His 
eldest daughter, for instance, now a lovely girl of 
nineteen, has remained * Trotty ' from her baby- 
hood, and * Trotty* she will always be. At her 
christening Field had an argtmient with his wife 
about the name they should give her. Mrs. Field 
wished her to be csdled Frances, to which Field ob- 
jected on the ground that it would be shortened 
into Frankie, which he disliked. Then other names 
were suggested, and, after listening to this one and 
that one. Field finally said : * You can christen her 
whatever you please, but I shall call her * Trotty.* 

* Finney ' was named from the comic opera * Pina- 
fore/ which was in vogue at the time he was bom ; 
and * Daisy ' got his name from the song, popular 
when he was bom. 

THE CASUAL BOY TRAMP. 

'* It was a commmon happening in the News 
c^Bce, while Mr. Field still did his work there, for 
•ome ragged, tmwashed, woe-begone creature, too 
much abashed to take the elevator, to come toiling 
up the stairs and down the long passage into one of 
the editorial rooms, where he would blurt out fear- 
fully, sometimes half defiantly, but always as if 
confident in the power of the name he spoke: * Is 
*G«ne Field here ? * Sometimes an overzealous office 
boy would try to drive one of these poor fellows 
away, and woe to that boy if Field found it out 

• I knew "Qeae Field in Denver,' or * I worked with 
Field on the Kansas City rim««,'— these were suffi- 
cient passwords and never failed to call forth the 
cheery voice from Field's room : * That's all right, 
show him in here ; he*s a friend of mine. ' And then 
after a grip of the hand and some talk over former 
experiences— which Field may or may not have re 
membered, but alwa3rs pretended to — the inevitable 
half dollar or dollar was forthcoming, and another 
unfortunate went out into the world blessing the 
name of a man who, whether he was orthodox or not 
in his religious views, always acted up to the prin- 
ciple that it is more blessed to give than to receive." 

And of all his visitors the most constant and ai>- 
p re dati ve were children These he never sent away 
witikont some bright word and he rarely sent them 
away at aD. Nowhere could they find such an en- 
tertauuDg playmate as he— one who would tell them 
racb wonderful stories and make up such funny 
ihyines for them on the spur of the moment, and 
nBp with iSbem like one of themselves. 



AMERICA'S SEVEN GREAT POETS. 

THE Arena has begun the publication of personal 
recollections of Lowell, Emerson, Holmes, 
Whittier, Longfellow, Bryant and Whitman. The 
first series, appearing in the December number, in- 
cludes reminiscences of all except Longfellow and 
Whitman, who are reserved for the January number. 

These articles are illustrated, and are of excep- 
tional interest, having been written by intimate 
friends of the poets. The series begins with an ac- 
count of ** A Morning with Lowell," by the Rev. 
M. J. Savage, who comments on Lowell's personal 
dignity. 

** As I remember the way in which he received 
me, the quiet ease with which he made me perfectly 
at home, it may be proper for me to say a word con- 
cerning Lowell's general attitude toward the pubUc. 
He was by birth and training an aristocrat in the best 
sense of tiiat word. He never fotmd it easy to make 
his life a common, to be freely entered and trodden 
down at random by all the world. He was not so 
easily accessible as Longfellow: he claimed that he 
had a right to his own time, his intimacies and his 
friendships. But to those who knew him, to those 
to whom he opened his arms and his heart, he was 
the most delightful of companions. He has been 
severely criticised for the attitude of dignity and re- 
serve which he took and maintained while he was 
our minister at the Court of St. James; and it is 
freely admitted that he was not one of those who 
liked to be slapped on the back by everybody, and 
that he was not willing to be made an errand boy or a 
London guide for wandering Americans. But no 
man who ever occupied a diplomatic jKwition in 
Europe has ever stood more steadily for the essential 
principles of our republic, maintained more uncom- 
promisingly the dignity of an American citizen, or 
reflected more credit on his cotmtry. " 

Emerson In his Home. 

Mr. F. B. Sanborn, who saw much of Emerson's 
home life for many years, contributes extracts from 
the journal in which he noted from time to time the 
remarks of the poet-philosopher. One passage in 
these conversations serves to indicate Emerson's atti- 
tude toward new writers. 

** No man could be more hopeful for young writers 
of any promise than was Emerson. It was at this 
time (August 19, 1878) that I called on him one after- 
noon, and foimd him busy with papers of obscure 
authors who had sent them to him ; one of these was 
Mr. P. Kaufman, formerly of Canton. Ohio, whom 
he had once met in New York, but had then lost 
sight of. He asked if I knew him, and then read me 
some verses of W. H. Babcock on * Joseph the Nez 
Perc^, ' which he said he had read to audiences at 
the Old South and elsewhere, and thought them 
good. But when he sent them to Mr. Howells, ask- 
ing to have them printed in the Atlantic, this editor 
had sent them back, saying they were not good 
enough. * We thought we had some interest in our 



86 



THE REVIEW OF REI^IEWS. 



own magazine/ said Emerson, a little piqued at the 
affair ; and he gave me the verses, asking me to get 
them published somewhere, and have a little money 
sent to the author. Accordingly, I sent them to 
G. W. Curtis, who had them printed in Harper's 
Monthly, for which they seemed to be good enough. *' 

Oliver Wendell Holmes 

Who so well fitted as Edward Everett Hale to give 
us glimi>se6 into the inner life of rollicking Dr. 
Holmes ? We quote one of Dr. Hale's stories of 
Holmes which has never before been in print. 

^' I was to preside, one year, at the annual dinner- 
party of Phi Beta Kappa. This dinner-party is apt 
to be about the best fun of the year, precisely be- 
cause there are no reporters present and everybody 
says exactly what he chooses without any fear of the 
echo. By way of preparation for the dinner, I 
wrote to two or three of those whom I knew the 
younger members would like to see. Among others 
I wrote to Holmes, to remind him of the anniversary 
and to say that I hoped he would come. I got a 
good-natured note in reply, in which he said vir- 
tually that his pump had sucked, and that he had 
determined not to write any more occasional poems 
for dinner-parties. To this I boldly replied: * Who 
said anything about a poem ? I did not ask you to 
speak. I have only embarrassment of riches. But 
the boys would like to see you; come and sit by my 
side and you shall not say a word.' In reply to 
which, almost as soon as the mail could bring it, 
came a very droll answer: * The idea of my going to 
Phi Beta without reading some verses is absurd. 
I have already f otmd a theme, and the verses are , 
half done. I shall come~fiz that on your mind; and 
I shall be very angry if I am not called upon to 
speak.' Such are almost the words he used, in a 
note which, in some unfortunate frenzy of folly, I 
gave away to some wretched hunter of autographs. 
So he came, and we had a charming little poem 
from him." 

John Qreenleaf Whlttler 

Mrs. Mary B. Claflin tells several amusing anec- 
dotes of the Quaker poet. 

A little girl who was in the house with Mr. Whit- 
tier, and of whom he was very fond, asked the poet 
to commemorate in verse the death of her favorite 
kitten, Bathsheba by name. 

'' Without a moment's hesitation the i>oet said in 
solemn tones: 

'' Bathsheba I to whom none ever said scat— 
•* No worthier cat 
*^ Ever sat on a mat 
" Or caught a rat 
** Bequiescat ! " 

** The same little girl's pony broke his leg, and 
again the poet was called upon to comfort the child 
with some poetic sentiment. She said, * I have 
written some lines myself but I can't think how to 
finish the verse. ' 



" * What did you write ? ' asked Mr. Whittier. 

'* My pony kicked to the right, he kicked to the left, 

" The stable post he struck it, 

" He broke his leg short off " 

and then added Mr. Whittier, 

<* And then he kicked the backet ! " 

•* During the war a Quaker friend who was a ship- 
builder called on Mr. Whittier and said * Friend 
Whittier, I am in great perplexity. Thee knows I 
do not approve of war any more than thee does, and 
I do not wish to do anything to help it on. I am 
asked to build some war ships, and I am told there is 
great need of them. What shall I do ? ' 

** The two old friends talked over the situation for 
awhile, but Mr. Whittier did not commit himself 
till just as the shipbuilder was leaving, when he 
said. * Thomas, if thee build the ships, I advise thee 
to use the best timber, and build them strong.' " 

When Whittier was asked to head a petition to 
make a colored preacher chaplain of the House of 
Representatives, he shook his head and said, ** Thee 
knows I don't approve of hiring folks to pray and pay- 
ing them for it.'' 



IN PRAISE OF THE POETS. 

THE REV. DR. HORTON contributes to Good 
Words a paper upon the practical uses of 
poetry, which may be read with advantage by all 
those who think ** they have no use for poetry." 

** The poets who have won an undisputed place for 
all time in European literature are they who may be 
described as the outcome of the great periods in 
European history. May we not say they are the 
voices of these periods ? For the connection between 
them is too regular to be accidental. When history 
is travailing with fateful things, it gives birth to 
poets who make vocal its passion, its purpose, and its 
thought. But if this is so, to be conversant with 
these master minds will be to maintain a living con- 
tact with the salient and significant points of human 
development, to understand man at his best, and the 
progress of man in its ordered and fateful connec- 
tion. 

** Here then is a practical use of poetry; it is a 
princix>al means of culture, that only genuine culture 
which consists in a sympathetic understanding of 
the human race to which we belong. 

** As they are the interpreters of the great times 
to which they belong, so the genuine poets are the 
teachers of their own times, and the greatest among 
them are the teachers of all times. 

** To know the poets is a liberal education. As the 
science of life is the most important of the sciences, 
and the art of conduct the greatest' of the arts, the 
poets, as the interpreters of this science and this art, 
are not only the most agreeable but the most prac- 
tical of our teachers. 

** John Bright was accudlomed to say: * There is 
nothing which gives so much pleasure as poetry, ex- 
cept little children;' a beautiful saying, because 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



87 



children are the poems of the human race, and 
poetry is the perennial childlikeness of the human 
heart. But every one who studies the career of John 
Bright will notice that poetry gave him something 
more than delight; it was the making of him. It 
was from the poets he learned that ' scorn of scorn, 
that love of love * which made him the ai>06tle of a 
beneficent cause. It was from the poets he derived 
that singular magic of feeling and diction which 
enabled him to move multitudes, and even a nation, 
along the course which his heart desired. It is no 
accident that the greatest speaker, and one of the 
most powerful political leaders of our century, was 
a lover of the poets. " 

In conclusion Dr. Horton says : * * There is a specific 
function of poetry, a function which is discharged 
hy that which is the essence of it, and it is well- 
nigh indispensable.** 

This specific function is the revelation of the real- 
ity of the world to man : * * What is called the glamour 
of life is life itself, that deep passion of inexplicable 
emotion, that subtle sense of all that lies behind 
phenomena, and holds phenomena in a tmity, the 
ivulsation of thought, the thriK of love, the conjee- 
tore of the unknown. All this has to be appre- 
hended if we would know reality, and imagination 
akme can apprehend all this. *' 



THE TALLEST MEN IN THE WORLD. 

MB. W. J. GOBDON. in the Leisure Hour for 
December, writes an interesting paper con- 
cerning '* The Measurement of a Man,** in which he 
tdk us that the English professional men class are 
the tallest men in the world, and are getting taller. 
He says: 

** The average Scotsman stands 5 feet 8^ inches, 
the average Irishman 5 feet 1% inches, the average 
^igKaiiiwftn 5 feet m inches, the average Welsh- 
man 5 feet 6^ inches; the average of the four being 
5 feet 1% inches, the same as that given above for 
the Leeds men, whereas the British professional 
dasB, according to the bulk of the statistics, average 
5 feet 9 inches, and are the tallest men in the world, 
except some of the South Sea Islanders. And the 
height of tiiis class is increasing, some authorities 
giving it at' present as half an inch more ; the reason 
for such superiority of stature being probably that 
they are better taken care of in their early days, the 
food and treatment of children under a year old hav- 
ing a marked influence on condition, weight, and 
height. They get more sleep, too, in their later youth 
and more regular and systematic exercise. The 
Briton is evidently getting longer and heavier, and 
seeou to be approaching the time when he will aver- 
age 5 feet 8 inches and weigh 10 stone 10 pounds. 
Hi« recrmting standard, low as it is, is even now 
three inches higher thai^hat of any European army 
and two inches higher than it was eighty-five years 



THE WANDERLUST IN CHILDREN. 

MB. JOSIAH FLYNT tells in the January 
Atlantic Monthly of the various types of child 
tramps, who in the fullness of his experience, he can 
classify with apparent exhaustiveness. In the midst 
of his discussion of the various causes and environ- 
ments which lead to youthful trampdom. and of his 
stories from his own experience, he takes note of one 
very peculiar but very constant and universal cause. 
It is purely psychological and he calls it a Wanderlust, 
After speaking of the boys who are brought to the 
road through the fascinations of the dime novel, 
Mr. Flynt says : 

FITFUL WANDERINGS. 

^' Something like these children in temiieraments, 
but totally different in most other respects, are 
those lads that one meets so often on our railways, 
drifting about for a month or so from town to town, 
seldom stopping in any of them over a day and 
then suddenly disappearing no one knows where, 
to appear again later on another railway, frequently 
enough a thousand miles distant. Occasionally they 
are missed from the road for over a year, and there 
is absolutely no news of their whereabouts ; but 
just as they are almost forgotten they come forward 
once more, make a few journeys on the freight 
trains and vanish again. There are cases on record 
where some of them have kept this up for years ; 
some of them coming and going with such regu- 
larity that their appearances may be calculated ex- 
actly. Out West not very long ago there was a 
little chap who * showed up ' in this way, to use 
the expression that tlie brakemen applied to him, 
every six weeks for three yean, but this was all 
that was known concerning him. When asked who 
he was and where he belonged he gave such evasive 
answers that it was impossible to come to any trust- 
worthy conclusion about him. He would have 
nothing to do with the people he met, and I have 
heard that he always rode alone in the box cars. 
In this last respect he was a notable exception, for 
as a rule these little nomads take great pleasure in 
talking with strangers, but they are careful not to 
say too much about themselves. They ask ques- 
tions principally, and skip from one subject to an- 
other with a butterfly rapidity, but manage to pick 
up a great deal of knowledge of the road. 

"THE RAILROAD FEVER." 

"The tramp's theory of them is that they are 
possessed of ' the railroad fever,* and I am inclined 
to agree with them, but I accept the expression in 
its broader sense of Wanderlust. They want to get 
out into the world, and at stated periods the desire 
is BO strong and the road so handy that they simply 
cannot resist the temptation to explore it. A few 
weeks usually suffice to cool their ardor and then 
they run home quite as summarily as they left, but 
they stay only until the next runaway mood seizes 
them. I have been successful in getting really well 



THE REI/IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



acquainted with several of these interesting wan- 
derers, and in each case this has been the situation. 
They do not want to be * tough,' and many of them 
could not be if they tried ; but they have a passion 
for seeing things on their own hook, and if the 
mood for * a trip ' comes it seems to them the most 
natural thing in the world to indulge it. If they 
had the means they would ride on Pullman cars and 
imagine themselves princes, but lacking the where- 
withal they take to the road. 

THE FEVER IS EVEN IN WELL-TO-DO CHILDREN. 

" I knew in New York State a boy of this sort who 
had as nice a home as a child could wish, but he 
was cursed with this strange Wanderlust, and 
. throughout his boyhood there was hardly a month 
that he did not run away. The queerest things en- 
ticed him to go. Sometimes the whistle of a rail- 
way engine was enough to make him wild with un- 
rest, and again the sight of the tame, but to him fas- 
cinating village street was sufficient to set him 
planning his route of travel. In every escapade it 
was his Imagination that stampeded him. Many a 
time, when he was in the most docile of moods, 
some fanciful thought of the world at large and 
what it held in waiting for him would dance across 
his brain, and before he could analyze it or detect 
the swindle he was scampering off for * the depot.' 
Now it was a wish to go West and play trapper and 
scout, and then it was the dream of American boy- 
hood,— a life cramped but struggling, and emerging 
in glorious success as candidate for the presidency. 
Garfield's biography, I remember, once started him 
on such a journey and it took years to get the notion 
out of his head that simply living and striving as Gar- 
field did was not sure to bring the same results. 
Frequently his wanderings ended several hundred 
miles from home, but much of tener in some distract- 
ing vagabond's * hang-out' in a neighboring city. 
Fortunately the fever burned itself out ere he had 
learned to like the road for its own sake, and he 
lived to wonder how he had harbored or indulged 
such insane impulses. A large number of these 
truants, however, have no good homes and indul- 
gent parents to return to, and after a while the re- 
peated punishment seems to them so unjust and 
cruel that there comes * a trip ' which never ends. 
The Wanderlust becomes chronic, and mainly be- 
cause it was not treated properly in its intermittent 
stage. There is no use in whipping these children ; 
they are not to blame ; all that one can do is to busy 
their imaginations in wholesome ways, watch them 
carefully, and if they must wander direct their 
wanderings. In many cases this is possible, for the 
fever break? out among children of the best birth 
as well as among those of the lowest ; and in these 
instances, at least, the parents have much to answer 
for if the children reach the road. I look upon this 
fever as quite as much of a disease as the craze to 
steal which is found now and then in some child's 
character, and it deserves the same careful treat 



ment. Punishment only aggravates it, and de- 
velops in the boy a feeling of hatred for all about 
him. I firmly believe that some day this trouble in 
so many boys' lives wiU be pathologically treated 
by medical men, and the sooner that day comes the 
better it will be for many unfortunate children. " 



HOW THE LANDLORDS WERE BOUGHT OUT IN 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

MR. CHILDERS contributes to Good Words an 
account of an operation in which he was en- 
gaged in 1875 for the settlement of an agrarian feud 
which had long troubled the peace of Prince Edward 
Island. He says: "Some particulars of this very 
curious operation, the compulsory transfer of the en- 
tire land of a colony from a small number of pro- 
prietors, chiefly absentees, to several thousand tenants 
may perhaps prove of interest. In Prince Eldward 
Islimd the grants to the sixty-three landlords — among 
whom the colony was originally divided — were 
grossly improvident, and the conditions subject to 
which the estates were granted had not been en- 
forced, so that immigration and settlement had been 
checked if not entirely stopped. In fact, in most 
cases, the proprietors could not make a title even 
if they were willing to selL What the tenants 
sought was not so much to enforce particular prices 
at which they might purchase their holdings as to 
secure the power of purchasing them at some price. " 

EXPROPRIATION. 

Mr. Childers carried out the scheme for expro- 
priating the landlords, with the result that, " by 
the end of 187S the whole of Prince Edward Island 
was free from what was called landlordism. Nearly 
a million acres had been either comprised in the sixty- 
three estates which formed the subject of the lottery 
in London, or were originally reserved for public 
purposes. I find from official papers that all these 
estates have been bought by the government 
at a cost of about $1,200,000. Fourfifths of this 
acreage has been, according to the same authority, 
resold to the tenants, who, in 1892, had already paid 
instalments of their purchase money, reaching nearly 
$840,000. The government has been able to effect 
this with the help of a grant from the Dominion 
Parliament (one of the conditions of confederation) 
of $600,000. So. not only has the policy of the Act 
been successful, but, as a financial operation, it has 
been satisfactory. 

'* Whether the abolition of landlordism has been 
an unmixed good, I do not pretend to determine. 
If I live to pay an eighth visit to North America I 
may have an opportunity of collecting opinions on 
this point. Anyhow the complete agrarian trans- 
formation through which PHnce Edward Island has 
passed affords much instructive material for reflec- 
tion." 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



89 



HOW CAMPHOR IS CULTIVATED IN FORMOSA. ARE THE JEWS RETURNING TO PALESTINE? 



ONE of the principal products of the territory 
which has come tinder Japanese administra- 
tion as a resnlt of the war with China is camphor. 
In the Scottish Oeographical Magazine Mr. John 
Dodd, writing on Formosa, tells ns how this prod- 
uct is cultivated 

'* Small shanties are scattered over the hills where 
the camphor-trees grow, and in all directions the 
clearing of the woods is going on at a rapid rate. 
Some trees are cut up for camphor-making, others 
are sawn into planks and knees for the building of 
junks and boats of all descriptions. On the hillsides 
are built distilleries consisting of oblong-shaped 
stmcturee principally of mud bricks, and about ten 
or twelve feet long, six feet broad and four high. 
On each side are five to ten fire-holes about a foot 
apart and the same distance above the ground. On 
each fire-hole is placed an earthen pot full of water, 
and above it a cylindrical tube, about a foot in 
diameter and two feet high, passes up through the 
structure and appears above it. The tube is capped 
by a large inverted jar, with a packing of damp 
hemp between the jar and cylinder to prevent the 
escape of steam. The cylinder is filled with chips 
of wood about the size of the little finger, which rest 
on a perforated lid covering the jar of water, so that 
when the steam rises it passes up to the inverted 
jar, or condenser, absorbing certain resinous mat- 
ter from the wood on its way. While distillation 
is going on an essential oil is produced and is found 
mixed with the water on the inside of the jar. When 
the jar is removed the beady droi)s solidify, crystal- 
lization conmiences, and camph<»r in a crude form, 
looking like newly formed snow, is detached by 
the hand, placed in baskets lined with plantain 
leaves, and hurried oflf to the nearest border town 
for sale. 

" With regard to camphor, as in other commer- 
cial matters, the Chinese Gk>vemment has acted very 
fo<^ifihly. For over thirty years to my knowledge 
there has been a constant demand for camphor, and 
yet the Administration has done nothing to prevent 
the reckless waste of the forests and taken no steps 
to provide for the reafforestation of iminhabited 
tracts useless for cultivation. True, as far as 1 have 
explored the mountains of the interior, camphor- 
trees seem to be exceedingly numerous, and there 
is at present no fear that the supply wiU run short 
for many years to come. But the increased demand 
for camphor in these da3r8 of smokeless powder may 
hasten the destruction of the trees, and therefore it 
is to be hoped that the Japanese will assure the sup- 
ply in the future by planting saplings on waste 
lands. I planted a lot in my garden in 1869, and 
when I left in 1890 they were trees thirty to forty 
feet Irigh and upward. From this experiment I con- 
dude that trees fifty years old would be large 
enough for all ordinary purposes to which the tim- 
ber is applied.'* 



IN the Missionary Review of the World Rev. H. 
H. Jessup of Beirut, Syria, considers the sub- 
ject of the number of Jews in Palestine. He an- 
swers with an emphatic ** No " the question, ** Is it 
true that the Jews are flocking back to the land of 
their fathers by thousands and tens of thousands, 
and that soon they will take possession of Canaan, 
restore their kingdom and rebuild their temple ? '* 
Dr. Jessup gives consular statistics to show that in 
1891 there were in Palestine proper only 46,081 Jews. 
The Jews of Palestine are largely supported by the 
European rabbis' fund, receiving house rent and 
weekly rations from the common fund, thus encour- 
aged in habits of idleness The Rothschild colonies 
are conducted on the same pauperizing ssrstem. In 
1893 Mr. Jessup visited two of the colonies, finding 
the first an unthrifty and forlorn affair, the colonists 
looking sickly and dejected. The second colony had 
a splendid agricultural site, but lies on the margin 
of the most pestilential marsh in Palestine. He says : 
** The whole impression made upon an observer with 
regard to these Jewish colonies is that they are 
forced, unnatural and of doubtful success. The 
pauperizing system which has made Jerusalem a 
great almshouse tends to demoralize the whole sys- 
tem of Palestine colonization. The entire scheme 
seems to be a kind of fad, which is being pursued 
with a special object, having none of the elements 
which made the old Phoenician colonies and the 
modem Anglo-Saxon colonies successful" 

THE FUTURE OP THE JEWS. 

As to the future of the Jewish people. Dr. Jessup 
has this to say: 

"1. The trend of Jewish migration at the present 
is westward, and further than ever from the old land 
of Israel There are about four times as many Jews 
now in New York City as there are in the whole of 
Palestine. Tens of thousands are going to the Argen- 
tine Republic in South America. They seem to be 
more and more torn loose from territorial attach- 
ments, and the great future of the Jewish race seems 
to be about to be wrought out in the free air of 
America 

** 2. The return of the Jews is to be a spiritual re- 
turn to Christ, their Messiah and Lord. The marvel- 
ous prophecies of Ezekiel, 40 to 48, clothed in priestly 
language and figures which speak of a readjustment 
of the configuration of Palestine, of a temple a mile 
square, and a special sacred * oblation ' or temple 
area fifty miles square, clearly refer in splendid im- 
agery to the future glories of the Church of Jesus 
Christ, and the * waters ' fiowing from beneath the 
sanctuary point to the life-giving streams of the 
Gospel dispensation, which are destined to vitalize 
and bless all mankind. A literal fulfillment of those 
extraordinary prophecies Is manifestly physically im- 
possible without the most stupendous miracle ever 
performed. 



00 



THE REI^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



" 8. The literal interpretation of the prophecies 
with regard to the * retnm ' of the Jews is extremely- 
improbable. " 



SPOKANE AND ITS FRUIT FAIR. 

THAT valuable periodical, the Northwest Maga- 
zine, presided over by Mr. E. V. Smalley. de- 
votes a large proportion of its space to a description 
of the recent Spokane, Wash., Fruit Fair by Mr. 
N. W. Durham. 

Spokane, it seems, has no use for ice palaces, com 
palaces, cotton expositions, or flower festivals. 
Some new kind of show was sought, and so Spokane 
gathered together the fruits of Washington, Oregon, 
Idaho, and even British Ck)lumbia, and made an ex- 
hibit that did credit to the states and peoples repre- 
sented. 

A FINANCIAL SUCCESS. 

** It was given under the auspices of the Spokane 
Bureau of Immigration ; and, notwithstanding the 
purpose was only to pay expenses and the admission 
fee was fixed at the nominal sum of ten cents, and 
it was necessary to construct for the occasion a great 
building of timbers and canvas, after all expenses 
had been paid there remained 11,000 profits. This 
sum was turned into the treasury of the Bureau of 
Immigration and will be expended for the good of 
Spokane and the surrounding country. 

** During the ten days of the fair there were 52,000 
paid admissions at the door, or a daily average of 
5,200. On one particularly attractive day the ad- 
missions numbered 8,000. These figures are not es- 
timates, but the actual returns made by the treas- 
urer in his accounting to the Bureau of Immigra- 
tion." 

*' Thousands of visitors came from Washington, 
Idaho, Oregon, Montana and British Columbia All 
the railroads ran special excursion trains carrying 
people from the surrotmding country and the ad- 
jacent States for one cent per mile, a passenger rate 
unparalleled in the history of the West These ex- 
cursion trains carried 1,000 to 8,000 people daily, and 
as the visitors were allowed from two to four days 
at the fair, the aggregate of strangers entertained 
by the city frequently ran up to 4.000 or 6,000. 

" Although the exhibition was open to all the prod- 
ucts of the soil, it was pre-eminently a fruit fair. 
Fruit was displayed in every imaginable form — ^in 
boxes, in pyramids, on plates, on the limb. There 
were tons of fresh fruit, tons of dried fruit, tons of 
canned fruit Seventy varieties of apples were on 
exhibition and an infinite variety of peaches, x>ears, 
plums, apricots, prunes, quinces, nectarines and 
small fruits. A profusion of cereals, grasses, flax, 
broom-corn, sugar-cane, melons, tobacco, hops and 
native wines added variety to the exposition and 
left no vacant room in the 50,000 feet of floor space 
under roof and canvas." 



WILD TRAITS IN DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 

IN the Forum Mr. William Ferrero, a disciple of 
the eminent Italian anthropologist. Professor 
Lombroso, gives among others, the following inter- 
esting examples of crime among animals : 

'*It would be absurd to declare that the hawk 
which kills a swallow is a criminal, for he is only 
fighting out his struggle for existence ; but, on the 
other hand, i^nimsda which kill others of their own 
species are guilty of a true criminal act when they 
do so for any other reason than that of self-def aise. 
Thus, Karl Vogt, the celebrated German naturalist, 
has observed a couple of storks that had for several 
years built their nest in a village near Salette. One 
day it was noticed that when the male was ont in 
search of food another younger bird began to conrt 
the female. At first he was repulsed, then tolerated 
and welcomed ; at last one morning the two birds 
flew away to the field where the husband was hunt- 
ing for frogs and killed him. According to Brehm, 
storks often murder the members of the flock which 
either refuse to follow them at the time of migra- 
tion or are not able to do so. Parrots although fmgiv- 
orous birds as a rule, will sometimes attack their 
companions and crush their skulls by repeated blows 
from their beaks. Female partridges love their 
young very dearly, but their jealousy of their com- 
panions is so great that they often kill each other's 
young. Houzeau has noticed among anthropo- 
morphic monkeys,— especially among the females in 
menageries,— that they treat each other with the 
greatest cruelty, and sometimes even kill each other. 
It is a x>eculiar feeling of hatred for the individuals 
of their own sex which often leads them to 
murder." 

The Sheep-Kllllnff Parrot. 

In the English Illustrated ifagcmne appears an in- 
t.eresting account of a bird which affords a remark- 
able illustration of the effect of environment on ani- 
mals. We are told that the kea, or New Zealand 
parrot, once harmless, has become xmder necessity 
a depraved, carnivorous creature, and is not only a 
carnivore but is a very epicure among the carnivores. 

▲ DEOBNERATB. 

" The kea in color is a dull olive, which brightens 
on the upper parts, especially in the tail feathers, 
where it shines with much lustre. Over the rump is 
a patch of brownish-red; the plumage under the 
wings is of a rich red and bright lemon color. It is 
extremely amusing to watch the kea when it is feed- 
ing on the ground. Having selected a spot which it 
considers favorable for the purpose, it sets about 
unearthing the larvae on which it sometimes feeds 
with a thoroughness and evident earnestness of 
purpose that are quite refreshing to see. Rapidly, 
and with astonishing force, stroke follows stroke of 
its pickaxe-like beak, the loosened soil flying about 
in all directions. The natural food of the kea con- 
sists of larvae of insects and berries and roots of van 
ous alpine shrubs and plants." 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



91 



Sach was the kea before the falL Man was the 
serpent which brought the temptation into the way 
of the tinf ortonate kea, and kidney-fat was the apple 
that ruined the vegetarian of the New Zealand 
Eden. ** The kea, in the days before the country 
was stocked with sheep, was obliged to leave its 
mountain home temporarily and descend to lower 
levels to eke out a hardy existence in winter time. 




THS NEW ZEALAND KEA. 

With the advent of sheep, even the scanty means it 
there found of sustaining life during the winter 
were taken from it By repeatedly burning off the 
face of the country for the purpose of obtaining 
fresh pasturage, the run-holder sjwedily swept away 
an berry-bearing shrubs and insectivorous life alike 
in a billowy sea of flames. 

** On a dismal winter night, with little in it to 
•often the hard lot of this feathered starveling, a 



famished kea must have come poking about the kill- 
ing-yard of some sheep station, seen the strange 
sight of a woolly skin hanging over the fence-rails, 
picked at the fat which adhered to it in places, foimd 
it good, and in that act changed its feeding habits; 
and, one might almost say, its whole nature. From 
picking the pieces from the skins it proceeded to 
feed upon the kidney-fat of carcasses on the meat- 
gallows, and from that to prey upon the living ani- 
aiiil. TkLs U a\\ of the origin of this strange practice 
that we cirn be at all sure of pursuing aright, all that 
we shall ever know. To conceive how the bird, hav- 
ing selects tht* kidney-fat on the carcass as an espe- 
cial dtslicacy, wa;^ able to tell with such exactness 
where the tit- bit was situated in the living animal, 
is ». task b<?yoixLl our power." 

The writer telL^ Home gruesome stories of the ra- 
pacity of thm bird. He says : " So rapacious has it be- 
come tliat it has beon known to attack a sheep when 
directly under the charge of a shepherd, and in broad 
daylight; iuileed there are not wanting cases where 
it has been known to attack foals, and one instance 
is reported of a horae becoming its victim.'* 

In n single twelve months in a comer of one run 
these birds destroy nd over one thousand sheep. They 
have been knoww to kill as many as two hundred 
health y fthef^i i i n a si ngle night. Still more horrible is 
th« story told ronnd the camp fire at Mount Cooke of 
a t^heplierd who btid recently arrived in New Zea- 
land, i\m\ who wa Jeered a month's pay that if he 
i;iothed himself in a sheep's skin, and went out 
into the hills and feigned 
distress on his hands and 
knees, by imitating the 
bleat of a lost sheep, no 
birds would dare to mo- 
lest him. The wager was 
accepted. The skin of a 
sheep was tied round the 
shepherd and he vanished 
into the darkness. It was 
a stormy night and all 
trace of the man was soon 
lost. Once they thought 
they heard a wild cry as 
of a human being in death 
agony borne down the 
^ gale, but they could not 

locate it, nor could they 
find him the whole of 
the next day until sun- 
down. Then they found him a hopeless idiot, 
while his body was in such a condition from the air 
tacks of the birds as to be indescribable. This parrot 
has multiplied and increased exceedingly, even as 
mankind did before the Flood, since it fell from its 
native innocence and ate the forbidden meat. In 
vain county councils offer so much a beak for every 
head brought in ; the keas continue to increase and 
multiply and render sheep- farming unprofitable. 



92 



THE REI/IEIV OF REl^IEIVS. 



A Dissertation on the P\g. 

Dr. Lonis Robinson rx>ntribute9 to the North 
American Review a fourth article on **Wild Traits in 
Tame Animals/' dealing this month with that most 
tminviting subject, the pig. But even the ** porker '' 
becomes interesting under Dr. Robinson's clever and 
skillful treatment. The first interesting fact that 
Dr. Robinson has to offer regarding the suidce, or 
pig tribe, is that all the characteristics which ren- 
dered them so valuable to carnivorous man served 
to preserve them during long epochs before the 
commencement of their captivity. We now chiefly 
regard a live hog as so much perambulating bacon. 
How came he by his aptitude for laying on fat ? Ac- 
cording to Dr. Robinson the hog's disposition to lay 
on an enormous amount of adipose tissue dates back 
far beyond the beginning of the Chinese Empire. 
The hog, then running wild, in all probability would 
have perished during the hard winter unless he ac- 
cumulated fat during the faU. 

PAT PORK AND HONEY. 

This thought is beautifully developed by Dr. Rob 
inson. ** One would not think that there was much 
resemblance between fat pork and honey, yet an- 
alysts tell us that they are chemically very similar. 
In both cases they were, in the first place, stores laid 
up for winter use by their respective owners, which 
man, the arch-plunderer, has appropriated for his 
own purposes. There was this difference, however, 
that whereas the bees accumulated their savings in 
a joint stock bank the pig carried his about with him. 

** Throughout the spring and summer in Northern 
and Central Eurox)e, the wild hog, by diligently grub- 
bing for roots and whatever else he could find, man- 
aged to make a bare living. But when autumn came 
and the acorns and beech-mast fell, he reveled in 
plenty. Moreover, at this season many of his 
enemies, such as the bears, were feasting on the ripe 
berries and nuts, so that he was left in comi)arative 
peace. The result was that in the few weeks be- 
tween the fall of the mast and the first severe 
weather he filled out amazingly. Then came the 
winter, during which he had to face the cold, and 
find what food he could beneath the snow or on the 
hard frozen ground. Toward the end of winter the 
most trying time came. The earth was still hard 
with frost, and every nut or acorn in the forest had 
been picked up by the thousands of hungry search- 
ers. The pig was no longer fat : his inward store had 
well nigh been consumed. It was always an anxious 
question with him whether he would * save his 
bacon ' until the breaking of the frost. 

" You will see then that the hog, which had 
within his own private bank a dollar's worth of sav- 
ings in the form of lard, when his fellows were in- 
solvent, would in an exceptionally protracted and 
severe winter be one of the few to survive.' He 
would naturally transmit his fattening tendencies to 
his descendants, and so i^ comes about that, in the 
present day no animal so handsomely* responds to 
liberal feeding as the domestic pig." 



OTHER REMINISCENCES OP BARBARIC DAYS. 

There are two other characteristics of the pig- 
which have been transmitted from his barbaric days, 
his tough skin and bristly coat. In other articles Dr. 
ftobinson showed that the horse, the ass, the sheep 
and the goat found it necessary to retire from the 
low and marshy regions where cover was abundant, 
and which swarmed with voracious foes. The pig: 
stayed and faced the danger. Shaped like a sub- 
marine boat, or a Whitehead torpedo, with a nose 
not unlike the thin end of a wedge, he was enabled 
to force his way through dense canebrakes and jun- 
gles, and his bristly covering formed a perfect pro- 
tection against the thorns and brambles through 
which he plunged at headlong speed when pursued 
by other animals. Dr. Robinson accounts for the 
shrill voice of the pig on the assumption that in the 
wild state it was his appeal to his brethren for help. 
The continual grunting of the pig also reflects some- 
thing of the conditions of life of his wild ancestors. 
This accomplishment was developed to prevent the 
herds of swine scattered in the long grass or amon^ 
the brackens of a European forest from losing sight 
of one another. 



WHAT IS JARRAH? 

JARRAH, the toughest wood in the world, which 
is now being largely used for paving purposes 
m England, is thus described by Sir William Robin- 
son in his paper on Western Australia, which ap- 
pears in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute. 
Writing of the timber wealth of Australia and of 
its great trees he says : ** The first in importance of 
these eucalypts is that commonly known as the jar- 
rah or yarra, which is gradually finding its way in- 
to the markets of the world— the first not only be- 
cause it is on the whole the most useful of the West 
Australia forest trees, but as covering the largest 
area, being the principal vegetable product over 
some fourteen thousand square miles. This tree at- 
tains to a large size, sufficient for all purposes of 
construction, is of handsome growth, straight and 
tall, but with the fault so common to ther trees of 
Australia— it is not umhrageous. The white bios 
soms are, however, very beautiful and produced in 
great abundance even when the tree is young. The 
jarrah timber has been the subject of exaggerated 
praise and depreciation, and in either case not with- 
out some reason, having been fotmd in some plac^ 
to answer fully the claims made for it of strength 
and durability, while in others it has failed. The 
reason for this is not far to seek: Like other timber 
it requires to be cut from trees growing on the 
proper soil— the iron-stone gravel of the DarUng 
range— at the proper season, and at the proper age; 
and, moreover, certain parts of it are of inferior 
quality. It is also difficult to season, being liable to 
split in the process if care is not taken. The great 
and sudden demand which at one time was made 
for this timber, induced, as I fear, its exxx>rtation to 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



93 



fulfill contracts as to qaantity without sufficient re- 
gard to quality ; but when the necessary care is 
taken, it will be found to justify the encomium of 
Baron von Mueller, whom we all know as a com- 
petent authority, ' that for the durability of its tim- 
ber it is unsurpassed by any kind of tree in any por- 
tion of the globe,' and under such circumstances it 
baa three properties of great utility— it resists the 
marine teredo and the white ant. and is not affected 
by the oxidation of iron bolts or nails. '' 



MRS. JOSEPHINE BUTLER ON THE RISE OF THE 

SALVATION ARMY. 
* < A LL THE WORLD " for this month contains 

iV a tribute from Mrs. Josephine Butler to her 
xealous allies in the Salvation Army. The Purity 
moTement and the Salvationist movement seem to her 
the two great features of the age. She tells how 
she first became acquainted with the later and the 
larger of the two: 

" My memory goes back a number of years to the 
time when my husband and I were living in Liverpool. 
I recall one evening when I drove ... in order 
u> accompany him home. As he seated himself by 
my side in the carriage, he laid upon my knee a poor 
little shabby newspaper, saying, * There, that will 
interest you. I am sure you will rejoice to see it.» 
This was the first ntmiber (as I believe) of the War 
0$. . , . My husband, a scholar, a literary 
man and critical, had read this paper himself, and 
Tf joioed in what it recorded, overlooking its many and 
obrioos defects and its peculiar style. He was right 
in thinking that I should rejoice in it I took it to 
mj room and read every word of it, and thanked GhxL 

A PREMONITION. 

** Some five or six years before, when resting on 
my bed during a slow recovery from illness, a great 
thirst took possession of my soul for national bless- 
ing—above all, for revival and blessing and help for 
the millions of the i>oor and suffering and ignorant, 
the * sabmerged ' in our great cities; my prayer for 
them went up night and day. One evening, awaking 
from a refreshing sleep, the words came to me with 
great distinctness and power, as if spoken by an 
angel of Gk>d in my chamber: 

O'er the gloomy hills of darkness, 
Look, my soul, be still and gazet 
AH tlie promises do travail 
With a glorious day of grace. 

And I was kept in stillness and expectancy. When 
the wretched little paper came into my himds I said 
to myself. ' Here are the first drops of a great and 
gncioos shower. * *' 

When Mrs. Butler first attended the Army meet- 
mga in Liverpool she fotmd them making *' a ter- 
rible Doise.'* She says, ''My head ached a little, 
bat my heart rejoiced. " 

' THI DKVn- TERRIBLY AFRAID OP YOU AND ME." 

SheteUs a characteristic story of the General: 
** Some seventeen or eighteen years ago I called at 
the Army headquarters in London. The General 



and Chief -of Staff were there. At the close of a con- 
versation on the war which we, each in our own 
sphere, were carrying on, the General took both my 
hands, and looking at me with his kind but piercing 
eyes, he said, * The devil is terribly afraid of you 
and me, Mrs. Butler.' I went away pondering this 
saying, * The devil terribly afraid of me!' * Why 
not ? ' I asked myself, ' since Gk>d elects to use the 
weak things of this world, things that are not, to 
bmg to naught things that are. I will believe it 
more than I have yet dared to do. "* 



ALEXANDRE DUMAS FILS. 

IN the January Bookman Prof. Adolphe Cohn 
offers a discriminating criticism on the work 
of Bumas the younger, who died recently in Paris. 

** Dumas' dramatic construction is simplicity it- 
self. His plays need but a short time. Here, again, 
we find the disciple of the classical dramatist of 
France. Of course no writer of the nineteenth cen- 
tury would think of subjecting himself to the tyran- 
nical rule of the three verities; but the romantic con- 
tempt for it, which is clearly visible in ** La Dame 
aux Cam^lias,'' has entirely disappeared from the 
later plays, written with a serious moral purpose. 
The spirit of the famous rule is respected if not its 
letter. Often there is no change of scenery from 
the beginning to the end ; as little time as possible 
elapses between the beginning and the end of the 
play; and as for the unity of action, it is more 
scarcely respected by Dumas than by any other 
dramatist save Racine. 

HIS PLAYS CLEAR AND LOGICAL. 

" His characters are not very complex; their na- 
ture is presented to us almost solely from an ethical 
and intellectual standpoint. We are not exx>ected to 
guess at anything; what we ought .to know is 
clearly told us; the end of the play is really the con- 
clusion of the author's reasoning.'* 

** After all this shall we say that Dumas fils' plays 
are perfect ? By no means; but we sincerely believe 
that they offer the most perfect dramatic products 
of one of the greatest qualities of the htmmn mind— 
viz.. logic. The trouble is that life is not always 
logical, and even that, as has been said more than 
once, it would be perfectly intolerable but for man's 
inconsistency. But when logic is clothed with the 
eloquence of Olivier de Jalin, of Jacques de Boisceny, 
of S^verine de BirsB, of Madame Aubray, of Thon- 
ocnin, or simply of Alexandre Dumas fils, when the 
moving power that underlies the argument is a de- 
sire not simply for success but for the mastery over 
the minds of men, and when that object itself in 
the eyes of the author is only second to a passion for 
the true and the good, the product resulting there- 
from cannot be an indifferent one, and it possesses 
that inner strength which carries works of art 
with strong chances of a favorable sentence to the 
tribunal of a remote and therefore impartial pos- 
terity." 



94 



THE REJ^IEIV OF REyiEWS. 



MR. G. F. WATTS, R.A., AT HOME. 
An Interview at LImnerslease. 

IN the Young Woman for December there is a 
charmingly written article on Mr. G. F. Watts, 
R.A., who since the article was written has pre- 
sented to the National Portrait Gkdlery of Lon- 
don a collection of fifteen oil paintings and two 
drawings, including portraitB of Carlyle, Tennyson, 




MR. O. F. WATTS, R.A- 

Matthew Arnold, Rossetti. Lord Lytton, Cardinal 
Manning and John Stnart Mill. The writer, Miss 
Friederichs, recently visited Mr. Watts at his coun- 
try hoose at Limnerslease. near GuUdford. She is 
sympathetic, picturesque and painstaking, and the 
interview is one of the best that has been published 
of late years. She tells us among other interesting 
things that Mr. Watts gets up every morning at 
four o'clock. He is indeed near eighty years of age. 
but he says, with cheerful energy, that he shall do 
some of his best work yet. Although in good spirits 
he has all his life lived very abstemiously. 

When asked as to how he got into faces of his por- 
traits the looks which one likes best to see there, Mr. 
Watte said: ** Before I paint the portrait of any 
man who is at all known to the public I get to know 



a good deal about him. And from what I know 
about him I also know that a certain expression must 
sometimes come into his eyes. And I put it thera *' 

HIS FOUTIGS. 

Questioned about politics, Mr. Watts gave the fol- 
lowing exposition of an artist's confession of faith : 
'* But I am not a Socialist by any means, although 
I take what are called broad views of social ques- 
tions. So far from being a Socialist, my inclinations 
are all the other way. I love pomp and ceremony; 
I would like to see a duke wear his ermine and a 
king his crown; I would like to see them drive about 
in gorgeous, picturesque state coaches, and I -would 
like to see the nobility live again in the pompous, 
stately way of former ages. 

*' Also, I would like the working classes to retain 
their distinctive dress, which was not only infinitely 
more picturesque but also infinitely more dig^nified 
than the present straining to imitate the clothes of 
the wealthy, which of course can only be done by 
buying what is cheap and ugly and machine-made 
But I know that the pomp and stateliness of olden 
times cannot return. The conditions of life have 
changed and with them the manners and customs, 
and what was right and fitting for the slow-going 
days of the past is no longer appropriate to the rush 
and hurry of the present There are many things 
in the past which can never return, but there are 
some that may be revived. " 

When ** Carmen Sylva '' was in Ehigland she called 
on Mr. Watts, and this interview led to the painting 
of the picture which is described and reproduced 
(by no means successfully) in the article. 

By chance Mr. Watte repeated the lines: 

What I spent I had ; 
What I saved I lost ; 
What I gave I have, 

and the discussion arose whether the spirit of the 
saying could be embodied in a picture. Mr. Watte 
was in doubt about it, but said he would see, and 
X>erhaps at her Majeety^s next visit he would be able 
to put before her an attempt at representing the 
lines in some symbol. 



LUKE FILDES AND HIS WORK. 

ONE of the most interesting English annuals is 
that known as the Art Annual, which is pub- 
lished in connection with the Art Journal, and takes 
the life and work of some artist of note for its sub- 
ject. The new number, which deals with Mr. Luke 
Fildes, R. A., would seem to be the twelfth in the 
series: the previous Annuals have given us critical 
and biographical sketches of such artiste as Sir Ed- 
ward Bume- Jones, Mr. W. Holman Hunt, Professor 
Herkomer, etc. 

'' Luke Fildes,'' in the hands of Mr. David Croal 
Thomson, the editor of the Art Journal, is an ex 
ceptionally good monograph, both as to letterpress 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH, 



95 



and iUnBtratioDS. In addition to interesting bio- 
graphical matter and a general article on his pic- 
tnreB,we have the artist presented to us as a painter 
of Venetians, as a portrait painter, and as an illns- 
trator ; bnt as he is most familiar to ns as the painter 
of the pathetic pictures, '* The Casnals " and ** The 
Doctor,'* some information about these pictnres will 
have the greatest interest 



the English nation, and when the new Westminster 
Gallery is ready, the painting will be open to the 
world to discuss. Meanwhile, all who have seen the 
etching of this painting will be interested in reading 
the following interesting story of how it was painted: 
'* After many studies Mr. Fildes had the interior 
of a cottage erected inside his own studio. This was 
carefully planned and properly buHt with rafters. 




LUKE FILDES IN HIS STUDIO. 



" The Casuals " only dates back to 1874. In ref- 
erence to it the artist says: '* I had been to a dinner 
pirty. I think, and happened to return by a police- 
station, when I saw an awful crowd of poor wretches 
applying for x)ermits to lodge in the casual ward. 
I made a note of the scene, and after that often went 
again, making friends with the x>oliceman and talking 
with the people themselves. Then was my chance, 
and I at once began to make studies for my Oraphic 
pbtorei From that I elaborated the large canvas 
ifterward exhibited at the Academy. " The picture 
i« now in the Royal HoUoway (College at Egham. 

Kr. Henry Tate has promised ** The Doctor *' to 



and walls, and window, all as afterward expressed 
in the finished picture. 

*'The composition has been recognized by the 
medical profession as a great and lasting compli- 
ment to the whole body. No more noble figure than 
the doctor could be imagined— the grave anxiety, 
supported by calm assurance in his own knowledge 
and skill, not put forward in any self -sufficient way, 
but with dignity and patience, following out the 
course his experience tells mm is correct; the im- 
plicit faith of the parents, who, although deeply 
moved, stand in the background, trusting their 
doctor even while their hearts fail 



96 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS, 



'* At the cottage window the dawn begins to steal 
in, and with it the parents again take hope into their 
hearts, the mother hiding her face to escape giving 
Tent to her emotion, the father laying his hand on 
the shonlder of his wife in encouragement of the first 
glimmerings of the joy which is to follow." 



FREEMAN THE SCHOLAR AND PROFESSOR. 

TELE current number of the Yale Review con- 
tains an appreciative estimate of the English 
historian Edward A. Freeman, by Prof. Herbert B. 
Adams, of the Johns Hopkins University, who knew 
Freeman intimately for many years. 

A MANY-SIDED SCHOLAR. 

Professor Adams describes Freeman as a many- 
sided scholar—** an historical geographer, a human- 
ist, a philologist, an archaeologist, a specialist in 
architecture, an accomplished journalist, a literary 
critic, an historic, and a politician in the best Greek 
sense.'' Freeman sought the solid fundamental 
facts of existence. He had no wings, says Professor 
Adams, and wanted none. He avoided light liter- 
ature, natural science, and even philosophy and 
theology. * 

** Freeman's interest in history was early kindled. 
He used to say that he could not remember a time 
when he was not interested in this subject. Before 
he began Latin — ^that is, before he was seven years 
old— he read Roman and English history with in- 
tense pleasure. His parents died in his early child- 
hood ana he was brought up by persons two generar 
tions older than himself. To that fact he attributed 
his early introduction to i>ast politics and present 
history. He associated with people to whom the 
American and French Revolutions were living 
memories. Consequently his first political princi- 
ples were strongly Tory; but he early became an 
eclectic with regard to politics beyond the sea. 
Sympathy with the modem Greeks and other oi^ 
pressed nationalities in southeastern Europe made 
him a Liberal." 

TWO CHARACTERISTIC AMBITIONS. 

** A study of Freeman's life reveals two character- 
istic ambitions. First, to become a professor of his- 
tory at Oxford and, secondly, to be elected a Liberal 
member of Parliament and to take an active part in 
the political life of his country. Although he once 
thought of taking orders, and even of becoming an 
architect, he wrote from Oxford in 1846 : * My great 
ambition would be to get one of the history profes- 
sorships here.' He worked hard for this honor and 
repeatedly stood as a candidate, first in 1858 for the 
chair of modem history when vacated by Vaughan, 
but the choice then fell upon Gk>ldwin Smith ; again 
in 1861 for the Camden professorship of ancient his- 
tory, which Freeman said he preferred ; and again 
in 1862 for the Chichele professorship of modem 
history. In December, 1865, Freeman wrote to Dean 
Hook: * Goldwin Smith will most likely give up his 



professorship next year, and I want to succeed him.* 
With this object in mind Freeman began the * His- 
tory of the Norman Conquest,' and hastened the 
printing of the first volume in 1866. But his friend 
Dr. Stubbs, who had succeeded him in the fellow- 
ship at Trinity College, now anticipated him in re- 
ceiving the appointment as Regius Professor of Mod- 
em History at Oxford. Freeman had to wait until 
1884 before the place came to him through nomina- 
tion by Gladstone, after Stubbs had been made 
Bishop of Chester. Academic honor was bestowed 
upon Freeman too late in lite, and he had but little 
satisfaction in his new title of * Professor.' He 
wrote to Gk>ldwin Smith : * It is something to suc- 
ceed Arnold, you, and Stubbs — but I gnash my teeth 
that I have not had you and Stubbs as my col- 
leagues, and not as my predecessors. Years ago to 
fill one of the historical chairs at Oxford wfbs my 
alternative ambition with a seat in Parliament It 
seemed for years as if neither would ever come to 
me; and now at last one has come when I am rather 
too old for the change.' " 

DISAPPOINTED IN HIS POLITICAL AMBITIONS. 

** Freeman was disappointed in his political am- 
bitions; but it was a kind fate that kept him at 
his scholarly work in his own home for the greater 
part of his Uf e. He was obviously unfitted by na- 
ture for the career either of a politician or of a uni- 
versity professor. He was not sufficiently adaptable 
to new times and new men to suit the progressive 
needs of his day and generation. He judged the 
present too severely by the past. He often applied 
archaic standards of measurement to living issues. 
He worried himself and others over the use of mere 
words like * Anglo-Saxon ' and •Imperial' The 
antiquarian and historical side of things was some- 
times to him of greater moment than present facts 
and inevitable tendencies. He was too fond of ad- 
vocating political reforms by going backward to 
English origins and first principles. 

** A quiet meditative life in the country amid his 
own books, his family, and rural surroundings was 
undoubtedly better suited to Freeman's domestic 
nature than public or academic life would have 
been, and he knew it. He hated the big \xMii of 
London and * the worry and flurry of Oxford. ' He 
was never at home except at * Somerleaze,' near the 
city of Wells in Somerset, on the old West Saxon 
frontier, still a parish boundary. The country squire 
was the historic type of Englishman that he most 
resembled, although he was a declared enemy of all 
fox-hunting and bird-shooting. He was a local 
magistrate, and faithfully discharged all the duties 
of his office even against poachers. He thought 
that his experience in local government gave him a 
better understanding of the practical politics of 
past times." 

'* Freeman needed an historical environment and 
a sympathetic audience. In England he was upon 
his own ground. He did not understand American 
audiences, nor they him. He was much annoyed by 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



97 



nnfivorable newspaper comments upon his style of 
lecturing in America. In a letter to me written 
from Somerleaze, February 11, 1883, he said: ' There 
u a charge against me in some of the papers that 
pnziled me. My lectures were *' spoiled by my de- 
livery/' I am **a poorer reader even than Mr. 
Fronde." I have no kind of notion whether Fronde 
reads well or iU; but I had always rather piqued 
myself on my reading out clearly and vigorously, 
and I fancy that most i>eople think so. I gather 
from Gtoldwin [Smith] that some of them expected 
me to kick about like a stage-player, which I cer- 
tainly was not likely to do, nor, I suppose, Fronde 
either.'" 

HE WAS JOURNALISTIC. 

'* There was often something of journalistic en- 
terprise in the timeliness of Freeman's contributions 
to. history and politics. He was an opportunist in 
A his travels and observations. His frequent 
^^amps and archceological excursions through Elng- 
^ui^ France and Italy bore rich fruit in articles for 
J Vbk'Saturday Review and other journals as well as 
/^ in his own books, especially in his wonderful * His- 
F, Wrical (Geography,' which in some respects is the 
, I taEt. the most useful, and the most characteristic 

/work of his life. Freeman's multitudinous articles 
were written, of course, for income, but not for in- 
come only. He put honest work and a good con- 
' srience into everything he did. The best proof of 
his devotion to principle is seen in the fact that he 
▼olraitarily severed his relations with the Saturday 
Rerieip because it was on the Tory side of the East- 
en question. He sacrificed $8,500 yearly income to 
hif hatred of Turks and his love of liberty. '* 



AH ARTIST ON THE LONDON UNDERGROUND 
RAILWAY. 

IN the January Harper's Elizabeth Robins Pen- 
nell describes '* London's Underground Rail- 
viys " with the aid of Joseph Pennell's drawings 
of the typical scenes which have caught his artist's 
«ye on these great tramways. London's local rail- 
wij systems do not offer any very encouraging les- 
soDs from the standpoint of financial returns. The 
Metropolitan during the past six years has managed 
to pay dividends varying from 2}4 to S}4 per cent, 
and the District Railway has but twice exceeded 
3 per cent, and has several times passed the 
diridend. 

SOME STATISTICS OP TRAVEU 

'* However, of the underground's success, other than 
fioaDcisl, there can be no doubt. Actual figures offer 
the bat proof. In the second half of 1894, 19,218,045 
^tmmgen traveled over the District Railway. Of 
tb«e 15.288.951 went third class ; 2,756.863, second ; 
and 1,178.131. first— facts which show how depend 
mt the company is ui>on its third class fares. In addi- 
tion, 10,906 holders of season tickets are to be re- 
corded. It is worth while to compare these numbers 
with those of the same half year in 1871. Then there 



was a total of but 8,385,248 passengers and 1,258 sea- 
son ticket holders. It is clear that the underground 
has grown in favor. No fewer than 555 trains per 
day carry these passengers over the tunnel section — 
that is, the section more directly underneath Lon- 
don of the District line." 

A RAILWAY FOB THE MASSES. 

Mrs. Pennell explains with the help of a map of 
London how such extraordinary figures are possible 
by an extension of the sjrstem to cover the whole 
ground without duplication and competition. 

**If study of the map demonstrates the under- 
ground's sphere of usefulness, you have but to 
travel over its circles and extensions at certain hours 
and seasons to realize to what extent London's 
millions have come to rely upon it. Should you 
chance to be abroad early enough, the working-man 
will crowd you out of third class carriages, half 
empty during the day; a few hours later and the 
city man. in his turn, will leave you no space in the 
first, entirely deserted once the period of his migra- 
tion is temporarily at an end. Again at correspond- 
ing hours in the afternoon your right to first or third- 
class seats will be as closely contested. Or you need 
but to come home at night with the multitude from 
Earl's Court or Olympia, or set out for Hammersmith 
on the day of the Oxford and Cambridge boat race, 
to understand why dividends are regulated according 
to popular amusements." 

AN ELECTRIC UNDERGROUND. 

In South London there is a variation on the 
standard type in an electric road underground. It is 
three and a half miles long. 

" The trip is made in a quarter of an hour, and 
trains run every three minutes. I believe as yet 
there are but ten trains in all, but as each makes the 
round trip in half an hour a larger number cculd 
hardly be managed. The journey for the unaccus- 
tomed has an element of novelty. You are carried 
down to the platform and up again to the street 
level in an elevator. There is no division of classes, 
and the cars are built somewhat on the model of 
street cars ; three are attached to each engine. I 
found the light — though it may have been a chance 
that one day — atrociously bad, the jolting dreadful, 
and the stations clean and dull compared to those on 
the ordinary underground. For, of course, there is 
no smoke, and the tiled walls are immaculately 
clean ; as up and down lines have each a separate 
tube or tunnel, there is a platform but to one side 
and it is made as narrow and contracted as may be : 
while it is the one place I know where London is 
as silent as M. Daudet so recently foimd it The 
absence of smoke is an advantage in a way ; the 
atmosphere may savor of the cellar, but there is no 
danger of being stifled and suffocated by foul air. 
London being the most conservative place in the 
world, naturally the electric railway has not yet 
achieve so great a popularity as to warrant the 
creation of rivals. The Londoner must have time 



'J8 



THE REyiEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



to make up his mind about it ; he is still in that 
stage of uncertainty when he will pay his penny or 
two pence to go below and inspect the platform. 
The wonder really is that this one line happened to 
be built in the metropolis, which has been most 
backward in accepting the modem applications of 
electricity. Do not London streets, except here and 
there; still wait for the electric light ? 

** The cleaner atmosphere of the electric road is 
not to be underestimated. Of the drawbacks to the 
ordinary underground i)eople are agreed that ill 
ventilation is the most serious. On one of London's 
murky summer days I would go to much trouble 
and more expense to escape the plunge into the 
underground's hot vapor bath." 

THE iBSTHETIC ADVANTAGES OP THE LONDON SYSTEM. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pennell ought to be high authorities 
on this not by any means unimportant phase of 
city railway buildhig and they are not undecided 
in their opinions. 

** If the householder who lives above or close to 
the underground were consulted he would rank his 
grievance as greater than that of the traveler who 
now and then or even regularly takes a train for 
convenience. Just how much damage the under- 
ground will work in the course of time it would not 
be safe to predict. In the end it may not prove 
more destructive than the elevated. But the con- 
stant passing of trains below cannot be entirely 
harmless to the buildings undermined. 

** In picturesqueness the underground makes rich 
atonement for vile atmosphere, for nervous wear and 
tear, and much else. It is in this respect that it 
leaves the elevated, cleaner and purer though the 
New York line may be, so far behind, and that it 
makes the electric road seem so ugly and prosaic. You 
receive no hint of its curious effectiveness from the 
entrance on the street ; that is, as a rule. A few 
stations have their qualities above ground as below; 
Charing Cross, for example, as I see it from my win- 
dow, its walls flaming with many posters, on one 
side shut in by the lines of Hungerford bridge, on 
the other by the soft green of the shrubbery in the 
gardens and the branches of overshadowing trees. 
But Charing Cross is one of the exceptions. The 
ticket office, or booking office, to be English, is un- 
compromisingly ugly. In appearance it would have 
fared better had it been left on the low level of the 
platform as was originally intended. For once on 
the platform the grime and dirt and unsightly detail 
are lost in the beautiful play of light and shadow. 
Rembrandt would have exulted in the rich darkness 
of the nearest distance ; in the way the daylight 
filters in through the glass roof or skylight above and 
mingles with the glare of gas and the red and green 
glow of signals ; in the bits of color that tell so well 
in the sombre surroundings— here the posters on 
the walls, here the books on the stalls, and there it 
may be the gay gown and flaunting feather of a 
lingering passenger ; and. above all, in the wonder- 
ful effects of the trailing outspreading smoke, as the 



train comes thundering in. There are stations 
where the track makes a great curve just before it 
reaches the platform, and engine and smoke cloud 
round it with a fine rythmical swing ; there are others 
where the low roof is supported by long lines of 
columns, and the smoke loses itself among them as 
in the dim aisles of a cryptlike basilica ; and there 
is not one without its distinctive features, its special 
picturesqueness. The marvel is that the artist has 
but just discovered the underground." 



THE RESULTS OF THE BERING SEA ARBI- 
TRATION. 
HON. JOHN W. FOSTER, who has represented 
the United States three times as minister to 
foreign courts, and who succeeded the Hon. James 
Q. Blaine as Secretary of State during the remain- 
der of President Harrison's administration, and still 
more recently has been prominent for his distin- 
guished services to the Chinese Government, sets 
forth in the North American Review the '* Results 
of the Bering Sea Arbitration " as an example of 
the workings of international settlement of disputes. 
Notwithstanding that on the five points submitted to 
the Bering Sea Tribunal at Paris, in 1893, the de- 
cision was unfavorable to the United States, Mr. 
Foster shows that from an American point of view 
the Paris arbitration was not unwisely entered upon, 
and that it was not altogether fruitless in its results 
for us. The gist of his article is set forth in the fol- 
lowing paragraphs: 

NOT FRUITLESS IN ITS RESULTS FOR US. 

'' While the action of the government in making 
the seizures was based on the weakest round of our 
defense, and which proved untenable, it cannot be 
doubted that the motives which actuated its conduct 
were patriotic and praiseworthy. But had our efforts 
to save the seals from destruction been from the out- 
set based upon a right of protection and property in 
them, our case before the Tribunal would have been 
stronger and the decision might have been different. 
Nevertheless it cannot be justly claimed that the 
arbitration was fruitless in its results for us. It is 
no small matter that a question which threatened a 
rupture of our peaceful relations with Great Britain 
was adjusted by a resort to the arbitrament of 
reason and not of force. The Alaskan seal herd is 
of great value to us and to the world, and it is the 
duty of our government to be vigilant in protecting 
it from destruction ; but the legal issues involved in 
our controversy with Great Britain regarding them 
did not seem to justify the hazard of an armed con- 
flict, and it was a great gain to us that the contro- 
versy was peacefully settled without national dis- 
honor. 

** The decision of the Tribunal was adverse to the 
United States on the legal points in dispute, but the 
award contained an important provision for interna- 
tional regulations, which were intended by the Tri- 
bunal to be a protection to the seals and which in the 
judgment of the majority of that body would in 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



99 



practice prove an adequate protection. The agent 
and counsel of the United States contended that no 
regnlations would be a certain protection of the herd 
which did not prohibit all pelagic sealing, and the 
American arbitrators voted for such prohibition, and 
sustained their votes by very able and cogent opin- 
ions; but the majority of the Tribunal took a differ- 
ent view of the subject The regulations adopted 
were opposed both by the American and Canadian 
arbitrators. When first published they were ac- 
cepted by all the Americans who participated in the 
arbitration as a decided triumph for the United 
States, and were regarded by the Canadian sealers 
as a serious menace, if not a death-blow, to their in- 
teresta If they are carefully examined they will be 
found to be more favorable to the United States than 
the reg^ulations which Mr. Bayard proposed to Lord 
Salisbury as a settlement of the question, or which 
Mr. Blaine offered to Sir Julian Pauncefote. If. 
therefore, we obtained more from the Tribunal than 
our government proposed to accept from Great 
Britain, the arbitration cannot justly be character- 
ised as fruitless in its results for us. The adequacy 
of the regulations cannot be properly judged because 
they have not yet been put in force in their true 
spirit and intent This will not be done until they 
are also made to apply to the Russian waters, and 
until more stringent rules for their enforcement are 
adopted. It has been a source of disappointment to 
many who have taken an interest in the preservation 
of the seals that these rules have been so lax and so 
imperfectly observed. The obstruction in these re- 
spects is now, as it has been from the beginning, the 
selfish and inhuman conduct of Canada " 

A WORD REOARDINO THE AWARD FOR DAMAGES. 

In conclusion Mr. Foster has a word to say regard- 
ing the refusal of Congress to give its approval to the 
sum agreed upon between the Secretary of State and 
the British Ambassador as full satisfaction of the 
claims for the seizure of the British vessels. 

•* It may have been the wisest policy to vote the 
appropriation, but it was no breach of our interna- 
tional obligations not to approve of that sxmi; and it 
is not to the discredit of Congress that it exercised 
its judgment as to the action of the executive in 
agreeing to a settlement with Great Britain which 
altogether ignored the claim of the United States for 
damages to the seals by improper pelagic hunting, 
and the views of its own representatives before the 
Tribunal as to the British claims. While a differ- 
ence of views may properly exist between the execu- 
tive and legislative departments upon these subor- 
dinate questions, no disposition has been entertained 
or shown by any portion of our government or people 
to evade our just obligations under the treaty. And 
the fact that the spirit of the award leads us to pay 
out of the national treasury a sum by way of dam- 
ages, which at the most must be regarded as insig- 
nificant for a great nation, should certainly have no 
tendency to modify in the slightest degree our devo- 
tion to tiie tcreat policy of international arbitration.'* 



THE COST OF SHIP CAKALS. 

* * O CRIBNER'S " for January contains a paper 
O by Thomas Curtis Clarke on " Waterways 
from the Ocean to the Lakes." He concludes by 
some remarks on the existing situation in Central 
American canal circlea Mr. Clarke explains why 
it is so difficult to get the necessary capital to com- 
plete the Nicaragua waterway: 

THE SUEZ 8U00E8S. 

'* The estimated cost of the Suez Canal was $40, 
000,000. Its cost when opened for traffic was $92,. 
000,000, and nearly forty millions more have been 
spent since in widening and deepening it Not only 
was the cost of the engineering works proper largely 
exceeded, but items not thought of--such as admin- 
istration, surveys, telegraphs, sanitary service, trans- 
port service, etc. — amounted to 40 per cent of the 
original estimates, or $26,000,000. It pays so well 
that these mistakes have been forgotten, and the 
Semitic shrewdness of Beaconsfield, in acquiring 
the Khedive's shares for England, has been fully 
justified. 

DB LES8BP8 AND PANAMA. 

'* The insufficient estimates of the Suez Canal did 
not warn the enthusiastic De Lesseps when he pro- 
vided capital for his Panama CanaL His engineer- 
ing conmiission estimated its cost at $158,400,000, 
which he cut down to $128,000,000, at the meeting 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1879, 
saying, in his airy way, that he was a diplomate 
and not an engineer. 

'' We all have heard of the melancholy result. 
After eight years of work« one hundred and seventy- 
eight millions of dollars had been spent, to raise 
which three hundred and fifty millions of capitali- 
zation and obligations had been incurred. The diffi 
cult part of the work, the great Culebra cutting, had 
only been scratched — and nothing done toward con- 
trolling the Chagres River, while the money had 
nearly all been spent The younger De Lesseps and 
others were fined and imprisoned, and the old man. 
bankrupt in fame and fortune, was spared the hu- 
miliation of further punishment only on account of 
his great age and past services. 

THE MANCHESTER OBJECT-LESSON. 

*' Englishmen are considered more practical than 
the French and less likely to be led away by senti- 
ment, and Manchester men are not less shrewa than 
other Englishmen. They started to build a ship- 
canal to turn Manchester into a seaport. It was but 
twenty-seven miles long and had only four locks. 

** The estimated cost, including the purchase of 
the existing Bridgewater Canal, was fifty million 
dollars, and the cost when opened for traffic was 
seventy-seven millions. This vast increase is stated 
to have been due * chiefly to items which were un- 
exi)ected and unprovided for.' The canal is not fin- 
ished yet and the City of Manchester, which has 
provided the greater part of the capital, will have 
to provide the rest. 



THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED. 



HARPER'S. 

THE January Harper^s begins with an essay by Pro- 
fessor Woodrow Wilson which draws a delightful 
picture of the colonies *'In Washington's Time." Mr. 
Howard Pyle was the one man to give pictorial form to 
these ruddy old burgesses, dashing Virginia cavaliers, and 
eighteenth century ships at the plantation wharves ; and 
he has done it in the style his public would have antid- ' 
pated. The following sketch of the Virginia life is a taic 
sample of Professor Wilson's readable and at the same 
time very scholarly style: 

'* Virginia, meanwhile, had got the character she was 
to keep. From the Potomac to the uncertain border of 
the Carolinas she had seen her counties fill with the men 
who were to decide her destiny. Her people, close upon 
a hundred thousand strong, had fallen into the order of 
life they were to maintain. They were no longer colonists 
merely, but citizens of a conmionwealth of which they 
began to be very proud, not least because they saw a noble 
breed of public men spring out of their own loins to lead 
them. Though they were scattered they were not divided. 
There was, after aJl, no real isolation for any man in Vir- 
ginia, for all that he lived so much apart and was a sort 
of lord within his rustic barony. In that sunny land men 
were constantly abroad, looking to their tobacco and the 
labor of all kinds that must go forward, but would not 
unless they looked to it, or else for the sheer pleasure of 
bestriding a good horse, being quit of the house, and 
breathing free in the genial air. Bridle-paths everywhere 
threaded the forests; it was no great matter to ride from 
house to house among one's neighbors, there were county 
court days, moreover, to draw the country-side together, 
whether there was much business or little to be seen to. 
Men did not thrive thereabouts by staying within-doors, 
but by being much about, knowing their neighbors, observ- 
ing what ships came and went upon the rivers, and what 
prices were got for the cargoes they carried away, learning 
what the news was from Williamsburg and London, what 
horses and cattle were to be had, and what dogs, of what 
breeds. It was a country in which news and opinions and 
friendships passed freely current; where men knew each 
other with a rare leisurely intimacy, and enjoyed their 
easy, unforced intercourse with a keen and lasting relish. 

** It was a country in which, men kept their individual- 
ity very handsomely withai If there was no town life, 
there were no town manners either, no village conven- 
tionalities to make all men of one carriage and pattern 
and manner of living. Every head of a family was head 
also of an establishment, and could live with a self 
respect and freedom which was subject to no man's 
private scrutiny. He had leave, in his index)endence, to 
be himself quite naturally, and did not need to justify 
his liberty by excuses." 

Mr. T. R. Lounsbury discusses "The United States 
Naval Academy" and advocates strongly raising the 
standard of admission. He sees many objections, and 
soiue of them very forcible, that could be raised, but is 
nevertheless sure that such a reform is needed. Mr. 
Lounsbury says that absolutely the only authorities fit to 
pass on the question are the two academies who have 
had experience in naval instruction. 



SCRIBNER'S. 

THE January Seribner^a pays a tribute in its ** Pdnt 
of View " department to the late Eugene Field : 
" Field was persistently— incorrigibly, if one may dare to 
say it— a newspaper man. Perhaps no one appreciates so 
well the quality of his deliverances as the little army of 
exchange editors in newspaper offices whose duty it is to 
ghmce through piles of newspapers, scissors in hand, and 
dip out the paragraphs that seem good to read, and the 
verses of merit enough to bear transplanting. Day after 
day in his column in the Chicago Record Field kept say- 
ing something, and saying it with humor and animation. 
It was usually something with a local bearing; a skit, or 
a jibe, or a little story, but it was all touched with his 
personality, and whether it was imjxxrtant or not, and 
whether it was wise or not, it was almost always reada- 
ble. Field's personality was very pleasant. He had an 
imperfect equipment of culture (though of that he had 
far more than many more pretentious men) and a very 
imperfect outfit of conformity. That pleasant information 
which he is said to have given in reply to a question of 
BIrs. Humphry Ward, * When they caught me 1 was liv- 
ing in a tree,' might almost have been credible, so veiy 
different was he in his habits and his estimates of things 
from the conventional man of letters of his day. He was 
dosely tied to a newspaper through most of his working 
years, but somehow he seemed to manage to keep his 
spirit out of bondage. He would think anything he chose 
about anything that happened to interest him, and what 
he thought he would write down and print." 

Mr. T. B. Sullivan describes and defends the estheti- 
dsm and magnificence of " The New Building of the Bos- 
ton Public Library," and is findy aided in both efforts by 
a dozen unusually well drawn pictures. Mr. Sullivan 
says, in antidpation of any sumptuary criticism: 

** Comfort, as all must allow, is eminently desirable; 
but the critic may question the need of so rare a setting 
for it. Why, he may ask, would not a simpler reading- 
room serve the rank and file of the public as well as the 
arched grandeur of Bates Hall f Why ransack the quar- 
ries of Carrara for costly marbles f Why employ famous 
hands to paint the intermediate wall-surfaoef To all such 
shallow criticism there can be but one emphatic answer. 
The builders have dedicated this great library to the ad- 
vancement of learning, in due remembrance of the fact 
that familiarity with things ideally beautiful is an educa- 
tion in itself. With this purpose in view they have dared 
to build not for a day but for the time to come, and the 
purpose has been so well achieved that their work takes 
high rank at once among the few examples of architect- 
ural inspiration in America." 

Scribner^s begins the new year with the first installment 
of its serial literary feature for 1896— a novd by J. Bl 
Barrie, entitled *' Sentimental Tommy." The story brings 
a Thrums boy into London, where Mr. Barrie does not 
seem to be at all out of his element. The new year's 
number is marked also by the first appearance of two new 
editorial departments, somewhat co-ordinate with the 
" Point of View." They are entitled ** The Field of Art," 
and " About the World," respectively. 



THE PERIODICALS RE^IEIVED. 



101 



THE CENTURY. 

THE Jannary Ctntury begins with a paper by F. 
Marion Crawford which he calls '* A Kaleidoscope 
of Rome," embellished with the striking drawings of Mr. 
Castaigne. The novelist concludes his essay with a pic- 
ture of a scene in the Colossenm so graphic and fine that 
we take occasion to quote it : 

'* Straightway tier upon tier, eighteen thousand faces 
rise, up to the last high rank beneath the awning's shade. 
Meanwhile, under his silken canopy, sits the emperor of 
the world, sodden-faoed, ghastly, swine^yed, robed in 
purple ; all alone, save for his dwarf, bull-nosed, slit- 
mouthed, hunchbacked, sly. Next, on the lowest bench, 
the VestBLlB, old and young, the elder looking on with 
hard faces and dry eyes, the youngest with wide and 
startled looks, and parted lips, and quick-drawn breath 
that sobs and is caught at sight of each deadly stab and 
gash of broadsword and trident, and hands that twitch 
and clutch each other as a man's foot slips in a pool of 
blood, and the heavy harness dashes in the red, wet sand. 
Then grsy-haired senators; then curled and perfumed 
knights of Rome ; and. then the ];>eople, countless, vast, 
frenxied, bloodthirsty, stretching out a hundred thousand 
hands with thumbs reversed, commanding death to the 
fyien — full eighty thousand throats of men and women 
roaring, yelling, shrieking over each ended life. A thea- 
tre indeed, a stage indeed, a play wherein every scene of 
every act ends in a sudden death. 

«< And then the wildest, deadliest howl of all on that 
day; a handful of men and women in white, and one girl 
in the midst of them; the dang of an iron gate thrown 
mddanly open; a rushing and leaping of great lithe 
bodies of beasts, yellow and black and striped, the sand 
flying in clouds behind them ; a worrying and crashing 
of flesh and bone, as of huge cats worrying little white 
ndoe : three sharp cries, then blood, then sUence, then a 
great laughter, and the sodden face of mankind's drunken 
maeter grows almost human for a moment with a very 
dow smile. The wild beasts are driven out with brands 
step by step, dragging backward namdess mangled rags 
of humanity in their dripping jaws, and the bull-nosed 
dwarf offers the emperor a cup of rare red wine. It drips 
from his mouth while he dnnks, as the blood from the 
tigecB' fangs. 

*' What were they f " he asks. 

" Christians," explains the dwarf. 

*< ' They were very amusing,* answers the emperor. 
* They were like little white mice. We will have n^ore ! ' '* 

Mr. C. M Cady contributes a short paper which he 
cdls ** BespoDBibility Among the Chinese," in which he 
gives some very curious anecdotes of the effect of the 
peculiar customs of the Celestial Empire on the life of its 



** Paradoxical as it sounds, in a very important sense 
raspoDflAnlity in China decreases as it increases ; that is, a 
C^ineae acknowledges and acts upon no responsibility be- 
yond or outside of what he will be hdd to by law or cus- 
tom. 

*' For instanoe, I once had occasion to go in a Chinese 
cart from the main or Chinese portion of Tientsin to that 
part containing the foreign concession. To do so it was 
iiLici— iry to cross the Peiho Biver over a bridge of boats. 
There were several carts ahead of mine, some very heavily 
loaded with goods. The cart nearest the river was one of 
these loaded ones, and was unable to get on the bridge, 
the edge of the first boat being several inches higher than 
the approach to it I therefore had plenty of opportunity 



to watch the proceedings. Had this been the first time I 
had travded in China, or had 1 known nothing of the 
prindple of which I have been speaking, I should have 
conduded that every one among this dozen or twenty 
cartmen was crasy or a fod; as it was, their seemingly 
foolish methods, though short-sighted, had a rational 
basis and were significant. 

<* The driver whose cart was stuck, after seeing that hifa 
mules could not possibly pull the cart up over the edge of 
the bridge, began bacldng. After getting his load back 
four or five feet, he suddenly shouted to his tandem 
team, and laid on the whip. Both mules sprang forward, 
bringing the wheels of the cart against the edge of the 
bridge with a tremendous thump which lifted them dear 
off the ground, but not quite far enough to get upon the 
bridge. Again the man backed, this time a little farther 
than at first, and again made a rush for the bridge. This 
time the head mule failed to hold on as the cart bumped 
into the air, so back the load fell. Again, for the third 
time, the same mad dash was made, this time success- 
fully. The next driver banged up over the edge of the 
bridge in the same way, and every cartman, my own in- 
duded, did the same." 

<* If it is asked, why in the name of common sense some- 
body did not lay a plank to hdp the carts up^ I answer, 
because no one was responsible for the difficulty. The 
convenience of the traveling public was a matter of too 
trifiing importance to be provided for." 

Thomas A. Janvier, of the artistic eye and the bluff 
humor, describes in a considerBble paper, " A Feast-Day 
on the Bhone." Professor Sloane's history of Napdeon 
has reached the period in which his hero was the dictator 
of continental Europe. The very excellent paper on '* The 
First lAiifUng on the Antarctic Continent," by one of the 
explorers, Mr. Borchgrevink, we have quoted from in an- 
other department 



THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY. 

THE New Year's AUaniie has a tramp artide by 
JosiahFlynt, headed '' The Children of the Boad," 
and we quote from it among the " Leading Artides of the 
Month." 

An unsigned artide entitled '<A Congress Out of Date," 
points out the troubles which are likely to arise from the 
fact that Congresses of the United States do not convene 
until thirteen months after they are dected. The writer 
says: 

*'A public servant who seeks re-dection to an office 
which he has filled for one term is supposed to stand upon 
the record which he has made during this term. One of 
the many absurditiee of our congressional system is found 
in the fact that a representative who seeks re-election 
has, under ordinary conditions, sat for only one of the 
two sessions, and that the second session will not begin 
until after the seat has been filled by the voters for the 
next term. Indeed, under the custom of long campaigns 
in many states, the canvass for the nomination of a rep- 
resentative in the next Congress begins not long after the 
opening of the first session of the existing Congress; and 
all the nominations are sometimes made before the end of 
this first session. A verdict ui>on the complete record of 
a representative is thus rendered impossible. 

* ' Another consequence of this system is a lack of respon- 
sibility to the people daring the second term of a Congress 
on the part of those representatives who have not been 
re-dectcd, especially such of them as belong to the party 
which is dominant in the existing Congrees, if a ' tidal 



102 



THE REyiElV OF REyiEWS. 



wave ' has swept that party into the minority in the next 
Ck>ngre68. 

*^ A more eerious result is the possibility that a party 
which has just been overwhelmingly beaten at the i>oll8, 
and which logically should have no further control over 
legislation, may exercise the power which, by an unjusti- 
fiable anachronism, it still possesses for three months, to 
impose upon the people a law against which they have 
protested. The country actually had a narrow escape 
from the perpetration of such an outrage only five years 
ago this winter/' 

There is a delightful inper on " The Johnson Club," by 
Dr. George Birkbeck Hill. This is the way the club met 
at the *< Cheshire Cheese :" 

" In this same room, with its floor as ^nicely sanded ' as 
when Goldsmith knew it, our club gathers from time to 
time ; here, undisturbed in our thoughts by a single mod- 
em innovation except the gas, we sup on one of those 
beefsteak puddings for which the Cheshire Cheese has 
been famous from time immemorial. So vast is it in all 
its glorious rotundity that it has to be wheeled in on a 
table; it riiw^ainR a successor in the same line, and itself 
alone satisfies forty hungry guests. * A magnificent hot 
apple-pie stuck with bay leaves,' our second course, recalls 
the supper with which Johnson * celebrated the birth of 
the first literary child of Mrs. Lennox, the novelist, when 
at five in the morning his face still shone with meridian 
splendor, though his drink had been only lemonade.' The 
talk is of the liveliest ; from time to time toasts are drunk 
and responded to. Sometimes, indeed, we suffer from a 
guest who, having nothing to say, naturally takes a long 
time to say it ; but when he has at last sat down some 
touch of humor soon comes to clear the dull air. 



THE COSMOPOLITAN. 

THE January Cosmopolitan begins with a noble poem 
by Arthur Sherburne Hardy, which he calls '' The 
City of Dreams." It is longer than the verses usually 
seen in " popular " magazines, occupying, with the illus- 
trations, a half dozen pages. The Cosmopolitan is to be 
congratulated on procuring so fine a piece of work from 
Mr. Hardy, one of those writers who are fortunate and 
wise enough to do only very good work. The January 
chapter of " A Brief History of Altruria," is quoted from 
in another department. 

W. A. Dobson contributes a paper on *' Submarine 
Boats," in which he sketches the various attempts 4» use 
these deadly vessels in marine combats, and explains with 
considerable technical detail the distinctive features of 
the latest designs— the Nordenfeldt, Baker and Holland 
boats. The last named he describes briefly as follows : 

*' The Holland boat will be eighty feet long and eleven 
feet in diameter, with a total displacement of one hun- 
dred and thirty-eight and one-half tons. For surface 
work the vessel will be driven by twin screws, actuated 
by two sets of steam-engines. For work below the sur- 
face an»electric motor in connection with storage batter- 
ies will be used. The speed on the surface will be sixteen 
knots per hour, and when completely submerged a speed 
of eight knots is expected. The vessel is of the diving 
type, submergence being effected by the action of the 
water upon large horizontal rudders placed at the stem 
of the vessel. The plan of approaching an enemy is that 
of creeping upon him with the vessel just awash, leaving 
only the conning-tower exposed, going below the surface 
entirely only when within striking distance, or to escape 



disaster if disoovered. The armament will consist of five 
automobile torpedoes which will be discharged from twin 
tubes in the bow. Air wiU be supplied to the crew from 
reservoirs stored at a pressure of two thousand x>ounds 
per square inch ; if, however, the air should be exhausted 
by accident, it is expected that an abundant supply can be 
obtained through a two-inch hose-pipe stowed on a reel, 
the free end being attached to a fioat, which, when re- 
leased, will rise to the surface, carrying with it the hose. 
In order that the vessel may quickly pass from the cruis- 
ing condition to that necessary for complete submergence, 
the smoke-pipe has been provided with a hydraulic appa- 
ratus for housing it within the hull almost instantaneous- 
ly. All the improvements introduced into similar craft 
abroad have been carefully considered, and such as have 
commended themselves to the inventor's experience have 
been incorporated in the present design ; also many oth- 
ers bom of his experience in previous vessels have been 
fitted, so that the country may reasonably expect that the 
Holland boat will be an unqualified success." 

A layman is never astonished at anything new claimed 
for electricity, nowadays— though doubtless electricians 
are often dumfounded. Of course this new use which 
Professor Dolbear describes in the following paragraph 
must not be classed with the sensational electrical pro- 
grammes which furnish such good *^ copy " so often : 

Professor Dolbear sajrs: 

'* How to treat garbage and sewerage so as to render 
them inoffensive and innocuous has been a problem in 
every large town. Some have tried combustion ; some 
forced draughts in tall chimneys to carry off offensive 
gases ; some have built long conduits emptying into the 
sea at a distance from shore, and still others have tried 
chemical treatment. The objectionable products are all 
of them chemical and the proper treatment of them must 
therefore be chemicaL Ozone, which is condensed oxy- 
gen, and may be produced by electrical discharges in the 
air, is a very energetic agent for such a purpose, and 
thunder-storms have long had the reputation of purifying 
the air. An electric current sent through the water de- 
composes it, and if there be substances dissolved in the 
water they are sometimes decomposed at the same time. 
It has been discovered that if sea- water be thus treated, 
the various salts of sodium, calcium, magnesium, etc, 
which are held in solution in it, are so changed as to be- 
come powerful deodorizers and disinfectants. They are 
converted by the current into what are chemically odled 
hypochlorites, or substances which contain oxygen, but 
so loosely associated as to be easOy separated if there be 
anything else with which it can combioe. The solution, 
which has been called Electrozone, is therefore an oxidiz- 
ing agent, and its efficacy depends upon that kind of a 
chemical action. A small quantity of this mixed with 
garbage, or sprinkled in unclean streets, acts promptly to 
decompose noxious gases and disease germs. 

** In order to produce it, large tanks holding five hun- 
dred or a thousand gallons are provided. The electric 
current of about six volts pressure is led into it by large 
copper sheets which have been coated with platinum. It 
takes about three hours to thus treat five himdred gal- 
lons, spending about eight horse-power. It has already 
been adopted in Philadelphia, and as it is safe, clean, eflB- 
cient and cheap, it is likely to be widely used every- 
where." 

This first number of the new year is clothed in a litho- 
graphed cover— a decided innovation in method for the 
larger magazines. 



THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED. 



103 



McCLURE'S 

FROM the Jannary McClure*s we have selected Cleve- 
bind Moffett's sketch of Eugene Field to quote in 
the Leading Articles. The Abraham Lincoln serial con- 
tinues to show excellent discretion and directness on Miss 
Tarbell*s part ; the stories of Lincoln^s youth are intrin- 
sically good, and are told clearly and simply, while the 
photographs and pictures which have been collected are 
of really unusual and permanent value. 

lo ffir Robert Ball's paper on ** The Sun's Light," that 
fdentist tells how it was found out that carbon was the 
eHWDtiftl elementary substance of the outer glowing layer 
of the solar mass. " In the whole range of Science,'' he 
wKf^ '* one of the most remarkable discoveries ever made 
is that which has taught us that the elementary bodies of 
which the sun and stars are constructed are essentially 
the nme as thoee of which the earth has been built. This 
discovery was indeed as unezi>ected as it is interesting. 
Coold we ever have anticipated that a body ninety-three 
millioiis of milee away, w) the sun is, or a hundred million 
of millions of miles distant, as a star may be, should ac- 
tually prove to have been formed from the same materials 
as those which compose this earth of ours and all which it 
contains, whether animate or inanimate? Yet such is 
indeed the fact. We are thus in a measure prepared to 
find that the material which forms the great solar clouds 
may turn oat to be a substance not quite unknown to the 
terrestrial chemist. Nay, further, its very abundance in 
the son might seem to suggest that this particular mate- 
rial mi^t perhaps prove to be one which was very abun- 
dmt on the earth." 



tions. Great freedom in morals havhig also been accorded 
to them, it was easy for husbands whose sensibilities had 
suffered to find consolations beyond their own threshold. 
It seemed scarcely worth while to redress wrongs by legal 
procedure when they might be assuaged by private ac- 
tion. The idea of justice and equality of opportunity in 
the pursuit of happiness has at leugth so permeated mod- 
em society that women as well as men feel impelled to 
escape from a condition which, either through incompati- 
bility, infidelity or a general perversion of marriage is one 
which degrades and poisons existence and renders the 
higher purposes of life unfruitful" 

Lydia A. Ck)onley contributes a sketch of George P. 
Root, the author of *' Tramp, Tramp, the Boys are March- 
ing," and numberless other remarkably popular songs. 
Mr. Root was a Berkshire Hills man. He wrote at his 
songs five or six hours every day and accomplished an 
enormous quantity of work in the courFe of his life. 

*' A partial list of his compositions, coming down only 
to 1890, shows seventy-four books, in onJy five of which 
were others associated with him, and one hundred and 
seventy-nine pieces of sheet music. In a recent catalogue 
of one hundred and fourteen national war-songs, thirty* 
six are from the pen of Gteorge F. Root. Work was his 
pleasure, and he never took an absolute vacation from it. 

** He was not rich in this world's goods. His earnings 
were at times enormous, but his losses by the fire were 
great. At one time his publishers had fourteeu printing 
presses at work on ' The Battle-Cry of Freedom, ' and could 
not supply the demand. A single house often ordered 
twenty thousand copies, and it is estimated that the 
aggregate number sold was between five and seven hun- 
dred thousand. 



THE NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE. 

THE New England for January has an essay l^ C. P. 
Selden, on the interesting subject of '* Romance 
After Marriage," which begins with an exceedingly 
cptimiBtic explanation of the increase of divorce cases. 
Mr. SeUen says: 

**The last census report shows that divorces in the 
Cnited States increased during the twenty years between 
U6T and 1886 nearly 157 per cent., while the population in 
the ^une time increased about 60 -per cent. Such a record 
dot« not on the surface give any large basis for satisfac- 
tioB with regard either to the nature or permanence of 
the marriage relation. Nevertheless, discouraging as 
these figures may be, they are not without a compensat- 
iag n^estion. Facts such as are contained in tne report 
Biay be construed into meaning that our people are disso- 
lute, impatient of restraint and false to duty ; or on the 
oUwr hand, we may believe that a more exalted ideal of 
naniage has crept into society, and that men and women 
an not content to abide in a state which falls short of the 
kiglier standards they have set before them. 

**' Notwithstanding the frequency of divorce, we have 
00 PB sa o n to believe that married people are not as happy 
ai at any previous period in the world's history. It is 
aot, if we read the signs correctly, that this relation now 
yields less happtness, but that those who are bound by it 
tra lest tolerant of misery, and that the great wave of 
aeU-respect. which has been gradually gaining strength 
erv ance the French Revolution, has at last swept over 
the least resistant and self-assertive part of humanity. It 
baf not been so long since men only were supposed to have 
}wt eaoaes for divorce, since their rights and sentiments 
i ooQld be infringed or wounded by conjugal derelic- 



THE OUTLOOK'S MAGAZINE NUMBER. 

THAT wholly excellent weekly, the OiUlook, has 
from time to time found occasion to print special 
numbers of greater volume and more elaborate illustra- 
tions than its routine editions. These handsome num- 
bers, generally apropos of the season or of a holiday, 
£^w so frequent that it was an easy step to the plan of 
printing each month an enlarged and iUustrnted maga- 
zine number. The first of these is now before us in a 
strong cover of commendably simple design. Its most 
noticeable literary feature is the first chapter of a new 
novel by "Ian Maclaren," "Kate Carnegie," which 
shows the quaint charm and i>athos which Mr. Wat- 
son's former works have led us to expect of the homely 
folk who live about the bonnie brier bush. 

The opening and most extended feature of the maga- 
zine number is an autobiographical chapter on the life of 
Dr. Edward Everett Hale, illustrated with fine half-tone 
pictures of the biographer and his surroundings He 
tells us that at eleven he was reading Pope's Odyssey 
aloud to his mother, and in the anecdotes of his child- 
hood figure such notable men as Webster, Judge Story, 
and Bancroft, the historian. Dr. Hale gives his mother 
credit for being an excellent educator, and to us who 
judge by the results of her efforts it is not difficult to 
believe. 

Mr, W. W. Ellsworth calls his delightful travel sketch 
♦* * Baddeck and that Sort of Thing '—Twenty Years 
After," because it was through Cape Breton Island and 
the little Gkielic- American town immortalized by Charles 
Dudley Warner, that the summer's journey took him, his 
wheel and his fishing-rod. We suppose there was a 
camera, too, to account for the unusually attractive 
Cape Breton and Baddeck views. 



104 



THE REI^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



There are several other short illustrated articles which 
prove the Outlook^ a venture a decided success. One of 
them, Mr. Theodore Roosevelt^s contribution to a series 
of papers on " The Higher Ldfe of American Cities," we 
quote from among the '* Leading Articles of the Month." 



THE BIBLICAL WORLD. 

AN exceedingly sumptuous and attractive number of 
the Biblical World is issued for Christmas by the 
University of Chicago Press. The entire number is given 
over to a collection of essays on Christ, the prophecies of 
Him, the times He lived in, the souitxs from which we 
know about His life, His birth and childhood, His Minis- 
try, teachings, and preaching, " Christ in Art," " Christ 
in History," and cognate titles. With the beautiful half- 
tone illustrations that accompany these essays, which are 
written by President William B. Harper, Professor Alex- 
ander B. Bruce, of the University of Glasgow, and other 
scholars of like calibre, the whole forms a most impressive 
and valuable contribution to the Christmas literature. 
Professor Bhees, of the Newton Theological Inetitute 
says that not even tradition has given us any information 
concerning the personal appearance of Jesus. 

" Doubtless in the first days the thought of the glorified 
Lord who would shortly come again, left htUe room for 
Interest in the form which he wore in the days of his hu- 
xniliation. A description purporting to come from a con- 
temporary, LentuluB, and which has greatly infiuenced 
modem attempts to portray Jesus, is a palpable forgery 
from about the twelfth century. The so-called miracu- 
lous portraits, said to have been imprinted on cloths by 
Jesus as he wiped his face with them, and to have been 
given one to Veronica, the other to Abgarus, are also 
apocryphal In the writings of the first two centuries 
there is not a trace of any description of the Lord's ap- 
pearance, excepting hints that r^ed avowedly on infer- 
ence drawn from Scriptures such as Isaiah 58 : 2, 8 and 
Psalm 45 : 2"4, or from incidents in the Lord's own life. 
In fact there were two diametrically opposed conceptions 
current in the Church, defended by passages from the Old 
Testament, such as those just cited, t2ie prevailing opinion 
in the earlier time being that the Lord's personal appear- 
ance was at the best without beauty ; while another 
judgment believed that he was ' ftiirer than the children 
of men.' " 

PETERSON'S. 

THE January Peterson^s has a much illustrated paper 
on *' Women's Congresses at Atlanta," in which the 
writer, Mrs. Biargherita Arlina Hanmi, gives sketches of 
the ladies most prominent in the Atlanta work. She 
sums up the work of the Woman's Congress at Atlanta, 
in this enthobiastic paragraph. 

** There were women representing every profession and 
every field of intellectual research and progress. The 
congresses have been a wonderful object lesson to the 
South, just as those of Chicago were to the North and 
West. It is difficult to estimate the good which they 
have done. They have shown the conununity that it is a 
very easy thing for women to rise up and occupy thrones 
in the kingdom of thought. They have shown the women 
of the South that they have a future such as they never 
before conceived, or tried to enjoy. They have shown 
the men of the South that in education, and more educa- 
tion, and always education, lies the future greatness of 
their magnificent domain. If they have taught the South 
a lesson, they have taught another and an equally valua- 



ble one to the nation at large. They have shown that 
culture and intellectual activity are contagious; that the 
tens of thousands of women college graduates of to-day 
are to be hundreds of thousands to-morrow; that the ad- 
mission of womeen to the arts, sciences, and professions, 
far from militating against man's success has helped him 
along, and has elevated and ennobled the fields into which 
they have entered, and that the future of our land will be 
marked by the co-operation of the sexes in all of the intel- 
lectual work which is to be done." 

The same writer gives a short description interspersed 
with some useful photograi>hs, of the Tuskegee School 
over which Mr. Booker T. Washington presides, an ad- 
mirable school which the readers of the Review of Reviews 
have been introduced to in its pages. 

E. Burton Stewart's contribution is on *^ The Imperial 
Family of Bussia;" of the Czarina he says she ** is cred- 
ited with many graceful personal traits. She is not 
haughty or reserved, but lively, graceful, and ^Ugcmte in 
the Parisian sense of the word ; she is sensitive, impulsive, 
sympathetic, and witty." 

THE BOOKMAN. 

ELSE WHEBE we have quoted from Professor Cohn's 
article on Dumas the younger, in the January 
Bookman; this article is accompanied by an autograph 
letter and portrait of Dumas made from a photograph 
taken at a private sitting in Paris several years ago. 

In the series of *' Living Critics," Leslie Stephen is the 
subject of an article by James Ashcroft Noble, who finds 
that more of Mr. Stephen's critical work is in conmion 
with the Edinburgh than with the Oxford schooL 

Among the regular departments of the Bookman^ that 
devoted to news notes from the libraries of the country 
is growing in interest and usefulness. The department 
contains considerable information also from the great 
foreign libraries. 

The first installment of Ian Maclaren's novel, **Kate 
Carnegie, " appears in the January Bookman, 



GODEY'S. 

IN the January Cfodey's Mr. W. Bengough is exceed- 
ingly optimistic in his estimate of " The New Woman, 
Athletically Considered." He has enough confidence in 
gynmasiums, Swedish movements and bicycles to make 
these strong assertions: " The delicate, fragile and insipid 
maiden who filled the requirements of good form even a 
few years ago, has been replaced by a vastly higher type 
Instead of the small waist, the milky hue, and lackadaisical 
manner, we have the robust, sunburned, vigorous and in- 
tellectual girl, who is entering every avenue of activity, 
self-reliant and well fitted to take up life's duties and 
carry forward the development of the next generation; 
and I am inclined to believe that it is the physical progresB 
even more than the intellectual that has christened her 
the ' new. ' It is indeed a new thing to see woman rising 
superior to the backaches and dyspepsia, headaches and 
neuralsria, and, donning the distinctive garb which is 
associated with her name, fiy whirling into health and 
usefulness upon her wheel, or gliding gracefully in the 
' angel act' toward the same desirable end upon the fiying 
trapeze." 

This January issue is dubbed a " Woman's Number " 
by the editors, and each article and story has the necessary 
quota of femininity. Of the stories, Mrs. Martha Mc- 
Culloch Williams' *' Pyrannes and Thiabe " is the last, 
and is very good. 



THE PERIODICALS REyiElVEb. 



105 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

IK another department we have quoted from '^Be- 
Bultaof the Bering Sea Arbitration, '* by the Hon. 
John W. Foster; "Christianity's Mission," by Gold- 
win Smith, and '* Wild Traits in Tame Animals,'* by 
Dr. Louis Robinson. 

Hints as to the work of the new Congress are contained 
in a group of articles by Representatives Catchings, 
DoUiver, South wick, and Bell, and M. W. Hazeltine. 
As may naturally be inferred from this list of names, the 
points of view from which the subject is approached are 
Tarious, and each is distinct from the others. 

Mrs. Lynn Linton, writing on " Cranks and Crazes," 
expresses a profound contempt for cyclers and the cy- 
cling erase. 

** Walking, riding, skating and dancing we can under- 
stand as fit exercise for the vigorous and young ; driving 
IB precioxis to the indolent and the delicate ; but cycling 
seems to be such a doubtful kind of amusement — such a 
queer cross between the treadmill and the tightrope- 
demanding such a constant strain of attention to keep 
your balance, with such a monotonous and restricted ac- 
tion of the limbs as to render it a work of penance rather 
than of pleasure." 

Prof. N. S. Shaler urges with force the importance of 
a determined effort among the nations to abolish the 
evil of war by a concerted movement for the arbitration 
of international disputes. Professor Shaler advances 
many reasons for regarding the United States as most 
favormbly situated for taking the initiative in such a 
movement, and he appeals to the patriotic spirit to in- 
dorse this course. His article happens to have peculiar 
timeliness in view of the Venezuelan question. 

^ To those who desire to see the United States having 
a due inflnence in the affairs of the world, there is no 
other opportunity so good as thia Far better for our 
good name, or for the glory of that flag which only fools 
desire to see over battle fields, will be the enduring and 
blesKd memory that our country led in a campaign 
a^dnst the monstrous evils of battle. We can afford to 
make the offer of a mode in which this work may be 
done ; if by chance the tender of good-will should fail 
oC evident result, we shall at least have acted in a spirit 
which is true to our history and to the best which is in 
cor people ; by the act we shall affirm our position to 
ourselves and to the rest of the world." 

Mr. Arthur Silva White, writing on " Our Benefits 
tmm the Nicaragua Canal," frankly admits that as an 
ftigllnhman he should like to see Oreat Britain presiding 
over the canal, but as a geographer he is oompeUed to 
regaxd America's claims as superior to all others, morally 
speaking. He announces this new doctrine of Anglo- 
American relations : 

^ F%rtt, That the welfare of the United States of 
America is bound up with the maintenance of the British 



*' Second, That, when the Nicaragua Canal is opened, 
the United States will be in a position to assume or re- 
ject the rank and responsiblUties of a world-power ; and 

" Third, That the United States, in alliance with Great 
Britain and her colonies, would inevitably lead to the 
hegemony of the English-speaking race." 

Sir Reginald Palgrave, Clerk of the British House of 
Commons, furnishes a rejoinder to previous articles in 
the yorth Armriean by Secretary Herbert and Mr. Han- 
Bis l^ylor on the House of Representatives and the 
House of Commons. 



THE FORUM. 

IN the department of ** Leading Articles " we have 
quoted from M. Leroy-Beaulieu's article on American 
commercial and financial supremacy ; from '* The Eth- 
ics of Party Loyalty," by George Walton Green; from 
Mr. A. C. Cassatt's exposition of the MOnroe Doctrine, 
and from the article on '* Crime Among Anitnal^i '* by 
William Ferrero. 

Mr. Theodore Roosevelt, in an opportune and highly 
eulogistic article on Thomas B. Reed and the Fifty-first 
Congress, reviews an episode in legislative history which 
just now awakens a peculiar interest in the light of sub- 
sequent developments. ** Above the question of what 
a Congress does," says Mr. Roosevelt, "comes the far 
higher question whether Congress can do anything at 
all." This question was definitely solved by the Fifty- 
first Congress, under Speaker Reed's leadership, and, in 
Mr. Roosevelt's opinion, this was a greater achievment 
than any possible tariff or currency legislation could have 
been. 

Mrs. Margaret E. Sangster, the editor of Harper's 
Bazary writes on " Editorship as a Profession for 
Women." What she says about the money rewards of 
the calling will interest such women as are looking for- 
ward to an editorial career : 

" The emoluments of editorial work for women have 
very inelastic limits. The editor whose position brings 
her $5,000 » year in salary may be said to have achieved 
the highest financial success attainable under existing 
conditions. From t2,500 to 18,000 i>er year are salaries 
more generally paid than the amount above stated, and 
$50 or 160 a week is a usual, and is considered by most 
women a generous, wage for continuous and exhausting 
work, taxing every power they poesesa From $15 to $40 
a week are received by women for the conduct of special 
dei)artment8. This, as a rule, presupposes daily attend- 
ance at an office during office hours, which are usually 
from 9.80 a.m. to 4 or 5 p.m. The daily wear and tear on 
nerves, temper, and clothing, of obligatory office attend- 
ance, cannot be adequately stated or paid for in dollars 
and cents, and therefore a woman must love her profes- 
sion over and above financial gains, and pursue it for 
its own sake if she would find in it the rewards of a 
chosen career." 

Mr. William R. Thayer coutributes a thoughtful paper 
on ** Thomas Carlyle : His Work and Infiuence." It was 
as a moralist, says Mr. Thayer, that Carlyle approached 
all the great questions of life. ** Among the masters of 
British prose he holds a position similar to that of 
Michael Angelo among the masters of painting. Power, 
elemental, titanic, rushing forth from an inexhaustible 
moral nature, yet guided by art, is the quality in both 
which first startles our wonder." 

Apropos of the two hundred and seventy-fifth anniver- 
sary of the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, Presi- 
dent Hyde, of Bowdoin College, attempts a brief estimate 
of the influence on American institutions of *^ The Pilgrim 
Principle. " President Hyde differs from most writers on 
this topic in that he considers the weakness as well as 
the strength of that principle, as revealed in actual re- 
sults. In the course of his article he makes a somewhat 
detailed examination into the actual religious condition 
of that portion of New England to which the Pilgrims 
came, presenting a table of the stated religious prefer- 
ences of 5,875 families (22,0tJl persons) in Plymouth 
County, Mass. 

** In religious preference these 5,875 families are divided 
in the following proportion : Congregational, 21 per 



106 



THE RE^IEIV OF REI^IEWS. 



cent. ; no preference, 17 per cent. ; Roman Catholic and 
Methodist, each 14 per cent.; Baptist, 12 per cent.; Uni- 
tarian, 8 per cent. ; Epi8coi)al and Unirersalist, each 8>^ 
per cent. ; Advent, Christian, Friends, Presbyterians and 
others, 7 i)er cent. Thus the Congregationalists have 
retained but » little more than one-fifth of these families. 
Nearly 40 per cent., according to their own statement, 
are not represented by a single adult member in regular 
attendance upon any church whatsoever.*' 

Mrs. Spencer Trask's article on " The Obligation of 
the Inactive ** is an earnest exhortation to the perform- 
ance of public duty. 

Mr. Glen Miller, of Salt Lake City, examines recent 
assertions regarding the relation of the Mormon Church 
to iK)litic6, and while he admits that both parties in Utah 
have sought to appeal to religious prejudices for partisan 
ends, and that high church officers have been nominated 
to office for that purpose, he denies that the Mormon 
Church itself has been a i)arty to such attempts. 

The •* Literary Hack," whose "Confessions" in the 
July Forum roused such an interest among aspiring liter- 
ary folk, and at the same time engendered such ill-will 
among literary folk who had ceased to aspire, replies to 
his critics in the December number. The burden of his 
song is that he does make $5,000 a year from the sale of 
his wares, and that 15,000 does not go far in New York, 
the Hack himself being compelled to live on the fifth 
floor of an ai)artment house with no elevator. 



THE ARENA. 

IN the department of ** Leading Articles" we have 
quoted from the first series of '^ Personal Recollec- 
tions of America's Seven Great Poets." 

" The Opportunity of the Church " is the subject of 
the second in the series of papers by Prof. George D. 
Herron, of Iowa College. This article is a condensation 
of Professor Herron's recent lectures in Boston. 

The December number contains two articles in favor 
of government ownership of the telegraph. Prof. Richard 
T. Ely bases his argument chiefly on the inefficiency of 
the service under private management, and on the fact 
that the telegraph is a natural monopoly. Justice Clark, 
of the North Carolina Supreme Court, considers in his 
paper the constitutionality of public ownership. 

Prof. Frank Parsons continues his very comprehensive 
and profltable inquiry into the cost and expediency of 
municipal ownerrfilp of lighting plants. 

Mr. B. O. Flower's biographical sketch of Sir Thomas 
More is a vigorous piece of work. We quote the conclud- 
ing paragraph : 

<' The domestic life of Sir Thomas More was singularly 
beautiful His home has been termed a miniature 
Utopia. He possessed a gay and bouyant spirit and car- 
ried sunshine instead of fear to his friends. His political 
career, if we except his actions when religious prejudice 
clouded his reason and dulled his naturally keen sense 
of justice, evinced statesmanship of a high order. His 
views on social problems were in many instances hun- 
dreds of years in advance of his day, while his genuine 
S3rmpathy for the poor and oppressed led him to daunt- 
lessly champion their cause, where a time-server would 
have remained silent. He was a statesman unsullied by 
the demagogism of the poUtician. He was an apostle of 
culture, and in his writings embodied the best impulses 
of the new learning in a larger way than did any other 
scholar of his time. He was a prophet of a true civiliza- 
tion, and had his soul remained upon the mountain. 



above the baleful psychic waves which beat around his 
prejudices and played uiK)n his fear, More's life, as well 
as his writings, would have proved an unalloyed inspi- 
ration to the generations who came after him. Yet, 
though like Seneca, whom in very many respects More 
resembled, he sometimes fell far short of his high ideals, 
when judged in the light of his age and environment, he 
stands forth one of the noblest flgures of his time, and 
in his ^ Utopia ' he reveals the imagination of a true 
genius, the wisdom and justice of a sage, and the love of 
a civilized man." 



THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW. 

WE notice elsewhere Mr. Boulger on the Far 
Eastern Question and Mr. Herbert Spencer on 
Education. Mr. Francis Peek restates his objections to 
Sacerdotalism, and Mr. A. D. Vandam produces from 
his inexhaustible wallet some reminiscences of " Berthe- 
lot and His Friend Benan." 

ORIENTAL JUSTICE. 

Mr. Theodore Bent describes Muscat, which like other 
places is now reformed and semi-civilized. Mr. Bent 
says : " When we flrst visited Muscat, seven years 
ago. the Sultan's palace was more interesting than it is 
now. When the warder opened the huge gate with its 
massive brass knobs you found yourself alongside the 
iron cage in which a lion was kept; adjoining this cage 
was another in which prisoners were put for their first 
offense. If this offense was repeated the prisoner was 
lodged in the cage with the lion at the time when his 
meal was due. In the good old days of Sultan Saeed this 
pimishment was very conmionly resorted to, as also 
were cruel mutilations on the shore in public, tying up 
in sacks and drowning and other horrors; but British 
influence has abolished all these things, and the lion, 
having died, has not been replaced." 

PHYSICS AND SOCIOLOGY. 

Mr. W. H. Mallock is too much of the professor to be 
a welcome contributor. His paper—- one of a series ap- 
X)arently — is devoted to setting forth the shortcomings 
of Herbert Spencer. He leads up to a modified and 
rationalized form of the great man theory: " We have 
it in a form which will at once suggest generally to the 
reader how the study of individual character connects 
itself with, and is the necessary complement of, the 
study of the action of aggregates; but in order to make 
the details of the connection clear, it will be necessary 
to enter on a new set of considerations, and in especial 
on a consideration of the real meaning of evolution— a 
process, the fundamental meaning of which not even the 
genius of Darwin has succeeded in perceiving, still less 
in exhibiting to the world. When this meaning is once 
clearly grasped, it will be found to shed a new light 
through the whole region of social science." 

LORD DUNRAVEN'S BLUNDER. 

Mr. Quiller-Couch deplores Lord Dunraven's incompre- 
hensible conduct, and says : " We pride ourselves — and 
in this case surely not without reason— that pubhc 
opinion in England is sufficient guarantee, without need 
of legislation, that an American yacht would be given a 
clear course in English waters. Oddly enough, triumphant 
democracy, or rule of the people, seems to connote over 
there an utter ineffectiveness of public opinion ; and 
true liberty to consist in this, that any casual captain of 



THE PERIODICALS REt^/ElVED. 



107 



any six-cent steamboat shall have fall power to yeto a 
firiendlj contest npon which two nations have set their 
hearts. The position is absurd enough. But a very little 
legislation will cure it. Meanwhile Lord Dunraven 
seems to owe Defender's crew one of two things— a 
prompt conviction or a prompt apology.'' 



THE NATIONAL REVIEW. 

THE December National has an interesting paper on 
** The Air Car/' and which is noticed in another 
department. Capt. Maxse of the Coldstream Guards 
begins to set forth ** Our Military Problem— for Civilian 
Readers," and W. Barclay Squire writes on Mrs. Billing- 
ton's last home at Treviso Italy. 

▲RE THB ENGLISH OROWIN6 SOBER f 

" Tes," says Mr. Arthur Shadwell, who has a right to 
be beard as a writer who has uttered some very novel 
and sensible words about the drink question. Mr. Shad- 
well indulges in a survey of the last sixty years with 
most reassuring results. He sums up the results as fol- 
lows: "I submit that a survey of the whole period 
shows a great and progressive change from 1834 to 1894. 
It has been slow and retarded from time to time by the 
operation of natural causes, but it has gone on; and 
that seems to me the best guarantee of its lasting char- 
acter. It has not been due to a spasm of enthusiasm or 
other transient influence, but to the action of steady 
a&d reliable forces. There has been a real improvement, 
aa organic change, and it is not possible to conceive a 
complete relapse into the condition of the i>ast. Individ- 
oal drunkards there are still, as bad as ever, and at 
times they become more numerous, mainly when trade 
b good and money plentiful; but the open, rampant, 
dajhghtdrunkenness-iu-the-mass, which history records, 
haa become a matter of history." 

Statistiosof course can be used or abused soas to prove 
aajrthing, but the following figures certainly do seem to 
show a diange for the better. The first gives the num- 
ber <^ ** drunks " in London, the second the number of 
pablicans in England and Wales at two selected periods: 

Proportion of 
Cases of cases to 

Population, drunkenness, population. 

DBS I,55a000 38,440 1 to 40 

18M. 5,633,806 25,908 lto216 

No. of 
Publicans 
Population. Publicans. per 1,000. 

IBL 13,897.187 57,6M 4.1 

ML 29,001,01« 63,678 2.3 

THB HCNORY CHILDREN IN CCHOOL. 

Mr. Diggle disoourses on the wickedness of those Non- 
easformista, socialists and others who would have it at 
the last London School Board Election that 40,000 chil- 
drai were attending school habitually in want of food. 
As the statement was made by a Ck)mmittee of the 
BoaM, the culprits may be recommended to mercy. A 
WW committee has reported, and according to them in 
the woret week of the year " the number of separate 
children who had during the week ene or more meals 
waa $1,897. If every one of these children received an 
vpul number of meals, the proportion of e€K^ would be 
two and a third out of a possible total of ten meals per 
wwt" 

T1)e committee report that the existing agencies were 
able to cope with the need. Mr. Diggle complacently ob- 



serves: " The Special Committee have therefore rendered 
a service to the public by indicating more accurately 
than before the extreme i>oint to which the distress may, 
on occasion, temix^rarily rise; and by recording the fact 
that at such a period remedial agencies existed sufficient 
to alleviate it. This latter fact marks a great advance 
upon tne reported state of things in 1889.** 

NEW LIGHT ON GOUT. 

Dr. Mortimer Granville maintains that the excessive 
secretion of uric acid is not the cause of gout, but one 
of the symptoms of the presence of the real secret of 
gout. It is all a case of overpopulation. GK)ut, accord- 
ing to Dr. Granville, is merely a matter of overcrowding 
of the body by leucocytes. He says: "The gout is, 1 
submit and contend, although I am perfectly conscious 
of breaking entirely new ground in the contention, a 
malady which has for its cause the presence in the 
organism of an undue proportion of leucocytes, not 
necessarily in the blood, but in the organs and tissues 
generally, and assuming those diverse forms protoplasmic 
bodies are wont to assume, whether as lymph corpuscles, 
white corpuscles of the blood, connective-tissue corpus- 
cles, or otherwise shaping themselves." 

To cure gout, if this be true, we must develop the 
red corpuscles which feed on the white ones. Dr. Gran- 
ville says : "If this new view of gout be the true one, 
it is obvious that the treatment of the malady must be 
the treatment of leuchsemia. I do not, of course, affirm 
that the development of red corpuscles by a meafdiet 
must necessarily result in a corresiK)nding reduction 
of the white corpuscles within normal limits; but I do 
contend that, on very rational ground, the initial step 
and primary aim should be to restore the equilibrium of 
these several elements of the blood by the readiest 
method possible, that is the multiplication of the red 
corpuscles." 

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

WE have held over for a month our notice of Mr. 
John Morley's article on the Matthew Arnold 
Letters. 

MR. RUSKIN'S GOSPEL IN ONE TEXT. 

Mr. Frederic Harrison, having recently written an 
essay on John Ruskin for the Forum, seems to have 
found his soul stirred within him by the exercise, and in 
a paper entitled " Unto This Last " he boils over in dia- 
logue for the purpose of setting forth Mr. Buskin's praise. 
He says— for he is " professor " : 

" I should like to hear the Archbishop of Canterbury 
preaching a sermon to the House of Lords on a text 
which I read from Ruskin this very morning. It is from 
* Unto This Last,' and I put the little book in my pocket 
when we started for our walk. Here it is—* In a com- 
munity regulated only by laws of demand and supply, 
but protected from open violence, the persons who be- 
come rich are, generally speaking, industrious, resolute, 
proud, covetous, prompt, methodical, sensible, unimagin- 
ative, insensitive, and ignorant. The i>ersons who re- 
main poor are the entirely foolish, the entirely wise, the 
idle, the reckless, the humble, the thoughtful, the dull, 
the imaginative, the sensitive, the well-informed, the 
improvident, the irregularly and impulsively wicked, 
the clumsy knave, the open thief, and the entirely mer- 
ciful, just, and godly person.' That little sentence, the 
keynote of that little book, contains an entire gospel in 
itself, a complete manual of political economy, and a 
treatise on ethics. A thousand sermons might be 



108 



THE REVIEW OF REHEIVS. 



preached upon it, bnt they will hardly be preached by 
our conrtly prelates and cultured divines." 

UNIVERSITT SETTLEMENTS. 

Canon Bamett says : ** Twelve years ago a paper pub- 
lished in this Review suggested * University Settlements 
in Our Great Towns.* There are now Toynbee Hall, Ox- 
ford House, Biansfield House, the Bermondsey Settle- 
ment, Trinity Court, Caius House, Newman House, 
Browning Hall, the Southwark Ladies* Settlement, and 
Mayfield House in London. There are settlements in 
Glasgow, Bristol, Manchester and Edinburgh. There 
are Hull House in Chicago, Andover House in Boston, 
besides perhaps twenty others in different cities of 
America." 

Many x>eople don't understand what a settlement is— 
therefore Canon Bamett has written this x>aper to tell 
them that '* a settlement is simply a means by which 
men or women may share themselves with their neigh- 
bors ; a club house in an industrial district, where the 
condition of membership is the performance of a citi- 
zen's duty ; a house among the ixx>r, where the resi- 
dents may make friends with the poor." 

WHY NOT TAKE A HINT FBOM THE TURK? 

Bafittddin Ahmad says that the Sultan might save his 
empire if he would but model his forts on the British In- 
dian pattern. After pointing out what an improvement 
thiswould be, the ingenious writer continues : 

*' It is just fair that I should ask England to pick up 
one or two practices from Turkey. The Sultan allows 
his Christian subjects to fill the highest places in some 
departments of the State, especially in that of diplo- 
macy. The most enviable office in the diplomatic serv- 
ice—namely, that of the Turkish Ambassador in London 
—was occupied by a Christian, the late Rustem Pasha. In 
Tact, the diplomatic and the consular services in Turkey 
are full of Christian subjects of the Porte. There are 
hardly any Mohammedans or Hindoos in Her Majesty's 
diplomatic service. I do hope that Her Majest^^ 's Minis- 
ters will appoint the Queen's Moslem subjects, at least as 
consuls and vice-consuls, especially in Mohammedan 
states, where their services can be of great use to Eng- 
land. 

A DOCTOR ON DOCTORS. 

Dr. J. Bumey Yeo discourses on many subjects of in- 
terest to the profession. Incidentally he remarks : — 
** If I were asked to name the three peraoncU qualities of 
greatest use to a physician in helping him to achieve 
success, 1 should naswer : (1) Tdct, (2) gravity, and (3) a 
calm and even temper." 

One of the most serious statements in the paper is that 
which he quotes from M. Leon Daudet's attack on Par- 
isian doctors. He says of M. Daudet's book: 

"It accuses them of inordinate greed and extortion, of 
the grossest immorality, of the brutal disclosure of pro- 
fessional secrets, of sharing profits with chemists and in- 
strument makers, of receiving bribes from the doctors 
of various spas to send them patients, and, to complete 
the picture, accuses them of the most rancorous hatred 
and persecution of one another, and of the basest in- 
trigues to obtain advancement to coveted places in the 
medical faculty. 

'*! have made some inquiries as to whether these 
charges have any foundation in fact, and I am assured 
that, although in this book they are grossly and shame- 
fully exaggerated and conceived in a spirit of the most 
bitter and mendacious antagonism to the members of 



the medical profession, jret they are not altogether with- 
out some slight substratum of reality." 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

Mr. Gladstone deals with Matthew Arnold, and other 
critics of Bishop Butler. Of the former he says: "Mr. 
Arnold was placed by his own peculiar opinions in a 
position far from auspicious with respect to this particu- 
lar undertaking. He combined a fervent zeal for the 
Christian religion with a not less boldly avowed deter- 
mination to transform it beyond the possibility of recog- 
nition by friend or foe. He was thus placed under a sort 
of necessity to condemn the handiwork of Bishop Butler, 
who in a certain sense gives it a new charter." 

Sir Lintom Simmons writes of the transformation of 
the army under the Duke. Mr. Deane replies to his 
critics about the religion of the undergraduate, and Pro- 
fessor Geffcken discourses on the proposed refOTms in 
Armenia. 



THE FORINIGHTLY REVIEW. 

MAUGUSTIN FILON, in the course of his essay 
. on Lord Salisbury, speaks in terms of high praise 
of Mr. Chamberlain, of whose colonial policy, however, 
he professes a salutary dread. He says: **During the 
last thirty years I have watched the careers of many 
democrats in all parts of Europe; they all understood 
perfectly well how to destroy, but only one could con- 
struct, and that was Mr. Chamberlain. He is one of 
those men who spare their country a revolution. He 
has infused some drops of his own blood, and those not 
the least precious, into the veins of the Conservative 
party, and the transfusion has been complete. Let any 
one try now to distinguish the Chamberlain corpuscles 
in the veins of Lord Salisbury I 

THE LABORS OT TBS umORIST HSRCTTISS. 

Mr. Stuart, Glennie believing the Unionist majority to 
be a very Hercules, would start it on a series of herculean 
labors without delay. He says: *' Unionist enthusiasm 
will pass beyond dreams or draft schemes, will affect & 
federation of aU our colonies, and at least a defensive 
and offensive alliance, if not federation, between the 
two great eastern and western branches of what has 
hitherto been, considering its true ethnic composition, 
no less falsely than mischievously called our * Anglo- 
Saxon,' but which would be more truly named our 
Norse-Keltic Race." 

That, however, is but a beginning of things. Mr. 
Stuart Glennie tells us that ** while, however, the first 
place must for the present be given to both securing 
and expanding the unity of our race, it would be folly 
to imagine that the equally profound, though not, it 
may be, equally pressing, needs of industrial reorgani- 
zation and parliamentary reconstruction can be safely 
overlooked." 

His great anxiety is, however, to make India loyal and 
contended. The way to set about this, he thinks, is to 
appoint a royal commission: *^ For its mere appointment 
would or should convince both the princes and peoples 
of India of what is undoubtedly the fact, that popular 
sentiment and opinion in this country need but to be 
stirred by the report of such a commission to be over* 
whelmingly in favor of whatever, in the way both of 
diminution of taxation and extension of rights of self- 
government and British citizenship, may be thus au- 
thoritatively recommeaded as justice to India." 



THE PERIODICALS REI^IEIVED. 



109 



EPILBP8T AND OSfTnJS. 

Mr. Newman has a subtle masterly analysis of the 
genius of Qnstaye Flaubert. He defends the epileptic 
theory of M. ICaxime du Camp. He says: '' It was du 
Campus theory that the epilepsy from which Flaubert 
BuiTered during the greater portion of his life had ar- 
rested his mental development, had limited his powers 
and exaggerated his defects. It is evident that such a 
malady must have had at least some influence upon Flau- 
bert's work, and the extent to which it did actually in- 
floence him can be readily perceived from his correspond, 
enoe." 

Mr. Newman concludes his interesting essay by the re- 
mark that— ^'Considering the many difficulties under 
which he labored, we may wonder that he has achieved 
M much: for he has left at least two i)erfect works, half 
a dosen others that none but a master ooidd have writ- 
ten, and a correspondence that reveals to us the breadth 
and depth of one of the most philosophic intellects of 
oar time.*' 

WAS HAMLET MAD OR ONLY 8HAMMINO ? 

Mr. Beerbohm Tree, by aid of his prompt book, argues 
trimni^iaiitly that Hamlet was only shamming mad- 
oen. Mr. Tree sajrs: '* It has been my aim by the prac- 
tical assistance of an actor's prompt-book to show that 
Hamlet's snp{»osed madness was a feigned madness, and 
t^ many of the difficulties of this Shakesi>earian 
maaterpiece are really little else than the outcome of a 
mper-acnte but unpractical comment. If to the pure 
an tMngs are i>ure, to the plain-soeker many things often 
appear plain. And if some of the alleged obscurities of 
Hamlet have been dispelled by an actor-manager's 
prompt copy, the reason may lie in the fact that Shake- 
speare was an actor-manager himself." 

gambbtta's diciatobship. 

Mr. Vandam pursues his vendetta with G^ambetta in 
hii p^MT on the beginnings of the Third Republic. The 
fbOowing passage affords some idea of his animus: <* The 
wonder up to this day is that among all those whom he 
bnlbed and hectored, both military and civil, there was 
not an officer, a journalist, or a former parliamentary 
ooQeagne either to twist his neck or to send a bullet 
throogh his brain and thus to rid France of a scourge. 



It need not have been murder or assassination, an ordi- 
nary challenge would have done the trick, for Gambetta 
was a coward from nape to heeL It would appear that 
later on at Bordeaux there was a plot to carry him off. 
of which plot he got wind and which he frustrated, but 
at Tours, where I spent three days in the end of Oc- 
tober, one could only come to the reluctant conclusion 
that he had the whiphand of every one. And what 
strikes one as still more wonderful, the submission in 
most instances was voluntary." 



THE NEW REVIEW. 

THE New Review for December contains one impor- 
tant article, that on the murder of Mr. Stokes in 
Africa. There is a Fo'c'sle Yam entitled **Job the 
White," by the Rev. T. E. Brown, inverse, which runs to 
the length of a dozen pages. Mr. Whibley once more 
digs down among the Chronicles of Newgate. Mr. D. 
Hannay pleads for more British marines. He would like 
to see 20,000 or 25,000 of this useful body of men at the 
service of the nation. Mr. Runcieman writes on ** Our 
Last Great Musician," and there is the usual quantum 
of fiction. 

NEW SCOTLAND. 

Mr. Francis Watt writes an interesting pa])er on the 
New Scotland, which he maintains is very unlike the 
Old Scotland with which we are familiar in Scott's ro- 
mances. Instead of being poor. New Scotland is extrav- 
agantly rich, and alike in Church and in State the New 
Scotland is as unlike the Old Scotland as can be. The 
following list of Scots worthies is significant: ^*The 
Scots Pantheon is a strange jumble, most of whose deities 
would on this coast diligently have sought each 
other's lives. Enthroned there are the English Queen 
Margaret, the Plebeian Wallace, the Norman Bruce, the 
Papist Mary Stuart, the Presbyterian John Knox, a 
crowd of Covenanters and Cavaliers, godly Samuel Ruth- 
erford, Bonnie Prince Charlie, Sir Walter, and Robbie 
Bums. Yet is Scotland justified of her children. Each 
one deserves his place for his virtue, his splendid courage 
or his genius. Seen in the pale light of history, Scots 
annals have a tmique magic; they will forever furnish 
themes for poetry and romance. But the record is 
closed. The distinctive features, even in literattire and 
art, must vanish." 



THE FRENCH AND ITALIAN REVIEWS. 



THE REVUE DES DEUX MONDES. 

THE De Nayve trial may or may not have suggested M. 
Croppi's interesting and topical paper on ** French 
Criminal Procedure." The writer, a well-known mem- 
ber of the Paris bar, points out that in France trial by 
juy has never been really popular, or indeed acciima- 
tued. That this is so is clearly shown by the part taken 
by the Public Prosecutor, who, as is well known, is 
pT«ii almost unlimited x>ower as regards the cross-exami- 
ution of the prisoner. Latter-day French law is a thing 
cf yesterday. The Constituent Assembly endeavored 
ifter the disppearance of the old regime to create a ra- 
tMoal system of criminal investigation, but, curiously 
«WN)gh, N^)oleon L had a great prejudice against trial 
hf jury, and the efforts of those who worked with him 
m elabatmting the Code Napoleon did not succeed in 
ttaking him accept the more modem views of legal ad- 
mtnstntion. The frugal French citizen absorbed in his 



business will adopt almost any expedient in order to es- 
cape serving on a jury; even at the Seine assizes noth- 
ing is taken seriously, and the public, the jury, the 
judges, the counsel and even the prisoners seem to re- 
gard the proceedings as a tragic comedy. 

Vernon Lee contributes a strangely suggestive and 
curious essay— put in the form of a triple dialogue, en- 
titled ** Orpheus in Rome"— on the connection of art 
and the ideal life, and between the nature and inten- 
tion of the interpreter and the emotion he or she can 
evoke. It is suggested that artists frequently transcend 
their own intentions, and through them their audiences 
are often infiuenced and reached by a power quite out- 
side themselves. 

In France all passes away save the dead, and M. Per- 
rot attempts to analyze in a thoughtful and learned 
article the universal cult of death. He points out that 
even ihe most convinced Christians cannot divest them- 
selves of the idea that a personality lingers about the 



lU 



THE REy/Eiy OF REI^IEIVS. 



fashion, which was anything but satiaf actory to the author. 
It has never been considered one of Dickens' beet pieces of 
work. The usual interesting and valuable introduction is 
supplied by Charles Dickens the younger. 

Jacob Faithful. By Captain Marryat. With an intro- 
duction by David Hannay. 12mo, pp. 440. New 
fork : Macmillan & Co. $1.25. 

Perhaps the current literary taste for romance and ad- 
venture is due to the feeling that in a strenuous world, full of 
intense activity,— which is an activity in altruism and moral 
progress no less than in material affairs,— we are entitled in 
our reading to some books that are purely amnwing and noth- 
ing more. Certainly Captain Marryat's tales belong to this 
school, and of all Captain Marryat's tales none can be con- 
sidered as more inftUlibly amusing and more entirely free 
from any quality of instruction than '* Jacob FaithfuL** It 
is the book that made Thackeray happy for a whole day on a 
Mississippi steamboat, when he was suffering from an attack 
of ague ; and to be so completely and wholesomely amused 
is a good thing for everybody once in a while. Captain Mar- 
ryat wrote '* Jacob Faithful " a little more than sixty years 
ago. 

Ormond : A Tale. By Maria Edgeworth. With an intro- 
duction by Anne Thackeray Ritchie. ISmo, pp. 360. 
New York : Macmillan & Co. $1.25. 

The writing of '' Ormond," by Miss Edgeworth, nearly 
eighty years ago, was under very pathetic circumstances. 
She was then about fifty years of age, and her father, to 
whom she had been intensely devoted and whose greatest 
pleasure was in his daughter's literary work, lay slowly fail- 
ing with his last illness. Miss Edgeworth made a great effort, 
assisted by her publisher, to have the book written and put 
into type in time for her father's last birthday. Parts of the 
book,— that is to say, certain incidents and stories which it 
embodies,— were dictated by Mr. Edgeworth himself, and 
were included verbatim by his gifted daughter. It is con- 
sidered one of her most spirited and satisfactory novels. 

Sir Andrew Wylie of that Ilk. By John Gait. With in- 
troduction by 8. B. Crockett. Two vols., Idmo, pp. 
996-404. Boston : Roberts Brothers. $2.50. 

In recent numbers of the Ramw of BBmws we have 
made note of the revival of interest in the stories of John 
GMdt, and have particularly mentioned the new edition which 
Mr. 8. R. Crockett is editing with brief introductory chap- 
ters. Mr. Crockett tells us that '' Sir Andrew Wylie '* was, at 
the time of its publication, the most popular of (halt's works 
in England. It is a story of the period of King James First 
and the union of the English and Scotch crowns. Many ad- 
venturers accompanied the Scotch king from the north to 
London, and that particular historical moment is seised by 
Gkdt for a story which has much pleasant description of 
Scotch life in it, besides a great deal of adventure, plot, and 
action. 

The Scottish Chiefs. By Miss Jane Porter. Revised 
and corrected. Two vols., l2mo, pp. 867-855. New 
York : T. Y. Crowell & Co. $3. 

Since Scottish fiction, old and new, is one of the striking 
literary passions of the day, it is certainly fitting that we 
should have an attractive new edition of Miss Porter's " Scot- 
tish Chiefs." It was Miss Porter's design to paint the i>or- 
trait, as she said in her original preface in 1809, of one of the 
most complete heroes that ever filled the page of history,— 
William Wallace, of Scotland. The present edition, besides 
containing the preface of 1809 and that of the 1828 edition, also 
gives us the retrospective preface that Miss Porter added to 
the edition of 1840. This edition can be commended for its 
completeness and its very admirable illustrations of Scottish 
castles and scenery. The only criticism to be passed upon 
the white and gold binding is that it is almost too dainty for 
familiar use. 



The Romances of Alexandre Dumas : '^Ascanio,'* two 
vols.; "The War of Women," two vols.; "Black; 
the Story of a Dog;'' "Tales of the Caucasos." 
12mo. Boston : Little, Brown & Co. Each voL, $1.25. 
The historical romances of Alexandre Dumas are losing 
none of their popularity. In fact, the interest in the times 
and events of the period which Dumas mastered, and with 
which he deals so irresistibly, has never been so widespread 
as to-day, particularly among English readers. Conse* 
quentiy, the very attractive volumes which Messrs. Little, 
Brown & Co. are issuing show a sound appreciation of the 
condition of the public mind. The bindings are at once ex- 
quisitely beautiful and perfectiy durable, and the paper and 
type are perfection. The reader will find this edition emi- 
nentiy satisfactory. 

NEW FICTION. 

In a Hollow of the Hills. By Bret Harte. IQmo, pp, 2ia 
Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
The complaint has been made by some novelty seeking 
critics that Bret Harte's stories are monotonous. It may be, 
but it is not recorded that the appreciation of *4B Madeira, 
for instance, ever lessened through being gratified, and these 
tales of mines and gamblers and road-agents and most fasci- 
nating runs have a fiavor which appeals the more strongly in 
that it recalls former palate-ticklings. " In a Hollow of the 
Hills " is one of the well-known sketches of human nature 
untrammelled by the restraints of public opinion, and the 
Decalogue is shattered in the most nonchalant, matter-of- 
course way. 

A Gentleman Vagabond, and Some Others. By F. Hop- 
kinson Smith. 12mo, pp. 182. Boston : Hooghton^ 
MiflUn&Co. $1.25. 

It is not often in this age of specialisation that it is given 
to one man to do several things and do them as well as Mr. 
Hopkinson Smith. To build good bridges and draw good 
pictures evidences varied attainments, but neither achieve- 
ment would prepare one for the subtie and delicate humor 
which makes Mr. Smith's literary output such pleasant read- 
ing. 

Amos Jndd. By J. A. MitchelL Ifimo, pp. 196. New 

York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 75 cents. 

Mr. Mitchell, in his capacity as editor of a humorous 
paper, must have become satiated with comedy, for " Amos 
Judd," unpromising in such a direction as the name sounds, 
is a mixture of Hindu legend and tragedy. The hero of the 
story is the descendant of a mysterious line of Rajahs ; and 
having been brought up by a Connecticut farmer, develops 
very un-New-England-like faculties of second sight. His 
own death finally occurs as he had foreseen, but nevertheless 
most unexi>ectedly. 
The British Barbarians. By Grant Allen. Idmo, pp. 28L 

New York : G. P. Pntnam's Sons. $1. 

The above is the first of Mr. Allen's ** Hill Top Novels" 
—the term by which he proposes in future to designate all 
stories which he writes of his " own accord *^ and as the *' er 
pression of his own individuality." The author propoees 
henceforth to '* purvey strong meat for men ^ instead of 
basely truckling to the requirements of serials, and these 
" hill top " *' protests in favor of purity " will present his own 
** original thinking, whether good or bad, on some important 
I>oint in human society or human evolution.^' 

The Track of a Storm. By Owen HalL ISmo, pp. 968. 
Philadelphia : J. B. Lippinoott Co. 
It is a variety of storms and decidedly exciting ones 

through which Mr. Charles Fortescue is conducted in safety^ 

finally arriving at that haven toward which the eyes of 

men seem to set w illy-niUy. 

Toxin. By Onida . 16mo, pp. 217. New York and Loo- 
don : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 75 oentK 
'* Toxin " is the decidedly unpleasant storyo f how, for love 

of a woman, an English surgeon kills the young Italian Prince 



THE NEiV BOOKS. 



116 



whose life he has previously saved, by injecting toxin into 
hiB veins instead of the serum with which he pretends to try 
to core him. 

Turtarin of Tarascon. By Alphonse Daudet. 16mo, pp. 
340. New York and Boston : T. Y. Crowell & Co. $1. 

L'AvTiL By Paul Marguerritte. 16mo, pp. 194. New 
York and Boston : T. Y. Giowell & Go. $1. 

These two volumes are both in the Faience Library. The 
*" Tsrtarin '' is a revised translation, very happily illustrated, 
sod the many friends of that most inimitable Tarasconian, to 
whom might be applied some of Handet's utterances con- 
cerning the dangers of the sun, particularly that '* splendid 
ran which makes people lie ingenuously ''—all his admirers 
■xe sure to welcome his every api>earanoe for he improves 
continually upon acquaintance. 




AK ILLUSTRATION FROM " TABTABIN.'' 

""L'Avrll ** is the first expedition into fiction of a French 
vtist and is the daintiest sort of a love story with the scene 
kid in the languorous south of France by the shores of the 
Mediterranean. 

The Way of a Alaid. By Katharine Tynan Hinkson. 
12mo, pp. 300. New York : Dodd, Mead & Go. $1.25. 

Mrs. Hinkson is in evidence with her first novel, though 
ker verses and short stories have been read for some time. 
" The Way of a Maid '' is not usually easily decipherable and 
the love affairs of these Irish folk get quite mixed. The 
ftttfrj is wholesomely and genuinely pleasing. 

Old Mr. Tredgold. By ICrs. Oliphant. 12mo, pp. 452. 
New York : Longmans, Green & Go. $1.50. 

Mr& Oliphant declares it is ** a great art to know when to 
itop when you are telling a story"— which is capable of 
•vreral applications. She herself, in the present instance 
atope when she gets one of her two heroines married to a 
Lord and brings the other to the pleasing state of having 
two adorers, both, like Mr. Barkis, entirely '* willin " and 
cither one calculated to make her quite happy. 

Tils Oiarlatan. By Robert Buchanan and Henry Murray. 
13tao, pp. 272. New York and Ghicago : F. Tenny- 
son Nedy. $1.25. 

** The Charlatan *^ reverses the modern idea of dramatiz- 
\mg a socceesful novel, since it is a clothing in literary form 
of one of Mr. Buchanan*s plays. The story deals with the 
career of an impostor as a theoeophist and hypnotist. It is 
pfeasa&t indeed to see Mr. Buchanan acknowledgring on the 
title page his indebtedness to Miss Harriett Jay for the origi- 
Snch scrupulousness has been only too rare since 



Dumas boldly formulated his working theories on the sub- 
ject of the ownership of ideas. 

A Social Highwayman. By Elizabeth Phipps Train. 

lOmo, pp. 196. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippinoott Go. 

75 cents. 

The career of Mr. Courtice Jaffray, who took advantage of 
his social position to relieve several people of most valuable 
jewels, makes decidedly interesting reading as related by his 
faithful servant, himself rather an adept with his fingers. 

The Mystery of Walderetein. By Mary E. Lamb. lOmo, 
pp. 194. Ghicago : Donohne, Henneberry & Go. 60 
cents. 

" The Mystery of Walderstein " rehites certain exciting 
events in the lives of a couple of Prussian officers. The scene 
of action shifts from Venice to Rome, then to Pisa and finally 
through Switzerland to (Germany, and the tale ends in the 
good old-fashioned way with engagement cards. 

Gathering Gloads. By Frederick W. Farrar, D.D., 
Ck^tavo, pp. 503. New York and London : Long- 
mans, Green & Go. $2. 

Dean Farrar states boldly in his preface that his idea in his 
latest novel is similar to that of his former story *' Darkness 
and Dawn ; *' that he does not " appeal to the ordinary novel 
reader,'' but wishes to ** create an interest far deeper and 
higher than that of passing amusement.'' It may be ques- 
tioned whether the most efficacious method of accomplishing 
this is by writing a '* heavy " treatise and calling it a novel, 
but the aim is certainly beyond cavil, and the picture drawn 
of Antioch in the days of St. Chrysostom is evidently the 
product of profound research. 

The Temptation of Katharine Gray. By Mary Lowe Dick- 
inson. 12mo, pp. 880. Philadelphia : American Bap- 
tist Pub. Society. $1.50. 

Though Mrs. Dickinson is in the very van of the ''Woman's 
Movement " her work is thoroughly free from some of the 
characteristics which have begun to be generally ascribed to 
the New Woman's literary efforts, and her present story in- 
culcates principles by no means modem. 

A Golonial Wooing. By Gharles Gonrad Abbott, M.D. 

12mo, pp. 241. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Go. 

Dr. Abbott's out-door books are well-known, and the pres- 
ent account of the love affair of two Pennsylvania Quakers 
just two centuries ago has many of the same qualities which 
Have caused his writings to become so popular with lovers of 
nature. 
Lady Bonnie's Experiment. By Tighe Hopkins. 16mo, 

pp. 199. New York : Henry Holt & Go. 75 cents. 

Mr. Hopkins tells how Lady Bonnie's *' Garden of Love '* 
was established and finally broken up by the clever citation 
of some detailed historical parallels by her Ladyship's hus- 
band. 
Sir Qtdxote of the Moors. By John Bochan. 16mo, pp. 

228. New York : Henry Holt A; Go. 75 cents. 

The Sieur de Rohaine's narrative of his doings during his 
exile in Scotland contains some decidedly exciting situations. 
He himself could hardly be termed Quixotic in his conduct. 

The Cnp of Trembling. By Mary Hallock Foote. 12mo, 
pp. 273. Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin 
&Go. $1.25. 

The reading public is indebted to Mary Hallock Foote for 
a large proportion of the rather limited stock of Western 
stories, which do not seem superfluous after an acquaintance 
with Bret Harte. She has made the Coeur d'Alene familiar 
ground to many effete Easterners who are more than willing 
to know it solely from her fascinating booka ** The Cup of 
Trembling " is the initial tale in a series of four, the others 
being entitled " Maverick," '* On a Side-Track " and " Tho 
Trumpeter." 



116 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



Slain by the DooneB. By B. D. Blackmore. 16mo, pp. 244. 

New York : Dodd, Mead & Go. $1.25. 

The author of '* Loma Doone '' need not to be? for a 
hearing:, and the initial story of the four in the present vol- 
ume is more interesting than the others just because it 
relates some hitherto unexploited passages in the lives of 
those '* robbers bold '' and of that honest Samson John Ridd. 

Ck>nege Girls. By Abbey Carter Gkx)dloe. 12mo, pp. 288. 

New York : Charlee Scribner's Sons. $1.26. 

Miss Goodloe writes very pleasingly of the college-bred 
young woman. It is no small relief to know that one of these 
Productions of the aged nineteenth century can heap an Ox- 
ford course in mathematical astronomy on top of a '* higher 
education '' without in the least degree obscuring the pecul- 
iarly feminine brilliancies which captivated our grand- 
fathers. There are fourteen of the bright cleverly-told 
stories and they more than justify themselves— which is 
much to say in this flood-tide of literature. 

The Msrstery of Witch-Faoe Mountain. By Charles 

Egbert Craddock. 16mo, pp. 279. Boston and New 

York : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 

Miss Murfree comes about as near as any one can oome 

to imprisoning in black and white letters the marvelous, 

shifting, ever varying fascination of the Tennessee and 

Caroline Mountains, and her mountaineers are, as always, 

** caught wild ^* and intensely reaL Of the three short stories 

In the present volume '' The Casting Vote " is perhaps the 




MISS MART N. MURFREE. 

Strongest and truest, and the picture of simple, great-hearted 
Justus Hozon scanning the companionable stars in his com- 
prehending unscientific way is particularly fine. 

Fettered Yet Free. By Annie S. Swan. 12mo, pp. 464. 

New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.25. 

Mrs. Swan attacks the rather complex question of hered- 
ity in the above story. One of the characters described is by 
no means a rara avis ; the gentleman who " could lay no 
claim to literary taste/' yet " had a curious hankering after 
the literary life." 

The Story of UUa. By Edwin Lester Arnold. 12mo, pp. 

295. London and New York : Longmans, Green & 

Co. $1.26. 

The hand of the author of '' Phra the Phoenician" is 
plainly discernible in the ten short stories issued under the 
above title. Mr. Arnold's Vikings are his strong point— 
they are unquestionably very devils incarnate upon some 
occasions. 




R. D. BLACKMORE. 

A Savage of Civilization. 12mo, pp. 405. New York : J. 

Selwin Tait & Sons. $1. 

Anarchistic plots and fights between mill hands and sol- 
diers, with a private revenge running through the whole, 
form the basis of the above '* realistic " novel. When it is 
stated that the inevitable Russian lady is named '' Vera," it 
will be at once evident that this is merely the return of an 
old acquaintance. 
The White Slave. By Kaymond Baife. 12mo, pp. 820. 

New York : Lovell, Coryell & Co. $1.25. 
Bed Bowans. By ICrs. Steel. 12mo, pp. 406. New York 

and London : Macmillan & Co. $1. 
Josephine Crewe. By Helen M. Bonlton. 12mo, pp. 300. 

London and New York : Longmans, Green & Co. 

$1.25. 
Bohemia Invaded. By James L. Ford. lOmo, pp. 176. 

New York and London : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

50 cents. 
A Man and his Womankind. By Nora Vynn6. 16mo, pp. 

195. New York : Heniy Holt & Co. . 75 cents. 
Private Tinker and Other Stories. By John Strange 

Winter. lOmo, pp. 186. New York and London : 

Frederick A. Stokes Co. 50 cents. 
A Babble. By L. B. Walford. lOmo, pp. 185. New 

York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 50 cents. 
Fifty Thousand Dollars Bansom. By David Malcolm. 

16mo, pp. 227. New York : J. Selwin Tait & Sons. 

75 cents. 
Miss Qraoe of All Sonls. By William Edwards Tirebnck. 

12mo, pp. 851. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.25. 
Broken Notes from a Gray Nnnnery. By Julian Sherman 

Hallock. Octavo, pp. 108. Boston : Lee & Sheppard. 

$1.25. 
Frederick. By L. B. Walford. 12mo, pp. 261. New 

York and London : Macmillan & Co. $1.25. 
Zoraida. By William Le Quenz. 12mo, pp. 484. New 

York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. $1.50. 
Matthew Forth. By Ida Lamon. 12mo, pp. 284. New 

York and London : Longmans, Green & Co. $1.25. 
On Shifting Sands. By Harriet Osgood Nowlin. 12mo, 

pp. 228. Chicago : Donohne, Henneberry & Co. 
The Manhattaners. By E^lward S. Van Zile. 12mo, pp. 

257. New York: Lovell, Coryell & Co. $1. 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



117 



B88AY8. CRITICISM AND BELLES-LETTRES. 
Letters of Bfatthew Arnold, 1818-1888. Ck>llected and 

Arranged by George W. E. RnsseU. Two vols., pp. 

478-443. New York: MacmiUian & Ck). |S. 

The most important contribation to real literature that 
baa oome to ns this past month is the correspondence of the 
late Matthew Arnold. He was bom in 1823, and his public 
career began with the year 1848, when he became private 
vicretary to Lord Lansdowne who was then president of the 
Coandi These letters are selected from correspondence be- 
^tinning with January, 1848, and ending April 10, 1888. Mr. 
%mold died on April 14 of that year, at the age of sixty- 
five. Throughout life he was devoted to his relatives and 
intimate friends, and wrote to them constantly. His habit of 
doing all things felicitously and beautifully pertained also to 
his moat casual letter-writing. Consequently, Mr. Gtoorge 
W. E. Russell, the editor of these volumes, has been easily 
aUe to cull out a most attractive collection of correspondence 
from the quantitiee of letters placed at his discretion. It 
was in the autumn of 1883 that Mr. Arnold came to the 
United States. His letters from this country are extremely 
interesting. They are entirely kind and appreciative, with 
hits of comment on people and things that are the morede- 
Ughtfnl because, of course, Mr. Arnold never dreamed that 
anybody but his daughters and his brothers and sisters, 
to whom they were written, would ever see them. Many of 
the letters contained in these volumes are addressed to John 
Morley, to Charles Eliot Norton, and to friends on the Conti- 
nent. A large majority of those in the first volume were 
written to his mother. They are most fascinating volumes. 

"^pea of American Character. By (Hmaliel Bradford, Jr. 
a2ino» pp. 210. New York: Macmillan & Co. 75 cents. 

Mr. Gamaliel Bradford, Jr., is one of our few American 
writers of great ability who is content to read and think 
much and to write and publish little. The thing he chooses 
to utter is always worth attention. This little volume con- 
tains seven essays, entitled '' The American Pessimist,'' '* The 
American Idealist," **The American Epicurean,'' *'The 
American Philanthropist,' '' The American Man of Letters,'* 
" The American Out of Doors," " The Scholar." The Ameri- 
can types portrayed by Mr. Bradford are most of them the 
educated contemporary descendants of the New England 
Puritans, and this little book is as Boetonian a product as are 
the rarioos Jf a de tUdU American types it attempts to ana- 
lyre^ 
MJarrfUtMwtM StadlcB: A Beriee of Eflsays. By Walter 

Plater. 12ino, pp. 2S3. New York: Macmillan & Co. 

$L7S. 

Admirers of the late Walter Pater will be thankful to 
Macmillan ft Co. for the service they have rendered in collect- 
ing Tarious magazine and review articles by the lamented 
iwjilil and presenting them in an attractive volume supple- 
mentary to *• Greek Studies," " Imaginary Portraits," " Ap- 
preciations," and '' Studies in the Renaissance." A chrono 
logical list of the titles of Pater's published papers, included 
in the present volume, is something of a criterion of this 
writ«r's wonderful versatility. The essays now reprinted 
iikrliBde studies of Prosper M6rim6e, Raphael and Pascal, 
" Art Notes in North Italy," " Apollo in PIcardy," and a hall- 
doaen other characteristic papers. 

Our Common Speech. By Gilbert M Tucker. 16mo, pp. 
940. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.25. 

This title has been adopted for a little handbook made 
up, aa its author says, of *' six papers on topics connected 
with the proper use of the English language, the changes 
which that tongue is undergoing on both sides of the sea, and 
the labors of lexicographers to explain the meaning of the 
words of which it is composed." This sub-title describes the 
book succinctly. It only remains to be said that the essays 
weO repay a careful reading. They exhibit erudition suited 
to the somewhat difllcult task undertaken by Mr. Tucker. A 
bibllocrvphy of the subject and an index of English words 
ilfii^*'* in the text add greatly to the practical usefulness 
4tf the book. 



The Spirit of Judaism. By Joeephine Lazains. 16mo, 
pp. 302. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Miss Josephine Lazarus is an eminent thinker and 
writer, and this little book contains a series of most brilliant 
and thoughtful essays upon the higher aspects of the life and 
mission of the Jewish race. The first essay, on * The Jewish 
Question" was published in the Cenlury Magaxine four 
years ago, and most of the others have appeared in the 
JewUh Messenger. It is well worth w:hile that these thought- 
ful contributions to an important theme should be preserved 
in book form. 

Fablea and Eeeays. By John Bryan. 12mo, pp. 245. New 

York : The Arts & Lettres Company. 

The author in a prefatory note informs us that *' this 
book is dedicated to two ideas which are equally inclusive : 
Liberty, Justice." The volume is made up of a great number 
of very short fables, a half dozen essays, and perhaps twenty 
short poems. It is miscellaneous in its method, but ingenious 
and original 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

History of the United States from the Compromise of 
1850. By James Ford Rhodes. VoL HL Octavo, 
pp. 660. New York: Harper & Brothers. 
The third volume of this exhaustive work begins with 
the events of 1800 and carries the narrative well into the 
record of the Civil War, closing with the battle of Shiloh and 
the capture of New Orleans. The introductory chapter, deal- 
ing with material, intellectual and social conditions and 
forces Just before the outbreak of war is particularly in- 
structive, and is probably the most complete and accurate 
risumS of the period that has yet appeared. On the political 
side, the presentation of the views held by Lincoln, Seward, 
Qreeley and other Republican leaders is especially full and 
suggestive. Surely no book since Oreeley's " American Con- 
flict " (which was written at a time when calm judgment and 
discrimination were out of the question), has succeeded so 
well in this task. The military history of the Civil War has 
been more fully told by others, but what Mr. Rhodes at- 
tempts in this direction is by no means inadequate to his 
Xml'poee in writing a general history of the time. 

Recollections of Abraham Lincoln, 1847-1865. By Ward 
Hill Lamon. Edited by Dorothy Lamon. 16mo, pp. 
280. Chicago: A. C. McQurg & Co. $1.50. 
Every one interested in the Lincoln literature of the last 
few years has been made familiar with the name of the late 
Ward Hill Lamon, who was Mr. Lincoln's law partner and 
confidential adviser. Few men knew Lincoln more inti- 
mately than did Mr. Lamon. His " Recollections," edited by 
his daughter, form a fresh contribution to the feast of bio- 
graphical and anecdotal materials grouped about the person- 
ality of that one among our Presidents of whose life the 
American people can never learn enough. 

Under the Old Elms. By Biary B. Claflin. 16mo, pp. 150. 

New York: T. Y. CroweU & Co. $1. 

** The Old Elms "—Governor Clafiin's country place at 
Newton ville, Mass.,— was for many years the meeting place 
of many distinguished leaders in the anti-slavery cause. Mrs. 
Claflin now publishes her reminiscences of the visits of 
Charles Sumner, Henry Wilson, James Freeman Clarke, 
Henry Ward Beecher, Mrs. Stowe, Dr. Bailey, Dr. Samuel 
Francis Smith (who lias recently died) and other noted eruests 
at the old house. All who are interested in the personalities 
described in these personal recoUoctions— and what American 
is not —will thank Mrs. Claflin for giving to the world from 
her store of anecdotal wealth these bright and entertaining 
chapters. 

The Story of the Indian. By George Bird Grinnell. 

12mo, pp. 280. New York: D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

One great merit of this '' Story of the Indian " is the 
characteristic Indian spirit which permeates the book. In 
other words, the author permits the Indian to tell his own 
story, helping us to see life, in some measure, from the In- 



118 



THE REy/Eiy OF REVIEWS. 



dian's point of view and through the media of the Indian's 
environment. Needless to say, this book is not a formal 
history of Indian tribes. The reader is brought into 
closer touch with savage life as it is to-day on the Western 
plains than would ever have been possible by leading him to 
it through a dry chronicle ot war and famine such as com- 
monly forms the sum and substance of Indian histories. The 
red man of tradition is more and more discredited by our 
sounder literature. Books like this teach us that the real red 
man shares with ourselves a common humanity. 

The King's Peace: A Historical Sketch of the English 
Law Courts. By F. A. Inderwick. Q. C. 12mo, pp. 
277. New York: Macmillan & Co. $1.50. 
This volume in the *' Social England Series " has been 
prepared with a view to bringing home to the English people 
a definite knowledge of their national system of legal pro- 
cedure, through the medium of a popular history of the 
various law courts. So much in our American Jurisprudence 
has been modeled on English precedent that Americans are 
almost as greatly in need of such information as are the Eng- 
lishmen themselves. American lawyers, at any rate, will 
be greatly profited as well as interested and entertained by 
the book. The illustrations include several quaint reproduc- 
tions from ancient illuminated manuscripts in the Inner 
Temple. 

Appenzell: Pure Democracy and Pastoral Ldfe in Inner- 

Rhoden. A Swiss Stndy. By Irving B. Bichman. 

12mo, pp. 206. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 

$1.50. 

So much has been published of late about the initiative 
and referendum in Switzerland, that we are in danger of 
overlooking other impressive features in the political and 
social life of the Swiss. Mr. Bichman, who is Oonsul-€toneral 
of the United States to Switzerland, has made a helpful con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the land and the people. He 
introduces his study with a brief description of the scenery 
and climate ; he then devotes five chapters to Swiss history, 
and these are followed by five chapters on the contemporary 
life, including politics, laws and administration of justice, 
cantonal and domestic economy, education, sanitation, and 
charity, and domestic and social life, forming a graphic por- 
traiture of the Switzerland of to-day. 

The Makers of Modem R(»ne. By Mrs. Oliphant. 12mo, 
pp. 618. New York: Macmillan & Co. $3. 
There are three Bomes, namely, the Bome of the Bo- 
mans, the Bome of the Popes, and the Bome of the modem 
Italians. This newest Bome dates from 1870. Its character- 
istic changes were described in the November Bbvuw of 
Bbyibws in Mr. Shaw*s article on ''Becent Progress in 
Italian Cities.'' It should be understood that Mrs. Oliphant's 
** modem Bome,'* described in this brilliant and readable 
volume, is not the new Bome of the House of Savoy, but the 
Bome of the Popes. Mrs. Oliphant begins with a description 
of Bome in the fourth century, and her story ends with the 
death of Pope Leo X in the year 1521. She tells us of the 
Popes who made the papacy, of the stormy times of the four- 
teenth century, and of the Popes who made the city magnifi- 
cent in the fifteenth century. Few books have been written 
which carry the reader so vividly through this long period 
of transformation at Bome as Mrs. Oliphant's spirited and 
sympathetic narrative. 

Europe in Africa in the Nineteenth Century. By Eliza- 
beth Wormeley Latimer. 12mo, pp. 451. Chicago: 
A. C. McClnrg & Co. 12.50. 

Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer is engaged in the produc- 
tion of a series of useful historical compilations. She has 
written upon " France in the Nineteenth Century," " Bussia 
and Turkey in the Nineteenth Century," and " England in 
the Nineteenth Century ; " and now we have " Europe and 
Africa in the Nineteenth Century.'^ The great virtue of 



these volumes lies in their unpretentiousness. The author is 
willing to take the trouble to compile for us a readable and 
accurate narrative. There is no attempt at a large historical 
Iierspective in this volume, but we have a series of distinct 
chapters which succeed in covering the whole field very in- 
telligently. There are chapters on Mehemet Ali, Arab! Pasha, 
Qordon and the Mahdi, the Captives of the Mahdi, Living- 
stone and Stanley, Darkest Africa, Uganda, the War in 
Abyssinia, Zanzibar, the Barbary States, Liberia, Ekigland's 
Little Wars, Diamond Fields and Oold Mines, Bhodesia, the 
French in Africa, and Madagascar. Mrs. Latimer has given 
us an exceedingly opportune and satisfactory ritum*^ of re* 
cent European doings in the African continent. 

Some Memories of Paris. By F. Adolphus. 12mo, pp. 
308. New York: Henry Holt & Co. $1.90. 

Mr. Adolphus gives us some very slight and fragmentary 
recollections of his life in Paris. The first chapter, which 
describes the Parisian streets and street life of forty years 
ago, before the Haussmann reconstructions, is the best part 
of the book. Other chapters belong to the period of the 
Franco-Prussian war, and the chapter on the Commune is 
readable and incidentaUy valuable. The book, as a whole, is 
rather trivial. 

Growth of British Policy: An Historical Essay. By Sir 
J. B. Seeley, Litt.D., K.C.M.G. Two vols., 12mo, 
pp. 458-403. New York: Macmillan & Co. $3.50. 

Professor J. B. Seeley, of the University of Cambridge, 
who had been knighted under Lord Bosebery*s administra- 
tion in 1894, died on the Idth of January, 1885. Our regular 
readers will remember various allusions in the Bbvtkw or 
Bbvtswb to Professor Seeley*s distinguished career as an 
educator and a writer. Most of the great English historians 
have been devoted to the constitutional, that is to say, the 
internal, development of the British state. But Professor 
Seeley's point of view was that of his country in its position 
as a great power. He dealt with international relations and 
the history of policy, leaving to others the study of British 
parliamentary progress and constitutional development. 
The great work by which he was best known, was called 
'' The Life and Times of Stein," and was devoted to a discus- 
sion of the growth of the Prussian state and its position in 
the anti- Napoleonic European revivaL This great work was 
in the line of Professor Seeley's favorite study of interna- 
tional policy. Perhaps a decade ago there appeared his 
remarkable book entitled " The Expansion of England." This 
work was an essay expounding and defending the principles 
upon which there had grown up the great British empire. 
During the closing year of his life Professor Seeley was 
engaged in the preparation of a work which now makes its 
posthumous appearance in two brilliant volumes on " The 
Growth of British Policy : An Historical Essay." This work 
is no attempt to describe or defend the particular practical 
policies of the British empire in our own day, for it deals with 
the period beginning with the reign of Queen Elizabeth and 
ending with the reign of William of Orange. The three 
colossal figures in the story of the first shaping of England's 
career as a great world power are, in Professor Seeley*8 
opinion, Queen Elizabeth, Oliver Cromwell and William HI. 
Although a liberal in politics. Professor Seeley was an ardent 
imperialist and a stout defender of Britannia^s right to rule 
as much of the universe as she could bring within the grasp 
of her wide-reaching political system. He perceived clearly 
that this British policy of " expansion, "—or as the enemies 
of England say, of aggression,— was something inherent in 
the general position and policy of the British statQ, rather 
than the cold blooded and deliberate programme of an ambi- 
tious administration. He desired to analyze the elements 
which have entered into this remarkable something, not 
dependent uiK>n the will or humor of any individual states- 
man, which we call British policy. We see that policy act- 
ively at work to-day in every nook and comer of the globe. 
Professor Seeley thought at first that he could discover its 
genesis in the revolution of 1688 ; but further study and re- 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



119 



flection'sent him back to Oliver Cromwell uiid then he found 
it needful to go still farther back to the times of the great 
EUsabeth. In the period of the religious reformation, and in 
the commercial and colonising growth that followed the dis- 
ooTery of the new world and the days of the great English 
navigators. Professor Seeley found the beginningit of that 
modem British policy in which he glories, and the continu- 
ance of which we observe to- day in England's intricate 
colonial and foreign relationships. It ii fortunate that Pro- 
f tMsor Seeley left this work so nearly completed. It has been 
edited and slightly revised by Mr. G. W. Prothero, who sup- 
pUea alao a valuable memoir of the lamented author. 



TRAVEL AND DB8CRIPTION. 
Omstantiiiople. By Edwin A. GroBvenor. With an in- 
troduction by General Lew. Wallace. Two vols., 
8to, pp. 833. Boston: Roberts Brothers. $10. 
Profosanr Grosvenor's plans for publishing a book about 
OooBtantinople have reached their fulfillment at a moment 
irtien that historic city is the focus of the strained political 
attention of the whole civilized world. Professor Grosvenor, 
who is now a member of the faculty of Amherst College, 
spent a nnmber of years as a professor in Robert College, 
which is an American institution under the presidency of Dr. 
Georgv Waahbum on the shore of the Bosphorus some six 
Bfles from the heart of Constantinople. While at Robert 
College Professor Grosvenor conceived the idea of writing a 
descriptive work about Constantinople, which should review 
the hirt o r y of the city and should very particularly describe 
the churches, mosques and fiunous buildings. It was Mr. 
Grosvenor^ good fortune to have the asslBtance of Dr. Pas- 
patis, a Greek who had graduated at Amherst College in 1881, 
sDd had afterwards spent his life in Greece and in Constanti- 
aople. becoming a very eminent arolUBological authority. 
This learned man accompanied Professor Grosvenor in his 
runbles about the city. Professor Grosvenor was an apt 
■tsdent of languages, both ancient and modem, and in 
torn became himself an authority upon the archeology of 
Brmntinm. Subsequently, Professor Grosvenor and Gton- 
«al Lew. Wallace spent much time together in the study of 
Oonstantinople, General Wallace obtaining at that time the 
aaterials for his subsequent writings. General Wallace 
oaatritmtes an introductory letter to the volumes before us. 
The general historcal sketch with which the work opens is 
doar and attractive but comparatively alight. Professor 
Qr o s T e iKW hastens to the very heart of his chosen topic, 
which is the careful description of the localities comprised 
within the general region of Constantinople and the histor- 
ical buildings and aasodations that pertain to each portion of 
the general field. The Gk>lden Horn with its villages and the 
qaarters called Galata and Pera are quickly but attractively 
described, and the author then takes up the Bosphorus, the 
deep channel which connects the Black Sea with the waters 
that pertain to the Mediterranean. Then come chapters 
describing ancient Constantinople and its existing antiqni- 
ties. Hare than half of the two volumes is taken up with an 
accotmt of the churches and mosques. The illustrations are 
rtrj nnmerons and the publishers have spared no pains or 
> in paper and printing. 



Old Boston: Beprodnctions of Etchings in Half-tone of 
Old Boston Buildings, with Descriptive Text. By 
Henry B. Blaney. Sise 7}i x 9>i- Boston: Lee & 
Sbepnid. 13.50. 

Mr. Blaney is a Boston artist whose etchings of old Bos- 
ton have been very highly praised. In the present volume 
the etrhfngs have been reproduced by the half-tone process, 
aad the text consist of a slight description of each picture. 
These p r oce s s blocks have been uncommonly successful in 
keeping tbe softness of the original etchings, and the book is 
aa exceedingly acceptable product. 



Oxford and Her Colleges. By Goldwin Smith, D.C.L. 
16mo, pp. 170. New York: Macmillftn & Go. $1.60. 

Of the charming glimpses of Oxford afforded by Mr. 
Gk>ldwin Smith's little volume issued two years ago, the 
Bsvixw OF Rbvtbws has already made mention. The book 
now reappears with illustrations made from photographs of 
the more important Oxford buildings— a feature which 
notably increases the attractiveness of the work. 

Glimpses of Africa, West and Southwest Coast By C. S. 
Smith. With an introdoction by Bishop H. M. 
Tomer, D.D. 12mo, pp. 288. Nashville: A. M. E. 
Church Sunday School Union. 

This book Is of more than passing interest, especially to 
the negro race, since it records the Intelligent observations 
of an Afro-American in the land of his ancestors. The writer 
discusses with great frankness some of the important prob- 
lems related to the probable destiny of the ''Dark Conti- 
nent.'* He expresses some disappointment in the results thus 
far achieved in the efforts to civilize and Christianize the 
native Africans, and advises American negroes not to hazard 
migration to Africa in the hope of bettering their condition. 

From Far Formosa: The LsUmd, Its People and Missiona. 
By George Leslie MacKay, D.D. Edited by J. A. 
Maodonald. Octavo, pp. 846. New York: Fleming 
H. Bevell Company. Id. 

Although the attention of the world has been directed to 
the great island of Formosa by reason of its recent transfer 
from the political Jurisdiction of China to that of Japan, the 
knowledge of its people, its topography, its plants and ani- 
mals, and its general possibilities of material and social prog- 
ress have been almost unknown. Undoubtedly, the man who 
knows most about Formosa is the Rev. Dr. Gtoorgre L. Mao- 
Kay. It is nearly twenty-four years since Dr. MacKay, a 
young Canadian minister of the Presbyterian Church who 
had completed his education at Princeton and Edinburgh, 
decided to enter upon the work of a missionary pioneer in 
Formosa. He has recently enjoyed a furlough of some 
months in America and Great Britain, and during this time, 
with the asslBtance of competent editors, has produced a 
very timely volume. Dr. MacKay is a man of heroic courage 
and of great ability and sagacity. His missionary work has 
prospered to a remarkable extents and he has to show for it 
some sixty churches with native pastors, and a series of use- 
ful schools for both sexes. This volume contains valuable 
chapters oonoeming the native races and the products of the 
island. 

A literary POgrimage Among the Haunts of Famous 
British Authors. By Theodore F. Wolfa M.D., 
Ph.D. lOmo, pp. 200. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin- 
cott Company. $1.25. 

Literary Shrines: The Haonts of Some Famons American 
Anthors. By Theodore F. Wolfe, M.D., Ph.D. Idmo, 
pp. 228. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. 
$1.25. 

Dr. Wolfe has been an assiduous pilgrim to the homes, 
haunts and shrines of the great literary lights of England 
and America. His chapters are sketchy and slight, but ao- 
curate, readable, and full of true appreciation. The books 
are beautifully printed, and the illustrations, though not 
numerous, are dainty and charming. The American volume 
is devoted chiefiy to the Concord pilgrimage and the Boston 
vicinity, although there is a chapter on Walt Whitman. The 
English volume takes a much wider range, and must be con- 
sidered as the more valuable of the two. 



CONTENTS OF REVIEWS AND MAGAZINES. 

LEADING ARTICLES IN THE JANUARY MAGAZINES. 



Annals of the American Academy.— Philadelphia. 
(Bi-monthly.) January. 

The Nicaragua Canal and the Monroe Doctrine. L. M. Keas- 

bey. 
Advantages of the Nicaragua Route. J. W. Miller. 
The Nicaragua Canal and the Economic Development of the 

United States. E. R. Johnson. 
The Musee Social in Paris. W. F. Willoughby. 
History of a Municipal Chapter in Kentucky. E. J. McDer- 

mott. 
Vacation Course of the Verein fttr Social-politik. 

Atlantic Monthly.— Boston. January. 

One of Hawthorne's Unprinted Note-Books. 

The Johnson Club. Oeorge B. HilL 

A Farm in Mame. Mary H. Catherwood. 

The F©te de Gkivant. Agnes Repplier. 

The Children of the Road. Josiah Fljrnt. 

The Emancipation of the Post Office. John R. Proctor. 

A Congress Out of Date. 

The Scnoolhouse as a Centre. Horace E. Scudder. 

The Christian Socialist Movement. J. M. Ludlow. 

Settlers in the City Wilderness. 

The Bookman.— New York. January. 

Alexandre Dmnas, Fils. Adolphe Cohn. 

Living Critics,— n. Leslie Stephen. J. A. Noble. 

Books and Culture.— XI. Hamilton W. Mabie. 

Ca88ier*8 Magazine — New York. January. 

M unlet )uil Llghtfnitf from I'^iiderg round Mjitim. E. J. Hous- 

toUtA, E, KennoUy, 
OflB Entries for Eiet^trir Litrht and Pijwer. X. W. "PeiTj. 
Wh*?ti jt 1ft Advantatfecms to V^ Water Power and El©(^tric 

TraDi^niiBtilan, C. E. Eraery, 
Coal \em i ti *?!*, Frauds B. Cr oc^k &t. 
The loduntion Motor. LouJf* Bell, 
EUcUtclty fc'r Propelltng Ruilrotid Tratija at Very High 

fliioedii, HirfliD S Maxim, 
Elttctrfc Pumpiuif Maeliiut-rv. Cliar]*?s A. Hague. 
On a Lettt^r nf B«^tijiLtniti Frnuklln. Park B*?ttjAmitu 
Tht* Dirwt PrL>du<:tijjEi of Electric Eneraj^ Ltmls Duncan. 
Electrically utM^nited FfletoritjH. B. E. B. Cooiptou. 
EleclHe Pi>wer in Cntiiidfl. J. S, Robertson. 
Electricity in Ifcfflft. T. C. Martin. 

Century Magaxine.— New York. January* 
A Kaleidoscope of Rome. F. Marion Crawford. 
Responsibility Among the Chinese. C. M. Cady. 
Patience. J. G. Vibert. 

Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.— XV. W. M. Sloane. 
A Feast-Day on the Rhone. T. A. Janvier. 
Borch^evink and Antarctic Exploration. A. W. Oreely. 
The First Landing on the Antarctic Continent. C. E. Borch- 

grevink. 
Tribal Life Among the Omahas. Alice C. Fletcher. 

The Cosmopolitan.— Irvington, N. Y. January. 

Coasting Down Some Great Mountains. Harry L. Wells. 

Amateur Photography of To-day. W. 8. Harwood. 

Submarine Boats, w. A. Dobson. 

The Weird Sisters. Esther Singleton. 

Was George Eliot a Hypocrite ? Julien Gordon. 

Ancient Lineage. Edward Harlow. 

Demorest's Family Magaxine.— New York. January. 

Woman's Industries at the Atlanta Exposition. Maude 
Andrews. 



Some Recent International Marriages. J. H. Welch. 
New Thoughts for the New Year. Dr. Lyman Abbott and 
Others. 

Engineering Magazine. New York. January. 

Representative Money and Gold Exportations. Horace 
White. 

Cripple Creek Gold Mines and the Stock Boom. T. A. Rick- 
ard. 

Future of the American Iron Trade. J. M. Swank. 

Are American Railway Rates Too High ? H. T. Newcomb. 

An Engineer's Life in the Tropics. CT. P. Yeatman. 

Are We Educating Too Many Electrical Engineers ? H. Floy. 

Location and Construction of Dams. J. B. Johnson. 

Value of Good Architecture in Citiea Barr Ferree. , 

A Piece-Rate System and Shop Management. Fred. W. Tay- 
lor. • 

The Law of Water and Modem Irrigation. R. J. Hinton. 

Godey's Magaxine.— New York. January. 

Association for the Advancement of Women. E. L. Gilliama. 
Great Singers of this Century.— HI. A. L. Parkes. 
The New Women, Athletically Considered. W. Bengough. 
Music in America.— IX. The Women Composers. R. Hughes^ 
The New Woman in Office. Joseph D. MiUer. 

Harper's Magaxine.— New York. January. 

In Washington's Day. Woodrow Wilson. 

The United States Naval Academy. T. R. Lounsbury. 

On Snow-Shoes to the Barren Ground.— U. Caspar W. Whit- 

ney. 
The Gernmn Struggle for Liberty.— XXIH. Poultney Bige- 

low. 
London's Undergroimd Railways. Elizabeth R. Pennell. 
Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc.— X. L. de Conte. 

Lippincott's Magaxine.— Philadelphia. January. 

Some Women in Doublet and Hose. Itjm&n H. Weeks. 

Longfellow. Richard H. Stoddard 

Landmarks. Charles C. Abbott. 

Architecture in America : A Forecast. John Stewardson. 

McClure's Magaxine.^New York. January. 

Abraham Lincoln. Ida M. TarbelL 

Eugene Field and His Child Friends. Cleveland Moffett. 

A Century of Painting. Will H. Low. 

The Defeat of Blaine for the Presidency. Murat Halstead. 

The New Statue of William Henry Harrison. Frank B. Gees- 

ner. 
The Sun's Light. Sir Robert Ball. 
Chapters from a Life.— U. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps. 

New England Magaxine.— Boston. January. 

The Winter Birds of New England. William E. Cram. 
George F. Root and His Songs. Lydia Avery Coonley. 
The Old Cantonment at Newburgn. Russel Headley. 
John Trumbull, the Patriot Painter. Ellen S. Bartiett. 
Paul Dudley. Francis B. Hombrooke. 
Shakesperean Repetitions. W. T. W. BalL 

Scribner's Magaxine.— New York. January. 

Frederick Locker. Augustine BirrelL 

A New Sport : Tobogganing. 

History of the Last Quarter-Century in the United States.— 
X. E. B. Andrews. 

The New Building of the Boston Public Library. T. R. Sulli- 
van. 

Water- Ways from the Ocean to the Lakes. T. C. Clarke. 



THE OTHER AMERICAN AND ENGLISH PERIODICALS. 



(From the latest numbers received.) 



American Amateur Photographer.— New York. November. 

The London Exhibitions. George Davison. 

Autumn Musings and Photograpny. George Oppenheim. 

The Anaglyph and How it is Made. A. F. Watch. 

The American Magaxine of Civics.— New York. December. 

The Multiple Standard. Henry Winn. 

Woman's Natural Debarments from Political Service. 

Popular Insanity. Rabbi Adolph Moses. 

Labor Movement and the New Labor Party. H. W. B. 

Mackay. 
Thomas F. Bayard as a Diplomatist. Lewis R. Harley. 
China Against the World. Gilbert Reid. 
Civic Religion. Washington Gladden. 



Evolution of a Wage-Standard. R. L. Bridgman. 

Legal Regulation of Occupations in New York. L. D. Scisco 

Funding the National Debt. William A. Amberg. 

American Naturalist.— Philadelphia. December. 

Sargent's Studies of the Forests of Japan. C. E. Bessey 

The Birds of New Guinea. G. S. Mead. 

The Classification of the Lepidoptera. H. G. Dyar. 

The Arena.— Boston. December. 

Personal Recollections of America's Seven Great Poets. 
The Wonder of Hypnotism. Henry Gaullieur. 
The Opportvmlty or the Church. George D. Herron. 
Should the Government Control the Telegraph f 



CONTENTS OF REVIEWS AND MAGAZINES. 



12L 



Sdantiflc Theoaophy. J. R. Buchanan. 

Shall Women Vole f Helen H. Oardener. 

Eqoalitv of Opportunity : How Oan We Secore It 7 J. L. 

Municipal Lighting. Frank PMVons. 

The Life of Sir Thomas More. B. O. Flower. 

Kapoleon Bonaparte.— lY. John Davia 

Art Amateur.— New York. December. 

The Htody of Human I^xpreasion.— H. Laughter. 
Teaching the Child to Draw. Elizabeth M. HiOlowelL 
China Painting. Lucy Comins. 

Wood-Ckrving for Beginners.— HI. K. von Rydingsrftrd. 
Talks on Embroidery. L. B. Wilson. 

Art Interchange—New York. December. 

The Madonna of the Past and Present. 

Notes of Travel in Spain.— X. 

Boees in Embroidery. Mr& M. A. Austin. 

Wedgwood and Wedgwood Ware.— L Mrs. N. R. Monchesi. 

Industrial Art Education in the United States. 

Atalanta.— London. December. 

Trenck : the Original Monte Cristo. C. O. Furley. 
Boenes from Tennyson. Continued. J. Cuming Waltera. 
The New Hellenism. J. Brierley. 

Bachelor of Arts.—New York. December. 

HoUy Berries. R. K. Munkittrick. 
Dixiaoa. L. J. Vance. 

Biblical World.— Chicago. December. 

Poreahadowings of the Christ in the Old Testament. W. R. 

Harper. 
The Times of Clirist. H. M. Scott. 
Sooroes c^ the Life of Jesus. E. D. Burton. 
The Birth and Childhood of Jesus. A. C. Zenos. 
The Ministry of Christ. W. A. Stevens. 
The TeacMng of Christ in Matthew, Mark, and Luke. A. B. 

Bruce. 
The Teaching of Christ in John. Marcus Dods. 
iesos as a Preacher. W. C. Wilkinson. 
Christ in Art. Bush Rhees. 
Christ in Poetry. F. W. Ounsaulus. 
Christ in History. A. M. Fairbanks. 
Helps to the Study of the Life of Christ. S. Mathews. 
The HaU of the Cnrist at Chautauqua. John H. Vincent. 

Blackwood's Magaxine.— London. December. 

' Bothea ** and the Athen»um Club. Lady Gregory. 

The Pessant-Lif e of South Russia. 

The English Soldier— as He Was, and as He Is. H. EnoUys. 

Tbel3&of PlrncA. 

Oxford in YwcX and Fiction. 

Foreign AiXaira. 

Board of Trade Journal.— London. November iS. 

Ftimi Cultivation in Bosnia. 

The Imitation Leather Wall Paper of Japan. 

!%• Vegetable Dye Kamela. 

The Dial.— Chicago. November 16. 

I^e Teadier as an Individual. 

The Te achin g of English and the Making of Writers. Rich- 
ard Burton. 

December 1. 
Waner in Chicago. 

la oratitttde to P r ofe ssor Boyesen. George M. Hyde. 
The Obstacles to Individuality in Teaching. Anna L. Moore. 

Canadian Magaxine.— Toronto. December. 

The OMtle of St. Louis. Quebec J. M. Lemoine. 

A dtrtrtmas Deer Hunt in Uruguay. O. A. StockwelL 

The First Oinadian Christmas. J. H. Long. 

The Loyalists of the American Revolution. C. O. D. Roberts. 

Hanc^ne. W. A. Sherwood. 

Mr. CfasmberUin : A Study of the New Colonial Secretary. 

J. C Hopkins. 
Chttada^e National 8«ng : Its Author and Its Origin. J. A. 

Cooper. 
FkHh Healing, Mind Curing, Christian Science. J. Ferguson. 

C ew c U'a Family Magaxine.— London. December. 

TW Boyil Pahice of St. James. Mary S. Warren. 

Freaks sad Tricks in Handwriting. 

Visroont Wdseley; the New Commander-in Chief . A. 

Forhea 
Hofne Work ; Paying Occupations for Oentlewomeu. 
V«w Sorisl Story : '^A BCissing Witness," by Frank Barrett 

The Catholic World.— New York. December. 

TVe Cbnrdi and the New Sociology. Oeorge McDermot. 
tbeButterfUes. William Seton. 
Psst and Present. Henry Hyvemat 



Montmartre the Holy. Edward McSweeny. 

The Princess de la Tour d' Auvergne at Jerusalem. Olive R.. 

Seward. 
After the Manner of St. Francis. John J. O'Shea. 
Looking Back at the Maynooth Centenary. C. McCready. 

Chambers's Journal.— Edinburgh. December. 

The Meocan Pilgrimage. 

The Metal Platinum. 

Artels ; Co-operation in Russia. 

Her MaJesty^s Service Abroad. 

Some English Ghosts. 

Our Butter Supply. 

The Ancient Incas of Peru. 

Charities Review.— Galesburg, 111. November. 

Property Rights of Elmployees. 

Somethfngon Reformation. Amos G. Warner. 

The New Clharity and the Newest Wilbur F. Crafts. 

Unitarlanism and Philanthropy. Francis G. Peabody. 

Wealth's Duty. Andrew Carnegie. 

Contemporary Review.— London. December. 

Mr. Balfour Seen from a Distance. Norman Hapgood. 

Secondary Education Report Professor Maasie. 

Lord Dunraven and the America Cup. A. T. Quiller-Couch.. 

Professor Sayce tw. the ArchsDologists. Prof. A. A. Bevan. 

The New Situation in the Far East. Demetrius C. Boulger. 

Sacerdotalism. Francis Peek. 

MuniciiMkl Fire Insurance. Robert Donald. 

Teachers. Herbert Spencer. 

Berthelot and His Friend Renan. Albert D. VandauL 

Muscat J. Theodore Bent 

Physics and Sociology. W. H. ICallock. 

Demorest's Family Magaxine.— New York. December. 

The Infant Christ in Legend and Art E. deB. Gud6. 
The Atlanta Exposition. Maude Andrews. 
Music in the Far East A. B. DeGuerville. 

Education.— Boston. December. 

Psychology for Normal Schools. M. V. O'Shea. 

Need of a iMstinctive American Education. E. P. PoweU. 

'' Mind-Building '' by Sense Development S. M. Miller. 

Rhetoric for Science. S. W. Balcb. 

Conception as a Mental Act John Ogden. 

Edueational Review.— New York. December. 

College Entrance Requirements in History. Albert B. Hart 
Reform of College Entrance Requirements. Wilson Farrand. 
A High School Course in English. George J. Smith. 
Student Life in Southern Colleges. F. CT Woodward. 
The Public Schools of Geneva. Walter B. Scaife. 
The Teaching of Local History. Mary S. Barnes. 

English Illustrated Magaxine.— London. December. 

The Kea ; a Remarkable Bird. J. Buckland. 

In the Trienchee Before SebastopoL W. Simpson. 

From Bamet and from Bamet Field. J. D. Symon. 

The Legion of Honor. 

London Crosses. G. Clinch. 

A Wager with Prince Bismarck. P. Andree. 

The Pious Monks of St Bernard. L. Hind. 

Fitting Out an Arctic Expedition. A. C. Harmsworth. 

How the Sewer Rat Lives. W. Wemley. 

Free Review —London. December. 

On Compromise. J. M. Robertson. 

Herbert Spencer. A. Lynch. 

Salvation Army Charity ; Shelters. R. Wheatley. 

Hedonistic Theories. W. M. Gallichan. 

Dr. Blandford's Moral Suicide. W. Williamson. 

Does Luxurious Expenditure Benefit the Poor ? 

A Woman's Right. E. I. Champnees. 

The Zodiacal Light : What Is It ? A. Macpherson. 

King Alcohol and Liberalism ; A Reply. 

Marlowe's *' Gaveston.'' J. A. Nicklln. 

Fortnightly Review.— London. December. 

Lord Salisbury, from a French Point of View. A. Filon. 

Gustave Flaubert Ernest Newman. 

England in Nicaragua and Venezuela. G. H. D. Gossip. 

Parties and Policies : 

The Failure of Government by Groups. William Rathbone. 

Unionist Policy. J. S. Stuart Glennie. ' 

Hamlet— From an Actor's Prompt Book. H. Beerbohm Tree. 

Cores and the Siberian Railway. 

The Report of the Secondary Education Commission. 

The Beginnings of the French Republic. A. D. VandauL 

Destruction or Birds ; Alaudarum Legio. F. A. Fulcher. 

Turkey or Russia ? Canon MaeColl. 

The Forum.— New York. December. 

Conditions for American Commercial and Financial Suprem- 

acy. Paul Leroy-Beaalieu. 
The Nature of Liberty. W. D. Howells. 



122 



THE REyiEW OF REyiEiVS. 



Thomas B. Beed and tlte Flfty-flrat Congress. Theodore 

RooBOVol^ 
The Ethics of Partv Loyaltr. Gtoorge W. Oreen. 
The Trail of " Trilby." Albert D. vandam. 
Editorship as a Career for Women. Margaret E. Saxurster. 
The Monroe Doctrine : Defense, not Deflfmoe. A. C. Cassatt. 
Thomas Oarlyle : His Work and Inflaence. W. R. Thayer. 
The Pilgrim Principle and the Pilgrim Heritage. W. DeW. 

Hyde. 
The Obligation of the Inactive. Eatrina Trask. 
Crime Among Animals. Willam Ferrero. 
Has the Mormon Church Reentered Politics ? Glen Miller. 

Gentleman's Magazine.— London. December. 

Christmas Customs in Central France. Mabel Peacock. 
Travels to the Source to the New River. Percy Flt^erald. 
Italian Influence on Shakespeare. C. Flamstead Walters. 
The Civil and Canon Law in England. J. E. R. Stephens. 
First Duke of Buckingham ; the Prince of Favorites 
Theodor Storm. John G. Robertson. 

The Green Bag.— Boston. December. 

Alexander Hamilton the Laywer. A. Oakey HaU. 
The Great India "Rubber Case. Andrew Dutcher. 
The Supreme Court of Maine.— m. Charles Hamlin. 

Harvard Graduates* Masaxine.— Boston. (Quarterly.) 
December. 

Three Characteristics of Harvard. G. A. Gordon. 

The Soldier's Faith. O. W. Holmes. 

Engineering at Harvard University. Ira N. HoUis. 

Harvard's Athletic Policy. A. B. Hart. 

Shall Denistry be Taught as Medicine ? T. Fillebrown. 

The Homiletic Review.— New York. December. 

The Preacher and the Preaching for the Present Crisis. 

Sir Thomas Browne. James O. Murray. 

A Study of " The Raven." W. E. Griffls. 

Sennacherib and the Destruction of Nineveh. W. H. Ward. 

The Right Use of Epithets and Expletives. N. Adams. 

Irrigation Age.— Chicago. December. 

The Right Law in California. F. C. Finkle. 
Atmospheric Irrigation. William Reece. 
The Forests of Washington. Alice Houghton. 
Power of Soils to Resist Erosion by Water. W. A. Burr. 

Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies.^ 
Philadelphia. October. 

The Continuous Rail in Street Railway Practice. R. McCul- 

loch. 
A Study of Heating and Ventilating Plants. 

Kindergarten Magaxine.— Chicago. December. 

Tributes to Eugene Field. 

Switzerland and Her Public Schools. Edward B. Tegher. 

^ndergarten and Public Schools. Edna R. Prather. 

Ladies* Home Journal.— Philadelphia. December. 

This Country of Ours.— I. Benjamin Harrison. 

A Friendly Letter to Girl Friends.— VI. Mrs. A. D. T. 

Whitney. 
My First Appearance on the Stage. Mary Anderson de 

Navarro. 
The Passion of Money-Getting. Charles H. Parkhurst. 

Longman's Magasine.— London. December. 

The Physical Foundations of Temperance. Sir B. W. Rich- 
ardson. 
The Centenary of the French Institute. Mrs. Lecky. 
The Show-Child : A Protest. Miss I. A. Taylor. 

Lucifer.— London. November 15. 

Orpheus. Continued. G. R. S. Mead. 
TheoBophy Among the Qnietists. O. Cuffe. 
Occult tSiemistry. Mrs. Annie Besant. 
Dreams. C. W. Leadbeater. 

Early Christianity and Its Teachings. Continued. A. M. 
Glass. 



Macmillan's Magazine.— London. December. 

Oxford in the Thirteenth Century. 
The Swiss Infantry. 
The Craft of Hunting. 
The Battles of the NTve. 

Madras Review.— (Quarterly.)— Madras. November. 

Our Legislative Council. 

Government and Its Tenants. J. Adam. 

The Native C^itholic Christians of South Canada. F. 

Lemerle. 
Vedantism and Neo-Platonism. S. Satthianadhan. 
The Tamils : Eighteen Hundred Years Ago. V. K. Plllai. 
Malabar as Known to the Ancients. K. P. P. Menon. 



Menorah Monthly.— New York. December. 

The Spirit of Judaism. K. Kohler. 
Another Congress of Religions. M. EUinger. 
Scriptural Cosmogany. Falk Vidaver. 
Nordau's " Degeneration." J. Silverman. 

The Metaphysical Magazine.— New York. December. 

The Ethics of Work. Alexander Wilder. 

Concentricity : The Law of Spiritual Development. J. Elizs- 

beth Hotchkiss. 
Emblems and " Being." C. H. A. Bjerregaard. 
Evidences of Immortality. J. Emery McLean. 
Occult Law. W. W. Woolsey. 
Perpetual Youth. W. J. Colville. 

Midland Monthly.— Des Moines, Iowa. December. 

Thomas Nast and His Work. Leigh Leslie. 

Among the CAiicago Writers. Msry J. Reid. 

Japanese Women of the Past and Present Luoetta H. 

Clement. 
A Patch of Barbarism. Samuel B. Evans. 
Iowa State Normal School. Sara M. Rigga 

Missionary Review.— New York. December. 

John Livingston Nevius, the Modern Apostle of China. A 

T. Pierson- 
The Jews in Palestine and Syria. H. H. Jessup 
Beginnings of the Education of Women in Syria. T. Laurie. 
The Druses. A. H. McEinney. 
Educational Mission Work in Egypt. H. W. Hogg. 
The Recent Riots in (}hina and Their Cause. H. M. Woods. 

Month.— London. December. 

Hymn-Writing and Hymn-Selection. Rev. T. E. Bridgett. 
Lord Salisbury and Mr. Herbert Spencer on Evolution. 
Protestant Fiction. Ck>ntinued. James Britten. 
Recollections of Scottish Episoopalianism. Continued. 

Monthly Illustrator and Home and Country.— New York. 
December. 

The Nativity of Christ. Henry Mann. 

Egypt and the Pyramids. C. W. AUers. 

A Book of Japanese War Caricatures. Flora Lucaa. 

A Glance at willam Hogarth. (Clarence Cook. 

Christ in Modem Art. Rufus R. Wilson. ^ 

Music— (^cago. December. 

Moszkowski and His Compositions. E. Liebling. 
Singing Off the Key. Karleton Hackett. 
A Plea for Keeping Time. Mary L. Regal. 
Bedrich Smetana.— I. J. J. Krai. 
Foster American Talent. L. A. Swalm. 



W. Wallaschek 



Musical Results of the Study of Ethnolo«ry. 
Retrospect in Violin Playing. Earl Drake. 
In Memory of Eugene Field. W. S. B. Matthews. 

National Review.— London. December. 

The Oisis in Religious Education. Bishop of Salford. 

Matthew Arnold in His Letters. Alfred Austin. 

The Greater Eastern Question. Prof. R. K. Douglas. 

The Air Car, or Man-Lifting Kite. Lieut. B. Ba^n PowelL 

Investors and Their Money. H. E. M. Stutfleld. 

Child Distress and State Socialism. J. R. Diggle. 

A New Theory of Gk>ut. M. Granville. 

Our Military Problem ; for Civilian Readers. Captain 1 

The Decline of Drunkenness. A. ShadweU. 

A Turkish Note on the Turkish (Question. (In French.) 

New Review.— London. December. 

The Murder of Mr. Stokes in Africa. Lionel Ddcle. 

Each Sex Its Own Moralist. 

New Scotland. Francis Watt 

The Marines. David Hannay. 

Don Juan. Continued. James Fitsmaurice-Kellv. 

David Haggart and Harry Simms ; a Pair of Autobiographie& 

The New World.— Boston. (Quarterly). December. 

Tendencies of Thought in Modem Jud^suL David PhilipeoD. 

The Miracles of Jesus in the Synoptic GFospels. A. R6viue. 

The Anabaptists. W. E. Griffls. 

The Pseudo-Athanasian Augustinianism. Levi L. Paine. 

Tito Melema. Julia H. GulBver. 

Popular Protestant Controversy. C. C. Starbuck. 

Local Cults in Homer. Arthur Fairbanks. 

The Nomadic Ideal in the Old Testament. Earl Badde. 

Nineteenth Century.— London. December. 

The Transf onmation of the Army Under the Duke of Cam- 
bridge. 

The Policy of ** Killing Home Rule by Kindness." J. E. Red- 
mond. 

Reopenine the Education Settlement of 1870. H<m. K. 
Lynlpn Stanley. 

Kashmir. Sir Lepel Griffln. 



CONTENTS OF REVIEWS AND MAGAZINES. 



123 



Itiukin*t Teaching : Unto This Last. Frederic Harrison. 

The Society of Authors. Sir W. Martin Conway. 

The Uter&ry Agent. Sir W. Beeant. 

The Religion of the Undergradoate. Bev. A. C. Deane. 

Turkey and Armenia ; the Eastern Question. Professor 
Oeffcken. Madame Novikoff . and Raflttddin Ahmad. 

raiTeraity Settlements. Canon Bamett. 

MtMlidne and Societv. Dr. J. Bumey Yeo. 

Matthew Arnold. John Morley. 

Bishop Butler and His Censors. Continued. W. E. Glad- 
stone. 

Cknon MacColl's Letters on Islam. 

North American Review.— New York. December. 

The Work of the Next Congress. A Symposium. 
Oftnks and Craaes. Mrs. L]mn Linton. 
The Last Gift of the Century. N. a Shaler. 
How London Deals with Beggars. Lord Norton. 
Rcsolts of the Bering Sea Arbitration. J. W. Foster. 
ChristianitT*s ICiUstone. Qoldwin Smith. 
Our Benefits from the Nicaragua Canal. A. S. White. 
IVnonal Historj of the Second Empire.— XIL A. D. Vandam. 
wad Traits in Tame Animals.— lY. Louis Robinson. 
The House of Representatives and the House of Commons. 
F. D. Palgrave. 

Oar Day.— The Altruistic Review.— Springfield, Ohio. De- 
cember. 

Eofsoe Field : A Character Sketch. 

Tbe Holy Spirit as the Administrator of the Chtirch. J. 

Cook. 
Mother Stewart : A Character Sketch. C. M. Nichols. 

Outing.— New York. December. 

SkKting. Ed. W.Sandys. 

Hutiiigthe Cayman in Mexico. Edward French. 

Uu'i world Txmr Awheel : Moolton to Kurrachee. 

Tooring Bermuda AwheeL Thomas B. Dowden. 

On the Frontier Service. Lieut. O. W. Van Deusen. 

Tb» Characteristics of (Hnadian FootbaU. A. C. Kingstone. 

Overland Monthly.— San Francisco. December. 

M Xonte and Monterey. Boimaeville Wildman. 
A TMabond*s Christmas in Tahiti John C. Werner. 
Why aie City of Saint Francis. Auguste Wey. 
ModoQ and Emotion in Fiction. R. M. Daggett. 
Bone Progress on the Pacific Coast. 
Bhnitt andHanking of Calif omia.—II John Finlay. 

Pall Mall Magazine.— London. December. 

Sola Barbara, United States. E. Roberts. 

BiUbiI the Scenes at Monte Carlo. J. J. WaUer. 

Baby Chatle and Its Memories. Duchess of Cleveland. 

The Photo-American.— New York. November. 
Hesda 

^ag sad Washing Negatives. W. Byford. 
HhrtB an Photo-Micrography. 
<>A)dk)<ailoride Paper. James Shaw. 
Tw of the Swing-Back in Enlarging. 
PhtiBom Printing on Fabrics. J. H. Stebbins, Jr. 



-I for Process Work. 
Hack or Chameleon Lantern Slides. 

Photo-Beacon.— Chicago. November. 

Uadscape Photography in Winter. S. Ansell. 

Ob PIctcfflal Photography: The Old and the New. A. 

MsakeQ. 
frinting -in Clouds. J. Harrison. 
Bervned Negatives. T.C.Harris. 

The Photographic Times.— New York. December. 

Wtt Photography at the Lick Observatory. C. D. Perrine. 

JheComUnedfiath. John NicoL 

yort Chapters on Organic Chemistry.— Vn. A. B. Aubert. 

IpsuetUve in Photography. 

wood Cot Technic on Half-tone Printing Blocks. H. M. Dun- 

Mstine and Alum. 

Poet-Lore.— Boston. December. 

»''^%5PP^3r <^ R^j™®- Edmund Noble. 
Witt Whitman in BSelation to Christianity. EmilyC. Monck. 
«<«sl Proportion and FatoUsm in '* Anthony and Cleopatra.'* 
Can s Poet Be Democratic ? 

Political Science Quarterly.— Boston. December. 

The Late Bond Syndicate Contract. A. D. Noyes. 
P'^" * * in Interstote Migration. W. F. WiUcox. 
I-*na» Legislation in EngUnd. Edward PorHtt. 
Sfiffrspliy and Sociology. W. Z. Ripley. 
TtoOoman Emperor. Kichard Hudson. 
IVMirOennan Jurists.— L Munroe Smith. 



Popular Science Monthly.— New York. December. 

Prindples of Taxation.— L David A. "^ells. 

New Evidence of Glacial Man in Ohio. D. F. Wright. 

Studies of Childhood.— XHL James Sully. 

The Anatomy of Speed Skating. B. T. McKensie. 

Suggestibility, Automatism, and Kindred Phenomena.— L 

W. R. Newbold. 
Professor Forbes on '' Harnessing Niagara.'' E. A. LeSueur. 
Health Experiments in the French Army. Stoddard Dewey. 
Prehistoric Engineering at Lake Copais. J. D. Champlin. 
Sir John Lubbock and the Religion of Savages. J. Car- 

michael. 
Among the Caimibal Islands. L. G. Weld. 
Miracles in French Canada. Edward Farrar. 
Has Immigration Increased Population ? S. G. Fisher. 
Insects' Eggs. M. V. Brandiconrt. 
Professional Institutions.— Yin. Herbert Spencer. 
Whv the Sea Is Salt. G. W. UtUehales. 
A Natural Paper MilL Yirgil G. Eaton. 

Review of Reviews.— New York. December. 

The Cartoon in Politics. Robert J. Finley. 

John Sherman's Story of His Own Career. E. B. Andrews. 

An Indian on the Problems of His Race. Simon Pokagon. 

The Venezuelan Question. William L. Scruggs. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer. 

The Rosary.— New York. December. 

Lacroma. Archduchess Stephanie. 
Sketches of Venesuela.- H. Bertrand Cothonay. 
Our Lady's Rosary. Thomas Esser. 
Cardinal Zigliara.-n. Reginald Walsh. 

The Sanitarian.— New York. December. 

The Thermal and Mud Baths of Acqui, Italy. C. W. Chan 

cellor. 
Proceedings of American Public Health Association. 
Sanitary Topography of Florida. A. N. BelL 

Scots Magasine.— Perth. December. 

In and Around a Murcian Bull Ring. Rev. W. Mason Inglis. 
The Cross of Kilbride in Lorn. J. M. ^CacGregor. 
Oasianic Poetry- Dr. Clerk. 
Glimpses of GFlasgow, an Old Scots Bishop's Burgh. J. A 

Social Economist.— New York. December. 

Mandate of the ElectioiL 
The Great Metropolitan Bridge. 
The Legal Merits of Venesuela's Case. 
Practical Christian Sociology. 
Woman Labor in England. 

The Stenographer.— Philadelphia. December. 

The Written Expression of Thotight Bates Torrey. 

Literal Reporting.— H. 

Law Reporting and Legal Miscellany. H. W. Thome. 

Strand Magaxine.— London. November 15. 

Great Names at Eton and Harrow. H. H. Chilton. 

Shopkeepers' Advertising Novelties. J. Scott. 

The Signatures of Napoleon. J. H. Schooling. 

Rear- Admiral Markham ; Interview. W. G. FitzGerald. 

Lord Mayor's Shows— Past and Present. H. How. 

The Students* Journal.— New York. December. 

Secretary Carlisle's Address at the Chamber of Commeroe 

Banquet. 
Engraved Shorthand— Eight Pages. 

Sunday at Home —London. December. 

The Gnmeys of EarlhanL 

A Long Day in Canterbury. Mrs. Isabella F. Mayo. 

Fiji a^ Its People. Continued. Bev. J. Telford. 

Rev. Dr. Milbum. With Portrait T. C. Colllngs. 

The Handwriting of Famous Divines. Dr. A. B. Grosart. 

Temple Bar.— London. December. 

English Occupations of Minorca. 

The Poet-Lanreateship. 

The Migration of Birdk G. W. Bulman. 

William Blake. A. T. Story. 

Cats and Their Affections. C. B. Wister. 

The Treasury.— New York. December. 

The Pilgrim Forefathers. David Gregg. 

God's Ground-Plan of a Good Man. JT T. Wightman. 

Characteristics and Present Prospects of the Chinese. C. C 

Creegan. 
Episcopacy. Charles H. SmalL 



124 



THE REyiEW OF REyiEWS, 



The United Service.^Philadelphia. December. 

A Plea for the Increase of the Army. Capt. H. B. Brinker- 

hoff. 
The Trafalgar Captains. W. Laird Cloves. 
National Defense. Arthur Orifflths. 

United Service Ma^asine. — ^London. December. 

The Tinted and the Command of the Army. 

Notes on the Madagascar Expedition. Capt. Paafield Oliver. 

The Recruit and His Training. Lieut. -CoL W. Hill-Climo. 

Can Russia Invade India t Colonel H. B. Hanna. 

The Royal Artillery. 

The Castes in the Madras Army. Bagh-o-Bahas. 

The Curiosities of an Old Navy List. P. Harrison Smith. 

Oliver Cromwell as a Soldier. Continued. Major Baldock. 

Organization. 

Westminster Review.^London. December. 

Paul Bourget ; Novelist, Poet, and Critic. Maurice Tod- 
hunter. 
Peru : a Socialist State. B. Seymour Long. 
The Rulixig Races of Prehistoric Times. D. F. Hannigan. 
A Senate for the Empire. J. Bonwick. 
The Need for a United Progressive Party. R. Balmforth. 
The Present Position of Adult Male Labor in New Zealand. 



Politics and Culture. H. Seal. 
Recollections of the late Dr. R. W. Dale. 
Lessing's Story of the Three Rings. T. Bradfleld. 
Evening Continuation Schools. J. J. Daviee. 
Islam and SoofeeisnL M. Barakatullah. 
King Demos. F. Q. Burton. 

Wilson's Photographic Magaxine.— New York. December. 

Present Condition of Photography as a Business. 

Papers for Professional Photographers.— XL John A Ten- 

nant. 
Printing Photographs by Machinery. 
Practical Photo-Engraving.— IX. A. C. Austin. 
Some Photo-Mechanical Shortcomings. C. Ashleigh Snow. 
Chamber Portraiture. 

Yale Review.— New Haven. (Quarterly.) December. 

Freeman the SchoUr and Professor. Herbert B. Adams. 
An Interooeanic Canal in the Light of Precedent. T. S. Wool- 

The ESarly Political Organization of Mexico. Bernard Moses. 

The Economic Reforms of the Late English Liberal Admin- 
istration. Edward Porritt. 

The Referendum, and Other Forms of Direct Democracy in 
Switzerland. E. V. Raynolds. 

The French Revolution. H. Morse Stephens. 



THE GERMAN MAGAZINES. 



Daheim.— Leipzig. 
November 2. 

Reminiscences of Paris. Continued. T. Schftfer. 
Sport in the Rocky Mountains. F. Meisler. 

November 16. 
Adolf Menzel. 

November 28. 

The New Law Courts at Leipzig. E. Orotta. 

Deutscher Hauaschatx.— Regensbnrg. 
Heft 1. 

Handwriting and Character. W. Langenbruch. 

The Catholic Diet at Munich. 

The Field-Post in the War of 1870-1. Postdirektor Bruns. 

Heft 2. 

Balthasar Schmitt. F. Feeting. 
Inscriptions on Bells. Dr. Dreibach. 
Orienuil Romance. V. Henze. 

Deutsche Revue.— Stuttgart. November. 

The Empress William I.'s Visit to the London Exhibition of 

1851. 
Prince Bismarck and His Colleagues in Home Politics, 1868- 

1878. 
What the Oerman Navy Needs. R. Werner. 
Edward Grfitzner. Louise von KobeU. 
Parrots and Apes. E. Blanchard. 

From the Note-Book of a I>iplomatist Count von Ronzaglia. 
Experiments in G^eology. F. ZirkeL 

Deutsche Rundschau.— Berlin. November. 

Buddhism and the Religion of Veda. H. Oldenberg. 
New Letters by Oottfried Keller. J. Baechtold. 
Italian National Poetry. B. Heyse. 
Heinrich Marschner. Dr. J. Rodenberg. 
Michael Saltzkow. T. Pezold. 
Konrad Ferdinand Meyer. 
Julius Zupitza. A. BrandL 

Die Qartenlaube.— Leipzig. Heft 12. 

Chauvinism in French School Books. K. Markscheffel. 

Teaching the Blind. J. Mohr. 

The New Law Courts at Leipzig. H. Pilz. 

Round the World on Foot. K. von Rengarten. 

Die Qesellsc haft .—Leipzig. November. 

Fritz Steinbach. With Portrait. Hans Merian. 
Educational Alma Irma von TroU-Borostyani. 
Ounnar Heibergjs Drama, *' The Balcony.'' A. Mar. 
Heinrich von Kleist's '' Penthesilea '' on the Stage. Dr. G. 
Minde-Ponet. 

Konservative Monatssch rift .—Leipzig. November. 

Forms and Limits of Community-Life. R. Beaumeister. 
Cuba. Concluded. Pastor Spanuth-POhlde. 
Remkiiscences. Concluded. Heinrich von Struve. 
Clerical Life in Russia. Continued. A. Potapenko. 



Neue Revue.— Vienna. 
November 0. 

Peasant Societies in South Russia. J. Gk>ldstein and A. 
Brandt. 

November 20. 
Viennese Boulangism. 

Students and the Bocial Question. J. Lippau. 
Edgar TineVs Oratorio *' St. Francis." 

Neue Zeit.— Stuttgart. 

No. 5. 

The Labor Problem in the United States. F. A. Sorge. 
The Nationalization of Doctors. D. W. Ellenbogen. 
Strikes in Switzerland Since 1880. H. Schmid. 

No. 6. 

The Socialist Congress at Breslau. 

The Bohemian Question. Q. Pollatschek. 

The Breslau Agrarian Resolution. E. David and K. Eautsky. 

No. 7. 
The Breslau Resolution. Continued. K. Eautsky. 

No. 8. 
Bureaucracy and University. 
The Labor Problem in the United States. Continued. 

No. 9. 

The Labor Problem in the United States. Continued. 
The Peasant Movement in Qalicia. 

Nord und SQd.— Breslau. November. 

Wolfgang Eirchbach. With Portrait. A. Stoeesel. 

Storm and Stress of the Eighteenth Century. R. von Gotts- 

chall. 
Russia in Central Asia. E. Maschke. 
Professor Huxley. Dr. Alex. Tille. 
Mont St. MicheL R. Beck. 

Preusaiache JahrbOcber.— Berlin. 

November. 

Atheist Ethics. E. Troeltsch. 
Ibsen. Continued. P. H. Wicksteed. 
Ferdinand of Brunswick. Concluded. Dr. E. Daniels. 
In the French Quarters Twenty-five Years Ago. 
The Use of Flesh in the Middle Ages and To-day. R. Martin. 
Social Politics and the Treatment of the Social Democrata 
D. 

December. 

Socialism and G^erman Philosophy. Prof. Paul Nerrllch. 

Balfour's '* Introduction to Theology." Dr. J. Kaftan. 

In the Camp of the Rheinbund, 1812. Dr. A. Pflster. 

Henrik Ibsen. Continued. P. H. Wicksteed. 

The Folk Song of Ancient Israel. Prof. Karl Budde. 

Fichte and the Prussian Censure. Prof. Max Lehmann. 

Lord Salisbury's Speech at the GuildhaU. 

Austrian Affairs. 

The Treatment of the Social Democrats. Dr. H. Delbrilck. 



CONTENTS OF REVIEWS AND MAGAZINES. 



125 



Sphinx.— Bnmowick. NoTember. 

Mats, PfajBicallT and ABtrolofficaUT. J. Stlnde. 
England and India. Dr. HQbbe-Scnleiden. 
XoriU Ton Effidy and Dr. Htlbbe-Schleiden. 
Dr. J. A. Anderson on Reincarnation. Dr. Oaring. 
The Bankruptcy of MaterialisoL X. F. Siebeck. 

Ucber Land nnd Meer.—Stuttgart Heft 4. 

Beminisoenoes of tbe War of 1870-1. 



Life in the Deep Sea. W. Haacke. 
New Goethe Portcaits. 
Rome of To-day. A. Ruhemann. 
Conrad Ferdinand Meyer. D. F. Meyer. 
The Vintage at Bozen. R. Dammeier. 

Vom Pels sum Meer.— Stuttgart. Heftft. 

Old and New Cologne. J. L. Alffemiissen. 
A Letter by Joseph Viktor von BcheifeL 
Eicbstftdt, etc. 



THE FRENCH MAGAZINES. 



Biblioth^ue Universelle.— Paris. November. 

k Ontral Africa. Aug. Olardon. 

Helen Kellar. R. OlAna. 

Lotds Conpems; a Contemporary Dutch Novelist. J. 

Eogtoe Delacroix, from His Journal Concluded. F. Dumar. 

Nonvelle Revue.— Paris. 

November 1. 

yaptdeon the First. P. J. Prudbomme. 

The Crimean War. Captain Gilbert. 

The Lateat Attempt at a Restoration. Marquis de Castellane. 

Hie Budget of im. V. de Saint-Oenis. 

Shakespeare's Journey. L. Daudet. 

Charles X, King of Sweden. Charles Sch6fer. 

The Logic of a Franco-Italian Alliance. H. Montecorboli. 

November 15. 

Xapoleoin the First.— XL P. J. Prudhomme. 
TV German Military Law. Captain GUbert. 
French Public Spirit. A. Lebon. 
n» Principalis of Monaco. Baron de Ring. 
Shakespeare's Journey. Conclusion. L. Daudet. 
A Keceasary Alliance. M. HameL 
reign Poutica. 



Foreign] 



Mme. Juliette Adam. 
Quinxaine.— Paris. 
November 1. 



The 



de Maistre, Orator. Francis Desooetes. _ 

of Orleans and the Trappists in 1788. Clarisae 



AbUCotin. F. Buisson. 

1W Sense of Death. Jean Birot. 

November 15. 
The Oaoses of the French Disasters in 1870. Abb6 Fremont 
M. Dubois, Lamartine's Best Friend. E. Auduc 
AbbftCotin. Continued. E. Buisson. 
Partial Delpit and Augustin Thierry. P. B. des Valades. 
Itftr PrentA Miasionaries to Madagascar. A. L. de la Marche. 

Revue Bleue.^Paris. 

Novembers. 

InfleAwrier. Jules Claretie. 

Voteaonlbe Work of Richard Wagner. Gteston Oanmod. 

November 9. 
TV Beform of the Hospitallers of Pftris. Paul Strauss. 
Alfred Bambaud. Annand du MeeniL . 

November 10. 
]>e Proposed Religious Congress at Paris in 190a , 
The Bef orm of the UoepitaUers of Pnris. Continued. 



Jhe Proposed 

Xtfitime War in 



November 28. 

ions Congress at Pnris. Symposium. 
Franco-German Campaign, 1870-7L 



Revue des Deux Mondes.— Paris. 
November 1. 



Hm Seine Aasixes ; the Jury. J. CruppL 
OrpheosatRomek Vernon Lee. 



The Grecian Cult of Death and Funeral Rites. G. Perrot. 
Boccaccio, the Prologue of the Decameron, and the Renais- 

C^eneral Dragomiroff. A. Ro0. 
Ibeen in London. A. Filon. 

November 15. 

The Roman Press. G. Boisder. 

An Essay in Pathological Literature ; Hoffmann. Arvdde 

Barine. 
French Colonization of Madagascar. P. Leroy-Beaulleu. 
Smile Augier. M. Spronk. 
The Plague of Locusts. E. Planchut. 

Revue de Pari8..-Paris. 
November 1. 

A Chat on Tonkin. Prince Henri of Orleans. 

Memoirs. Continued. C. Gk>unod. 

J. J. Weisa, Theatrical Critic. Prince Stirbey. 

The Beginnings of the Elmigration. Comte d^EspinchaL 

Girls and Scholastic Degrees. E. Lavisse. 

November 15. 

The Hova Treaty. Le Myre de Vilers. 
Meissonier. Greard. 

The Death of Murat. Marquis de Sassenay. 
Merim6e and Historical B ildings. VioUet-le-Dua 
Letters to M. and Mme. Lenormant. P. Merim6e. 

Revue des Revuea.^Paris. 

November 1. 

French Women. Mme. Alphonse Daudet. 
Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard. Dr. Cabands. 

November 15. 
Actions of Phenomena. Prof. L. Guniplowicz. 
Japanese Newspapers and Reviews. Dr. de Banzemont. 

Revue Scientifique.— Paris. 
November 2. 

Electric Tramways. H. Mar6chaL 
Aurora Borealis. E. Durand-Gr6ville. 

November 9. 
New Cosmogonical Theories. A. DuponcheL 

November ll 
Christian Huvgens. J. Bosscha. 
Oonsultation In the Clinics of the Medical Faculty of Paris. 

November 28. 

The Work of Pasteur. 6mile Duclaux. 
The Phosphates of Algeria and Tunis. 

Revue Socialiate.—Paris. November. 

SodaUstic Superstition and Individualist Myopia. Enrico 

Ferrt 
Michel Bakounine. Marie Stromberg. 
Socialism in England. Marie Oswald. 
Elementary Education. Pierre Boe. 



THE ITALIAN MAGAZINES. 



Nnova Antologia.— Rome. 

November 1. 

^-_c »— F.d'Ovidio. 

Tw Bimplon Railway and Italian Interests. A. Ferrucci. 

JfOiiPasteur. M. Tortelli 

Unirersty Autonomy According to Sr. Baccelli^s Scheme. 

November 15. 
^Teaching of Italian Literature. D. Gnoli. 
Tbo New Conflict Between Church and State. R. de Oeeare. 
Jmbo and T^aso Students. E. Masi. 
Trade-Unionism Among the Chinese. L. NocentinL 



Rassegna Naxionale.— Florence. 

November 1. 

An Unpublished Essay by Lambruschini on Religious Educa- 
tion. 
The Hymns of G. A. Ceeareo. F. Salvatori. 
The Clergy and the Social Question. A. Astori. 

November 18w 

Claudia di Medici and Her Timee. L. Grottanelli 
A Peril of Anarchy in Catholic Morals. 
Franciscan Missions. A. Conti. 



12G 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



OTHER EUROPEAN MAGAZINES. 



Ciudad de Dios.~Mad]*id. Novembers. 

Zola as an Involuntary Apologist of Religion. E. S. Fatigati. 

Espafia Moderna.— Madrid. November. 

A Journey Through Spain. Elmilia Pardo Basan. 
The Poetry of Spaiiish Songs. P. Wolf. 
Emilio Gastelar on European Politics. 

Revista Contemporanea.— Madrid. 

October do. 

Integral Anthropology Applied to Medical Practice. J. de 

Letamendi. 
The Spanish and Portuguese Lianguages in America. 

November 15. 
The Pliiiippine Islands. Victor Balaguer. 



Revista Moderna.— Lisbon. No. 20. 

The Tomb of Ignez de Castro. 

Our Comedians and Their Creations. Sant' Amara 

De Oids.— Amsterdam. November. 

Louis Pasteur. Prof. C. A. Pekelharing. 
Institutes and Academies. A. G. van HameL 

Teysmannia. — ^Batavia. No. 9. 

Nyctanthes. J. J. Smith, Jr. 

The Weight of the Seed and Its Relation to the Orowth of 
the Phmt. 

Nordisk Tidskrift.- Stockholm. No. 0. 
The Political Press in the Dasrs of Liberty. Otto Sylwan. 

Ord och Bild.— Stockholm. No. 10. 
Swedish Family Life in the Latter Part of 1700. O. Levertin. 



INDEX TO PERIODICALS. 



Unless otherwise specified, all references are to the December numbers of periodicals. 
For table of abbreviations see page 128. 



Actresses Who Have Become Peeresses, A. C. Wheeler, Cos. 
Africa 

West African Pioneers, A. R. Buckland, SunM. 

Murder of Mr. Stokes, L. Ddcle, NewR. 

Port of the Upper Nile and Foreign. Trade, ScotGM, Nov. 

Side-Lights on the South African Gold Boom, EngM. 
Almanac, The Early American, A. L. Andrews, Bkman. 
Alma-Tadema, Laurens, Cosmo Monkhouse, Scrib. 
Anabaptists, The, W. E. Griffls, NW. 
Animals : 

Wild Traits in Tame Animals-IV, Louis Robinson, NAR. 

Crime Among Animals, William Ferrero, F. 
Annie Laurie, The True Story of , F. P. Humphrey, McCL 
Anthropoloffv : Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times, WR. 
Appeals to Lincoln^s Clemency, L. J. Perry, CM. 
Architecture : Schools and Scnoolhouse Architecture, EngM. 
Arctic Exploration : 

Fitting Out an Arctic Expedition, A. C. Harmsworth, EI. 

Heroes of the Icy North, MM. 
Armada, Defeat of the Spanish, W. F. Tilton, AM. 
Armenia: 

The Eastern Question, Prof. Oeffcken, Mdme. Novikoff, R. 
Ahmad, NC. 

Armenia, Past and Present, Henry Hy vemat. 
Armies: 

Our Military Problexn. Capt. Maxse, NatR. 

The English Soldier, Col. H. Knollys, Black. 

Transformation of the British Army Under Duke of Gam- 
bridge, NC 

The Swiss Infantry, Mac. 

Plea for the Increase of the Army, Capt. H. R. Brinker- 
hoff, US. 
Astronomy : 

Tbo &xlJa<^l Llifbt, A. MaciihoTson. PrwB. 

New Statu, A. Prwter. Jr., K. 

Ext-eHor Nebultindtie* of the Pleiads, K. 
Athlptlc PoHry, llnf vard s, A. B. Hartn HOM. 
Athletic thM>rts of Anetent D&vh. T- J. de la Htjctt, LIpp 
Auth(»-s, Society of, W M. CVnwuy. NC, 
Balfour, A. J. rw Swn Ftv:*™ u DiHtuncei N. HAMrootl. CH. 
BaUf»oiiinff : Air Cur nr MAn'Llfttnjr KiU. B. B. Pow^Jl iiv^lU. 
Bunks and Bftiikinif in L^ilfurnia— II, John Fin la 5-, DM 
Bavftni. Thouaai R, E^a DlplomnttFits !-. R HaHoy. AMI*. 
Bivists. WikU ^ Tbeiy Live, C J, Mi-liiss, Sk-rib. 
IktKK"-r»i How LoDdon LkmlIh With Botfga^^ Lord llurUm, 

NAB. 
Bering Sea Arbitration, Results of the, J. W. Foster, NAR. 
Berthelot and His Friend Renan, A. D. Vandam, CB. 
Bible and Biblical Criticism : 

The Miracles of Jesus in the Sjrnoptic (Gospels, A. R^ville, 
NW. 

The Nomadic Ideal in the Old Testament, Karl Budde, NW. 

Christianity's Millstone, Goldwin Smith, NAR. 
Bicycling: 

Lenz's World Tour Awheel : Moolton to Kurrachee, O. 

Touring Bermuda Awheel, Thomas B. Dowden, O. 
Birds: 

Destruction of Birds, F. A. Fulcher, PR. 

The Migration of Birds, O. W. Bulman, TB. 

The Kea, J. Buckland, EL 

An Idler on Missionary Ridge, B. Torrey, AM. 
Books and Culture— X. Hamilton W. Mabie, Bkman. 
Bourget, Maurice Todnunter, WR. 

BoyeseiLiln Gratitude to Professor, Q. M. Hyde, D, Dec. L 
Bridge, The Great Metropolitan, S£con. 



Buckingham, First Duke of, Alison Buckler, OM. 
Butler, Bishop, and His Censors, W. E. Gladstone, NC 
Butterflies. Among the, William Seton, CW. 
Caine, Hall : 

Hall Caine, W. A. Sherwood, OanM. 

Hall Caine, R. H. Sherrard, McCL 
California: 

Del Monte and Monterey, R. Wildman, OM. 

Why the City of Saint ftiincis, A. Wey, OM. 

Banks and T^ntring of California —H, John Finlay, OM. 
Canada : 

The Castle of St. Louis, Quebec, J. M. Lemoine, CanM. 

Canada's National Song, j. A. Cooper, CanM. 

The First Canadian Christmas, J. H. Long. OanM. 
Canals : An Interoceanic Canal in the Light of Precedent, 

YR. 
Cannibal Islands, Among the, L. G. Weld, PS. 
Canterbury, Mrs. I. F. Mayo, SunH. 
Caracas : The Paris of South America, R. H. Davis, Harp. 
Carlyle, Thomas : His Work and Influence, W. R. Thayer, F. 
Cartoon in Politics, R. J. Finley, RR. 
Cats and Their Affections, C. B. Wister. TB. 
Childhood, Studies of— xm, James Sully, PS. 
Children: 

Child Distrjras and State Socialism, J. R. Diggle, NatR. 

The Show-Child, Miss I. A. Taylor, Long. 
China: 

The Recent Riots and Their Cause, H. M. Woods, MisR. 

China Against the World, Gilbert Reid, AMC. 
Christ, The Infant, in Legend and Art, E. de B. Gud6, Dem. 
Christianity's Millstone, Goldwin Smith, NAR. 
Christmas Customs in Central France, Mabel Peacock, GM 
Christinas Greens of America, Agnes C. Sage, NEM. 
Colonies and Imperial Federation : A Senate for the Empire, 

WR. 
Commons, Hounn of, and Houfc* tif Heprw&entnrivpvi, NAR. 
Concentric! t If : Tbo Law of Spiritual l>Evelo|jimi.ttit. MetM. 
Congress, Tb>? Work of th^ Next. NAR- 
CoreaandtL*^ ^^iVK>rmn Rtiilwav, FR 
Cosmogany. S^ 'njsiunil, Talk Vidaver, Men, 
Cranks and rru:^t'H. Mr^. Lpin TJntoti^ NAR* 
Crime Amo^^' AuimulM. William FVrraro, R 
Crimean War \u tii«* Trouflic^*,! Bt^forw S<?bast*moL EI. 
Cromwell, (Jli^ hi . ^u- li S' Mlyr. Major Ba]do<::k. Ul^M. 
Crosses in Lundua, El. 
Dairy-Farming : Our Butter Supply^ CJ. 
Dardanelles, Through the, Cy Warman, McCl. 
Demos, King, F. G. Burton, WR. 
Dixiana, L. J. Vance, BA. 

Drumtochty, A Visit to, Frederick C. Gordon, Bkman. 
Druses, The, A. H. McKinney, MisR. 
Educational : 

See Contents of Ed ; EdR : EdRA. 

Reopening the Education Settlement of 1870, NC. 

Teachers, Herbert Spencer, CR. 

Great Names at Eton and Harrow, Str. 

Obstacles to Individuality in Teaching, Anna L. Moore, D^ 
Dec. 1. 

Kind Tgarten for the Blind, Dinah Sturgis, NEM. 

Iowa State Normal School, Sara M. Riggs, MidM. 

The Teacher as an Individual, D, Nov. 10. 
Eggrs, Insects', M. V. Brandicourt, PS. 
Electric Power at Niagara, Distribution of, F. L. Pope» 

EngM. 
Electrk Power in Collieries, L. B. Atkinson, CasM. 



INDEX TO PERIODICALS. 



127 



%^ 



knd 



Economic Refonns of the Late Administration, 



te, 



Evnven. Wood. A. Lepdre, Scrib. , , _ 

Edtheta and Expletiyea, The Right Use of, N. Adams, HomR. 
Erolation : Lord Salistmry and Herbert Spencer on Evoiu- 

tioiLlL 
FUth HeaUnff, Mind Coring, Christian Science, J. Ferguson, 

CanBL 
rVtioo : Motion and Emotion in Fiction, R. M. Daggett, OM. 

Eogeiie^ld : A Character Sketch, OD. 

InMemory of Eugene Field, W. 8. B. Matthews, Mus. 
Fiji and Its FeopleTJ. Telford, SunH. 
FtitADdal: 

Inrestorsand Their Money, H. E. M. Stutfleld, NatR. 

The Late Bond Syndicate Contract, A. D. Noyes, P8(^ 

FIrft Princjplee in " Money and Banking,*' Horace 

Po^ng the National Debt, William A. Amberg, AMC. 

The Multiple Standard, Henry Winn, AMC. 
Ftehbig, Game, in the Pacific Charles F. Holder, Cos. 
Fkabert, Oustaye, E. Newman, FR. 

Football, The Characteristics of Canadian, A. C. Kingstone, O. 
Foreign AHiairs. Black. 
Formosa, J. Dodd, ScotOM. 
Fnnce: 

BegimiingB of the French Republic, A. D. Vandam, FR. 

Christmas Customs in Central France, Mabel Peacock, OM. 

Tbe French Revolution, H. M. Stevens, YR 

Penooal History of the Second Btnpire— XII, NAR. 
Freeman the Scholar and Professor, Herbert B. Adams, TR. 
French InstitutejCentenary of, Mr& Lecky, Long. 
Fnlham Fslaoe, W. S. Simpson, SunM. 
GsmUj^ : Behind the Scenes at Monte Carlo, J. J. Waller, 

Gsrkiid, Hamlin, AM. 

Geological Reminiscences, A Few. W. H. Shrubsole, LH. 

Oennsn Emperor, The, Richard Hudson. PSQ. 

Oeman Struggle for Liberty— XX, P. Blgelow, Harp. 

Gkckl Man in Ohio^ew Evidence of, D. F. Wright, PS. 

einour, Edith M. Thomab, CM. 

Oreeee. Ancient : The New Hellenism, J. Brierley, Ata. 

OuiMTS of Bayi>»i^"* t SunH. 

BABfitoiL Alexander, the Lawyer, A. Oakey Hall, OBag. 

BiiMlvriting: 

Fresks and Tricks in Handwriting, CFM. 

The Handwriting of Famous Divmes, A. B. Orosart, SunH. 
Harriacm, Ren Jam In, on " This Country of Ours.** LHJ. 
HMhh Experiments In the French Army, Stoddard Dewey, 

P8. 
Brtrid Ides, From the. Fiona Madeod, Harp. 
Hedonistic Theories, W. M. Oallichan, FreeR. 
HoOr Berries, R. K. Munkittrick, BA. 



J Salvation Army Shelters. R. Wheattey, FreeR. 
Boner, Local Cults in, Arthur Fairbanks, NW. 
Mrress on the Pacific Coast, OM. 
rftin^ and Hymn-S^eotion^T. E. Bridgett, M. 
n, Tne ^~ 



Howe P r o gr e ss on the Pacific Coast, OM. 
HjiBa-Writ^ and Hymn-Selection, T. E. „ . 

Hhootism, T%e Wonder of, Henry Qaullieur, A. 
Wluid and Its People, Ruth Shaffner, Chant. 



laaigration: Has Immigration Increased Population f S. 

0. Fteher, PS. 
iaaartaUty, Eridences of, J. E. McLean, MetM. 
iMhs : KaAmir, Lepel Oriifln, NC. 



A Patch of Barbarism, Samuel B. Evans, MidM. 
Aa Indian on the Problems of His Race, Simon Pokagon, 
pp 

bdiTkliiality in Teaching, Obstacles to, Anna L. Moore, D, 

DecL 
Euutty : Popular Insanity, Rabbi Adolph Moses, AMC. 
bforanoe : Municipal Fire Insurance, B. Donald, CR. 
Inkad : " Kflling Home Rule by Kindness,** J. £. Redmond, 

3(C 



» Women of the Past and Present, MidM. 

Japanese Sword-Lore, L. H. Weeks, Lipp. 
. X4u^ Fair Daughters, ICM. 

TendeBdes of Thought in Modem Judiasm, D. Philiiison, 

Tbe Jewi In Palestine and Syria, H. H. Jeesup, MisR. 

iew% : The Spirit of Judaism, K. Kohler, Men. 
JosB of Arc Pergonal Recollections of —IX, Harp. 
Jtto. Don, J. FitsmauriceKelly, NewR. 
Siadernrten for the Blind, Dinah Sturgis, IfEM. 
Ubor Ooeitions : 

EvolotloD of a Wage Standard, R. L. Bridgman, AMC. 

Lepl Begulation of Occupations in New York, L. D. Sciaoo, 

Lkbor Movement and the New Labor Party, H. W. B. 
Mackay AMC 

Adnh Maie Labor in New Zealand, E. Reeves, WR. 

WotBan Labor in England, SEcon. 
Laoe : Dreams in Woven Thread, Mary S. Lockwood, Cos. 
Lserooa, Archduchess Stephanie, R. 
I^Mnata, The Question of Ihe, Bkman. 
Lsv : Civfl and Canon Law in England, J. E. R. Stephens, 



Law Courts : The Supreme Court of Maine— m, C. tta-twIIh 

GBag. 
Legion of Honor, EL 

Litforty, The Nature of, W. D. Howells, F. 
Libraries : In an Old Colonial Library, Frank SewalL NEM. 
Lincoln, Abraham-H, Ida M. Tarbefl, Mca. 
Literature : The Literary Agent, Walter Beeant, NC. 
Literature and Art, New Figures in, AM. 
Lord Mayors* Shows, H. How, Str. 
LoyaUsts of the American Revolution, C. O. D. Roberts, 

CanM. 
Madonna and Child in Art, Will H. Low, McCL 
Madonna of the Past and Present, The, AL 
Mahomedanism : 

Canon MacColl*s Letters on Islam, NC. 

Islam and Soofeeiism, M. Barakatullah, WR. 
ICanifold River, Staffordshire, J. Buckland, LH. 
Markham, Rear- Admiral, W. G. FitzOeral^ Str, Nov. 
Maynooth Centenary, Looking Back at the, C. McC*ready, CW. 
MedisDval Life, English, A. F. Sanborn, Lipp. 
Medicine and Society, J. Burney, NC. 

Mexico: Early Political Organization of Mexico, B. Moses, Y& 
Michigan, New England iu, E. P. Powell, NEM. ^^ 
Minorca : English Occupations in Minorca, TB. 
Miracles in French Canada, Edward Farrar, PS. 
Monasteries : The Pious Monks of St. Bernard, EL 
Money-Oetting, The Passion of C. H. Parkhurst, LHJ. 
Monroe Doctrine : Defense, not Defiance, A. C. Cassatt, F. 
Monterey, Del Monte and, R. Wildman, OM. 
Montmartre the H<^, Edward McSweeny, CW 
More, Sir Thomas, The Life of, B. O. Flower, A. 
Mormon Church, Has the. Reentered Politics ? O. Miller, F. 
Muscat, J. T. Bent, CR. 
Napoleon Bonaparte : 

Life of Napoleon Bonaparte— XIV, W. M. Sloane, CM. 

Napoleon Bonaparte— fV, John Davis, A. 

The Signatures of Napoleon, Str. 
Nast, Thomas, and His Work, Leigh Leslie, MidM. 
Natural History : A New England Woodpile, R. E. Robinson, 

AM. 
Navies : The Marines, David Hannay, NewR. 
Newcomen, Thomas, and His Work, William Fletcher, CasM. 
New England Customs, Eliza N. Blair, C*haut. 
New England in Michigan, E. P. Powell, NEM. 
New Zealand : Adult Male Labor, E. Beeves, WR. 
Niagara: 

Distribution of Electric Power at Niagara, F. L. Pope, 

ICngM. 

Prof. Forbes on " Harnessing Niagara,** E. A, LeSueur, PS. 
Nicaragua : England in Nicaragua, O. H. D. Gk)ssip, FR. 
Nicaragua Canal, Our Benefits from the, A. S. White, NAR. 
Nineteen Hundred and Twenty, A.D., CR. 
Nive, Battles of, Mac. 

Nordau*8 ** Degeneration,** J. Silverman, Men. 
Occult Law, W. W. Woolsey, MetM. 

Old South Meeting House, Builder of the, A. E. Brown, NEM. 
OrchidSjLawrence Irwell, Lipp ; P. Rivers, Ata. 
Orient, The : 

The Greater Eastern Question, R. E. Douglas, NatR. 

The New Situation in the Far East, D. C. Boulger, CR. 
Oxford University : 

Oxford in the Thirteenth Century, Mac. 

Oxford in Fact and Fiction, Black. 

Student Life at Oxford, F. Grundy, Chant 
Paper Mill, A Natural, Virgil G. Eaton, PS. 
Parliament. The British : 

Failure of Government by Groups, W. Rathbone, FR. 

Unionist PoUcy, J. S. 8. Glennie,^. 
Passion-Plav at Vorder-Thiersee, Annie S. Peck, CM. 
Pasteur and His Life Work, Felix L. Oswald, Chant. 
Peeresses. Actresses Who Have Become, A. C. Whecder, Coa 
Pensions in Legislation, F. W. Blackmar, Chant. 
Peru : A Socialist State, R. S. Long, WR. 
Photography : See Contents of AP ; PA j PB ; PT ; WPM. 

Printing Photographs by Machinery, WPM. 
Physics and Sociology, W. H. Mallock, CR. 
POgrim Principle and Pilgrim Heritage, W. DeW. Hyde, F. 
Poe's " Raven,** A Study of, W. E. GrMls, HomR. 
Poetry: 

The Practical Uses of Poetry, R. F. Horton, SunM. 

The Poet-Laureateship, TB. 
Politics and Culture, H. Seal.WR. 
Professional Institutions— VIII, Herbert Spencer, PS. 
Raby Castle, Duchess of Cleveland, PMM. 
Railways : 

The Continuous Rail in Street Railway Practice, JAES, 
October. 

Power Consumption on Electric Railways, A. K. Baylor, 
CasM. 

Cost of Modem Railroad Construction, J. F. Wallace, Eng M. 

Corea and the Siberian Railway, FR. 
Reed, Thomas B., and the 51st Congress, T. Roosevelt. F. 
Referendum, The, in Switzerland, fi. V. Raynolds, YR. 
Religious Education, The Bible in Schools and, NatR. 
Renan and Berthelot, A. D. Vandam, CR. 
Representatives, House of, and House of Commons, NAR. 
Revolution, Songs and Ballads of the, Lydia B. Newcomb 
NEM. 



128 



THE REVIEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



Rosary* Our Lady's, Thomas Esser, R. 
Raskin, John, Teaching of, F. Harrison, NC. 
Russia: 

Turkey or Ruasia T Oanon McCk>ll, PR. 

Peasant Life of South Russia JBlack. 
Sacerdotalism, Francis Peek, CK. 
St. James Palace. Mary S. Warren, CFM. 
Salisbury, Lord, Augustin Filon, PR, 
Salt in the Sea, O. W. Littlehale& PS. 
Santa Barbara, E. Roberts, PMM. 

Sayoe, Pror, vertua the ArchaBologlBts, A. A. Bevan, CR. 
Scotland : The New Scotland, F. watt, NewR. 
Senate for the Empire, J. Bonwick, WR. 
Sennacherib and the Destruction of Nineveh, W. H. Ward, 

HomR. 
Settlements, Oanon Bamett on, NC. 
Shakespeare : 

*' Hamlet,'' H. Beerbohm Tree, PR. 

Italian Influence on Shakespeare, C. F. Walters, GM. 
Shall and Will, Robert Barr , Bkman. 
Sherman, John : Story of His Own Career, E. B. Andrews, 

RR. 
Shorthand : See Contents of Sten ; SJ. 
Siam, Southwest, H. W. Smyth, OJ. 
Skatine : 

The Anatomyof Speed Skating, R. T. McKenzie, PS. 

Skating, Ed. w. Sandys, O. 
Socialism, Child-Distress and State, J. R. Diggle, NatR. 
Sociology: 

Physfcs and Sociology, W. H. Mallock, CR. 

Geoghraphy and Scxfiology. W. Z. Ripley, PSQ. 
Son^ and Ballads of the Revolution, Lydia fi. Newcomb, 

Spencer, Mr. Herbert, RR. 

SpencerjHerbert. A. Lynch on, FreeR. 

Sport : The Craft of Hunting, Mac 

Steam, The Manufacture of, EneM 

Steamers, The Great Modem Transatlantic, 8. W. Stanton, 

Suggestibility, Automatism, and Kindred Phenomena— I, PS. 

Sun^s Heat, The, Sir Robert Ball, McCl. 

Switzerland: The Public Schools of (Geneva, Walter B. 

Scaife, EdRA. 
Sword-Lore, Japanese, L. H. Weeks, ^ipp. 
Tahiti: A Vagabond's Christmas -in Tahiti, J. C. Werner, 

OM. 
Taxation. Principles of— I, David A. Wells, PS. 
Technical Education, PR ; CR ; WR. 
Temperance and the Liquor Traffic : 

The Decline of Drunkenness, A. Shadwell, NatR. 



King Alcohol and Liberalism, FreeR. 

Physical Foundations of Temperance, B. W. Richardson. 
Long. 

Liquor Legislation in England, Edward Porritt, PSQ. 
Theatres and the Drama : 

Mv First Appearance on the Sta^, Mary Andenon de 
Kavarro, LhJ. 

*' Hamlet," H. Beerbohm Tree on, PR. 
TheoBophy, Scientific, J. R. Buchanan, A. 
Trafalgar Captains, The, W. Laird Clowes, US. 
Trenck, the Original Monte C*risto. C. G. Furley, Ata. • 
" Trilby," The Trail of, A. D. Vanda^n, P. 
Turkey : 

A Turkish Note on the Turkish Question, NatR. 

Turkey or Russia t Oanon MacColl, PR. 
Typewriter, Being a, Lucy C. BulljAM. 
United States Constitution— H, J. W. Burgess, Chaut. 
Universities : 

Oxford in Pact and Fiction, Black. 

Religion of the Undergraduate, A. C. Deane, NC 

En^gaad in Nicaragua and Venezuela, G. H. D. Gossip. 

The Venezuelan Question, William L. Scruggs, RR. 

The Legal Merits of Venezuela's Case, SBcon. 

Sketches of Venezuela— n, B. Cothonay, R. 
Violin Playing, Retrospect in. Earl Drake, Mus. 
Water Supplies, Public Investigation of, Floyd Davis. EngM. 
Westmoreland and Wordsworth, Annie Amntt, Ata. 
Whitman, Walt, in Relation to Christianity, Emily C. Monck. 

PL. 
Wolseley, Viscount, A. Forbes, CFM. 
Women : 

Home Work for Gentle Women, Miss E. L. Banks, CFM. 

Each Sex Its Own Moralist, NewR. 

Editcrship as a Career for women, Margaret Sangster, F. 

Actresses Who Have Become Peeresses, A. C. Wheeler, Cos. 

General Federation of Women's Clubs, Marv C. Frands. 

Woman, Beginnings of the Education of, in Syria, T. 
Laurie, MteR. 

Woman's Natural Debarment from Political Service, 
A.M.C. 

Japanese Women of the Past and Present. MidM. 

Shall Women Vote ? Helen H. Gardener, A. 

Woman Labor in England^Econ. 

Japan's Pair Daughters, MM. 
Wordsworth and Westmoreland, Annie Armitt, Ata. 
Tachtixig : Lord Dunraven and the America's CMp, CR 
Youth, Perpetual, W. J. Colville, MetM. 
Zigliara, Cardinal— H, Reginald l^alsh, R. 



Abbreviations of Magasine Titles used in the Index. 



AP. 
AC( 



AMC. 
AAPS. 

JUS. 



AI. 

Ata. 

AM. 

BA. 

BankL. 

BW. 

Black. 

Bkman. 

CanM. 

CFM. 

CasM. 

CW. 

CM. 

CJ. 

Chaut. 

CR. 

C. 

Cos. 

Dem. 

D. 

DR. 

ER. 

Ed. 

EdRL. 

EdRA. 



American Amateur Photog- 
rapher. 

Am. Catholic Quart. Review. 

American Historical Review. 

American Magazine of Civics. 

Annals of the Am. Academy of 
Political Science. 

American Journal of Sociol- 
ogy. 

Areua. 

Art Amateur. 

Art Interchange. 

Atalanta. 

Atlantic Monthly. 

Bachelor of Arts. 

Bankers' Magazine. (London). 

Biblical World. 

Blackwood's Magazine. 

Bookman. (New York). 

Canadian Magazine. 

Cassell's Family Magazine. 

Cassier's Magazine. 

Catholic World. 

Century Magazine. 

Chambers's Journal. 

Chautauquan. 

Contemporary Review. 

Comhill. 

Cosmopolitan. 

Deraorest's Family Magazine. 

Dial. 

Dublin Review. 

Edinburgh Review. 

Education. 

Educational Review. (Lon- 
don). 

Educational Review. (New 
York). 



EngM. Engineering Magazine. 

EI. English Illustrated Magazine. 

PR. Fortnightly Review. 

P. Forum. 

FreeR. Free Review. 

FrL. Frank LesUe's Monthly. 

GM. Gentleman's Magazine. 

G. Godey's. 

GBag. Green Baff. 

Harp. Harper's Magazine. 

HGm. Harvard Graduates'Magazine. 

HomR. Homiletic Review. 

IJE. Intemat'l Journal of Ethics. 

JAES. Journal of the Ass'n of En- 
gineering Societies. 

JMSL Journal of the Military Serv- 
ice Institution. 

JPBcon. Journal of Political Economy. 

K. Knowledge. 

LHJ. Ladies' Home Journal. 

LAH. Lend a Hand. 

LH. Leisure Hour. 

Lipp. Lippincott's Magazine. 

Long. Longman's Magazine. 

Mc(3l. McC^ure's Maeazine. 

Mac. MacmiUan's Magazine. 

ManQ. Manchester Quarterly. 

Men Menorah Monthly. 

MetM. Metaphysical Magazine. 

MR. Methodist Review. 

MidM. Midland Monthly. 

MisH. Missionary Herald. 

MisR. Missionary Review of World. 

M. Month. 

MM. Munsey's Magazine. 

Mus. Music. 

NatR. National Review. 



NBM. 

NewR. 

NW. 

NC. 

NAR. 

OD. 

O. 

OM. 

PMM. 

PRev. 

PA. 

PR 

PT. 

PL. 

PS. 

QJEoon. 

Si: 

R. 

San. 

SRev. 

Scots. 

Scrib. 

SEcon. 

Sten. 

Str. 

SJ. 

SunH. 

SunM. 

TB. 

US. 

USM. 

WR. 

WPM. 

YR. 



New England Magazine. 

New Review. 

New World. 

Nineteenth Century. 

North American Review. 

Our Day. 

Outing. 

Overland Monthly. 

Pall Mall Magazine. 

Philosophical Review. 

Photo- American. 

Photo-Beacon. 

Photographic Times. 

Poet-Lore. 

Popular Science Monthly. 

Quarterly Journal of Eoonom- 
ics. 

Quarterly Review. 

Iteview of Reviewa. 

Rosary. 

Sanitarian. 

School Review. 

Scots Magazine. 

Scribner's Magazine. 

Social Economist. 

Stenoarapher. 

Strand. 

Students' JoumaL 

Sunday at Home. 

Sunday Magazine. 

Temple Bar. 

United Service. 

United Service Magazine. 

Westminster Review. 

Wilson's Photographic Maga- 
zine. 

Yale Review. 



[It has been found necessary to restrict this Index to periodicals pubtinhed in the Bugllsb langruage. 
leading reviews are indexed, but only the more important articles in the other magfazines.] 



AU the artiolee in Ui« 



The Review of Reviews, Edited by Albert Shaw. 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1896. 



The Venexnela Commission at Work... Frontispiece. 

The Progress of the World— 

The PreM and Public Opinion 181 

The Modem Jonmalism in London 181 

The " Chronicle " and the Venezuela Matter 182 

Thoee '' FortT Thousand British Colonists '' 182 

Some Plain Truth About British Guiana 188 

As to British Civilization in South America 183 

South American Races 184 

Absenteeism at Its Worst 134 

British Views as to Bounduy Lines 184 

Mr. Norman's Discoveries about Former Arbitra- 
tion Plans 136 

How New York Looked to London Instead of 

Washington 186 

What Mi^t Readfly Have Been 186 

Lord Salisbury's Letter 187 

Mr. Cleveland's Method at Least Effective 187 

Tlie Venezuela Commission 187 

Prospects of a Thorough Inquiry 137 

The Method Favors England Bather Than Ven- 
ezuela 187 

Will the Decision be Accepted ? 188 

Probably Too Late Now n>r Arbitration 188 

Venezuela's Turn to Decline 188 

No Beason for Trouble Between England and the 

United States 139 

Femnnel of the Commission 139 

Our College Presidents ... 139 

Wall Street and the Qold Crisis 139 

Ko Asostance from Congress 140 

TtieLoan, the Syndicate and the *" World" 140 

Invasion of tbe Transvaal 141 

Datcfa and English in South Africa 141 

The Rise of Johannesburg 142 

Demands of the " Uitlanders " 142 

Prom Jameson's Point of View 148 

CSismberlain, Bkodes and Krtlger 148 

Fbehng Against Qermany 145 

NsTil Dononstrations Unprecedented 145 

Dertiny of the Transvaal 145 

Progress of the Cuban Rebellion 146 

Winnipeg t^rvus Ottawa 146 

A Critical Issue for Canada 147 

Some Matters Far and Near 147 

Whb portraitB of Henry Norman, E. T. Cook. W. H. Mas- 
riuebam, Henry Labonchere. Hon. NMson Dingley, Joseph 
Pafitaer, J. Pierpont MorKan, President Paul Krttger, 
Oeil J. Bbodee, Oen. Joubert, Dr. Jameson. Gen. Qomez, 
Premier Oreenway. Sir Mackenzie Bowell, a map of the 
Sooth African Republic and a British map of British 
Oiiasa. 

Cviciit History in Caricature 148 

tHk reproductlcms from American and Foreign cartoon 
pspcrs. 

Record of Current Eyents .158 

Witk portraits of Cardinal Satolli, Dr. John Shaw Billings. 
Qcoerml Bsratieri. W. L. Courthope, the late Nathaniel 
0«ors« dark. D.D., the late Alfred £lj Beach jmd view 
of tht Mv baikUng of the New York Clearing House. 

Tbe Story of Cripple Creek 161 

By Cy Warman. 
Vkh portrsits of Mr. Btratton, D. H. Moffatt, and other il- 
hikrations. 

-TUt Flood of Gold" 167 

With illustrations. 



Some Leading Errors of the Gold Standard 

Party 178 

By Dr. Otto Arendt (translated by Pres. E. B. Andrews). 
With portrait of Dr. Arendt. 

Bimetallism : Some Damaging Facts in its His- 
tory 176 

By Frank Irvine Herriott. 
Wilih portrait of Horace White. 

The Itight Hon. Joseph Chamberlain : A Char- 
acter Sketch 181 

With several portraits of Mr. Chamberlain. 

The Massacres in Turkey. From October 1, 
1895. to January 1, 1896 197 

The New Poet Laureate 199 

With portrait of Alfred Austin. 
Leading Articles of the Month— 

The Winning of Africa 203 

The Nicaragua Canal 20^ 

Who is Responsible ? A Question from Armenia. . . 204 

The Sultan of Turkey 205 

Representative British Views on the Venezuelan 

Question 206 

Philosophy of the Monroe Doctrine 207 

Inside the Insurgents^ Lines 207 

The Crisis in the Transvaal 208 

The Alaska Boundary Question 209 

The Bond Operation of 1896 209 

The Remedies for Railway Rate Wars 210 

From Printer's Devil to Premier 210 

Mr. Reed's Qualifications for the Presidency 211 

A Universal Ratio 212 

The Lessons of the Yalu Battle 212 

An Ideal Employer 213 

The Social Creed of Professor Bemis 214 

The State and Semi-^Public Corporations 215 

A Pleasant View of Social Progress 216 

Scientific Temperance 216 

Mr. Gladstone on the Future Life 217 

Is There a New Education f 217 

Evening Schools in the Open Air 218 

Joel Chandler Harris 218 

Heber the Bibliophile 220 

The Art of Letter Writing 220 

Woman's Gossip About the Queen 222 

A Study of Church Entertainment 222 

The Mysteries of the Lost Property Office 223 

The Myth of Unclaimed Estates 223 

The Fastest Railroad Run 224 

The Modem Jew 225 

" Christianity's Millstone " 226 

The Great Bicycle Year 227 

The Palmerston Ideal in Diplomacy 228 

Has Immigration Increased Population? 228 

The Periodicals Reviewed 229 

The New Books- 
Progress in Bibliosnraphy 238 

Recent American Publications 240 

With portraits of Dr. Washington Gladden, Dr. Amory 
H. Bradford, Henry Mills Alden, Bishop Spalding of 
Peoria, and Kate Douglas Wiggin. 

Contents of Reviews and Magazines 248 

Index to Periodicals 254 



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Pta(»,Breir York City. 



The Review of Reviews. 



Vol. XIII. 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY, 1896. 



No. 2. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE VS^ORLD 



The prt93 ^ ^® m6iith which our record of events 
Qttd Rybiie includes,— namely, the closing days of 
Opinion. December and the greater part of Janu- 
ary, — the ix>wer of the press has been exhibited as 
never before in the world's history. Qovemment 
by newspapers seems pretty nearly to have been 
realized in these past weeks. Obviously, the influ- 
ence of the press is only to a Limited extent original 
and creative. Its seeming sway is in fact the sway 
of public opinion. The increased effectiveness of 
the press is due to its improved facilities, first, for 
iUuxninating the public mind, and second, for the 
organized and concentrated expression of that public 
mind. By far the highest development of this un- 
hampered and responsive relationship between a free 
press and an intelligent citizenship is in the United 
States. The English press echoes governmental or 
party leaders rather than public opinion ; but it 
happens that the government and the leaders are 
themselves always acutely sensitive to the varying 
moods and impulses of national sentiment, and thus, 
— thoogh usually at second hand, — the British press 
also at leng^ yields to the force of public opinion. 
An Kngliah journal that attempts in its own right 
and at first hand to inform and to express public 
sentiment is a novelty as yet; but a brilliant future 
is ready and at hand for those British journals which 
will learn freedom and independence from the great 
newspapers of America. 

rim modtrm *^® Loudon Chronicle has cut loose from 
jjomrmtjfjm the old tradition, and its recent influence 
im um4om, ^jpQ^ English opinion and upon the course 
of affairs has been most extraordinary. The West- 
wtinster Oazette, an afternoon London paper, which, 
like the Chronicle, represents the radical wing of 
Liberalism, belongs to this same school of indepen- 
dent and sincere journalism. It is now reported that 
Mr. Cook, the scholarly, high-minded and capable 
editor of the Westminster Gazette, is to become 
editor of the great orthodox Liberal organ the Daily 
News, a paper the general character and attitude of 
which in some respects corresponds with that of the 
Tribune in New Yofk. The editor of the Chron- 
tele is Mr. H. W. Hassingham, who, though still a 
very young man, has risen by virtue of sheer ability 
from a subordinate position in the ranks of London 
newspaper men to a jf^ace of commanding influence. 




Photo by jieU, WMhlngton. 

MR. HENRY NORMAN. 

(Staff Oorrespondent London Chronicle at Washington in 
December and January.) 

He is a leader among the municipal reformers of 
London, has shown himself unequaled as a Parlia- 
mentary reporter, is a champion of the labor move- 
ment, and is master of an editorial style that is at 
once trenchant and of pure literary quality. Mr. 
Fletcher, formerly Mr. Massingham^s superior in 
the editorial rooms of the Chronicle, has now an 
admirable weekly paper of his own, the New Era. 
Mr. Labouchere in Truth, like Mr. Fletcher, stands 
always for direct, searching and sincere discussion. 
However Truth may err in other directions, or 
whatever its vagaries and frivolities, it does not fail 
to tell the English people the plain facts with regard 
to imperial and foreign questions. 



132 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



Tk9 



**CkronMe* 
and the 
Venezuela 
Matter. 



In one of his recently published let- 
ters Mr. Matthew Arnold remarks 
that '' the worst of the English is that 
on foreign x>olitic8 they search so 
very much more for what they like and wish to be 
true than for what is true." The inestimable serv- 
ice which the Chronicle in its large sphere as a great 
daily paper, and Mr. Labouchere's Truth in its more 
restricted weekly field, have rendered in these jwist 
weeks, has been that of setting before the English 




MB. B. T. COOK. 

people some of those plain facts in the Venezuela 
case which almost all other English newspapers 
have succeeded so remarkably in avoiding. It is 
now evident that the English public mind is bent 
upon some prompt and reasonable settlement of the 
Venezuela question, — a settlement which shall rec- 
ognize the fact that the United States has all along 
been right in so far as it has desired and requested 
investigation and arbitration. The Chrotiicle sent 
to Washington a member of its editorial staff, Mr. 
Henry Norman ; and this intelligent and fair-minded 
jounuJist speedily informed himself concerning the 
real situation. His dispatches to the Chronicle had 
an amazing effect upon English public opinion. Our 
English friends mean no suppression of the truth, 
certainly ; but their knowledge of the outlying parts 
of their own Empire is often as vague as their knowl- 
edge of the geography of the United States. The 
consequence is that they accept implicitly the array 
' of statx^ments and arguments made up by the clerks 
in the Foreign Office, or by interested agents of the 
colonial governments. There is no public in the 
world, except the American public, that is so abso- 
lutely right minded as the British public ; and the 
whol Venezuela trouble has grown out of the cir- 
cumsuciuce that the real facts have until within the 
— " '--" weeks failed to reach the English news 



nose ^ concrete instance or two "will make 

"Forty Thousand this assertion better understood. 
Brntafi Colonists," ^q^^ Salisbury's letter to Secretary 
Olney, — a letter evidently created in x)erfect good 
faith out of materials furnished to his lordship by 
subordinates in the Foreign Office, —talks gravely 
about forty thousand British subjects who are liv- 
ing under the British flag in the disputed strip of 
country. Practically all the English papers have 
appealed to the national feeling of the English peo 
pie on behalf of those forty thousand British colo- 
nists, who are said to have settled in good faith in 
that district, carrying with them the superior civili- 
zation of the Anglo-Saxon, and living in a state of 
ideal peace and contentment under the laws and 
institutions dear alike to the Briton and the North 
American. These forty thousand British colonists 
have been at the very heart of the discussion, so far 
as its moral and patriotic phases have been pre- 
sented to the English people. Not a few of the 
newspapers have assumed that the " forty thou- 
sand " were so many voters and heads of families, 
thus leading to the easy inference that if women 
and children were counted there would be found 
200,000 English-speaking colonists permanently 
settled within the area in dispute between Eng- 
land and Venezuela. Some American papers which 
have supported the English contention in this 
Venezuela^ affair have built all their argument** 







MR. H. W. MASSINOHAM. 



around the hearthstones of these forty thousand. 
No matter what original and technical rights Vene- 
zuela might have had to this territory, we Ameri- 
cans are begged in the name of Anglo-Saxon civiliza- 
tion, and on the ground that •* blood is thicker than 
water," to see how practically impossible it would 
be for England to turn over these forty thousand 
colonip^** to the jurisdiction of a Spanish- American 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



133 



govemxnenl We have been reminded, further- 
more, that if a plebiscitom were to be taken in the 
dispnted strip, there would be fully forty thousand 
British voters casting their ballots in favor of ad- 
herence to the Union Jack and the British empire, 
as against the merest handful — perhaps not half a 
hundred — of voters who would favor the jurisdiction 
of Venezuela. It is not strange that the great mass 
of English readers, having no sources of information 
except the newspapers, should have accepted these 
statements and should have felt disposed to believe 
that it was not only the righteous duty of England 
to hold all that she had ever claimed in South 
America, but also to acquire as much more as poeai- 
ble, in pursuance of the great missionary programme 
of Anglo Saxon civilization. The perfect good faith 
of the British public is not to be questioned for a 
moment ; but it is extremely difficult to believe in 
the entire good faith of all the English journalists. 
It is true that the lack of general knowledge among 
English journalists regarding facts, conditions, and 
affairs in either North or South America has been 
exhibited thousands of times; but it seems almost 
incredible that no English journalist should, through 
an this elaborate discussion, have referred even for 
five minutes to the ** Encyclopsedia Britannica," the 
** Statesman's Year Book.'' or any other standard 
English repository of facts. 



Trmtk About 
BriasH Qyiana. 



The plain, hard fact is that these 
40 000 British colonists in the disputed 
territory are 40,000 myths. There is 
practically no British immigration into British 
Gaiana, nor has there been for many decades. The 
total population of British Guiana is approximately 
900,000. Considerably more than 100,000 of these 
people are negroes, whUe a much greater number, 
constituting almost the entire effective labor x)opu- 
ladon, is made up of East Indian and Chinese 
ooohes. The number of these coolies now ap- 
proaches 150.000. The total number of people of 
European birth in the whole of British Guiana at 
the last census was 2533. We might guess that the 
3500 are in British Guiana proper, and the 33 (in- 
stead of the 40,000) are in the disputed area. The 
importation of coolie laborers has been an official 
policy, and it has been managed at much expense 
through governmental agents sent to Calcutta, 
Canton and elsewhere in India and China. These 
laborers are brought out under contract, and are 
held practically as slaves under five-year indenture 
terms. As for the ** forty thousand British voters 
in the disputed district alone," until a compara- 
tively recent date the entire number of voters in the 
whole of British Guiana was less than 800. Owing 
to a considerable recent extension of the franchise, 
there were, aocordmg to last year's returns, 2388 
voters in the whole couptry. It must not be sup- 
posed that these are all people of British descent; 
for in British Guiana, as in the British West Indies, 
the negroes and half-breeds are becoming voters 
and property holders; and, moreover, there are 



numerous Dutch descendants of the original colo- 
nists, Portuguese immigrants, Spanish-Americans, 
Canary Islanders, and men of various other races, 
included in the 2388 people who are intelligent and 
responsible enough to be permitted to axercise the 
right of suffrage. 

In the remote extremity of the dis- 
puted territory, — far beyond the set- 
tled portion of British Guiana, and 
also far beyond the bounds of any area that any- 
body had ever dreamed of considering as British 
unta a very few years ago,— there are some transient 
and turbulent camps of miners in the new gold 



Aa to British 

Clullliathn In 

South America. 




MR. HXNRT LABOUCHXBE. 

fields, composed of adventurers from all parts of the 
earth, but not made up to any appreciable extent 
whatever of bona fide British colonists. The two 
chief industries of British Guiana are the raising of 
sugar and the manufacture and export of rum. The 
great plantations which produce the sugar and rum 
are owned in large part by absentee millionaires 
who live in London or elsewhere in Europe, and 
who are represented in British Guiana by agents. 
The plantations are worked entirely by imported 
Asiatic coolie labor. Thu^ although we have been 
assured — by a great many people who lay claim to 
especial intelligence — that British civilization as in- 
troduced through the gateway of Guiana affords the 
one bright outlook for South American prog^ress, 



134 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



the rnde» nnvamished truth is that British methods 
in Guiana have made that region the least hopeful 
for civilization, and incomparably the lowest and 
most degraded in the mass of its x>opulation, to be 
found anywhere on the continent of South America. 
The only hope for civilization on that continent lies 
in the gradual progress of the great self-governing 
republics, — Brazil, the Argentine, Chili, Peru, 
Ck)lombia and Venezuela. 

South ^® denunciation of the South Americans 
American on the part of the English press as a 

Races. mongrel and degenerate race is, to say 
the least, extremely unbecoming. In no part of the 
Western world is the white race yielding so com- 
pletely to admixture with the negro race as in 
Jamaica and other of the British West India islands ; 
while the relative sprinkling of white x>opulation in 
British Guiana becomes less and less, until it may 
now be said without fear of contradiction that there 
is absolutely no visible future for any considerable 
white population in the Guianas. Dutch Guiana 
recognizes that fact, while French Guiana has sunk 
too low even for its old uses as a penal colony. 
British Guiana has long admitted these facts in its 
policy, but the British Government will not allow 
the truth to be told in words. The situation is 
wholly different in Venezuela. That republic has a 
total population of two millions and a half. The 
negro element is a very small one, and the same 
thing is true of the Indian tribes. The great bulk 
of the population is of good Spanish origin, and 
although there is some slight admixture of Indian 
blood, which in some cases is found even in leading 
families, the result is not degrading. It is well 
known in the United States that a limited admix- 
ture of American Indian blood doe3 not vitiate the 
European stock. In matters of education, of art, 
music and literature, of railways and telegraphs, 
and of general material and social progress, Vene- 
zuela's present condition is incomparably superior 
to that of British Guiana. 



AbsenteeUm ^* seems almost incomprehensible that 
at /u the English journals should have told 
Worst. their readers so little about the race ele- 
ments and general condition of British Guiana. 
The few thousand descendants of the earlier Euro- 
pean colonists are in Georgetown and elsewhere 
near the coast. They are not living in the disputed 
territory to any important extent The colony of 
British Guiana represents in itself, perhaps to a 
higher degree than any other region on earth, the 
vicious system of absenteeism. The soil is held and 
the industries are controlled by absentee landlords 
living in Europe, working their estates through 
overseers who handle the East India coolies like so 
many cattle, and making fresh importations con- 
stantly because the death rate is so enormous. In 
no other large region on earth, so far as we are 
familiar with vital statistics, is the death rate so far 
m excess of the birth rate as in British Guiana. 



The deaths as reported last year were fifty 'per 
cent, in excess of the births. Thus, while the land 
and the industries are largely controlled under an 
accursed system of selfish and irresxKmsible ab- 
senteeism, the x>olLtical dominion also is exercised in 
accordance with the sixteenth-century notion that 
American regions should be politically ruled in 
Europe as '' possessions." Most of the people who 
inhabit North and South America long ago asserted 
themselves against this type of x>oliticfd absentoe^ 
ism. apd established self-goverdment. There is no 
more reason in the fundamental nature of the thing 
why EnglaQd should exercise rule in America, than 
why America should rule in England. Everything 
that is normal, well-balanced and modem in ix>lit- 
ical ideas and methods makes for the maintenance 
and the further development of self-governing 
American states in the Western hemisphere. Thus, 
instead of indefinite further encroachments of ab- 
sentee European planters and absentee European 
governments in South America, the normal and the 
righteous order of things should be the development 
of home proprietorship and home rule in South 
America, with the hope of ultimate extinction of the 
non-resident title, whether to land or to x^olitical 
dominion. 
British Views -Another thing characteristic of the 
as to methods of the British press is the 

Boundary Lines, j^anner in which the area and bound- 
ary lines of British Guiana have been discussed. Al- 
most without exception, the British newspapers have 
continued, through all these weeks, without a word 
of explanation or apology, to assert that the British 
claim has not been changed, but that England has 
always, from the very date of its acquisition of 
British Guiana from the Dutch, maintained its right- 
ful title to all that it now demands as belonging to 
British Guiana. Here again the ordinary English 
reader takes it for granted that the newspaper editors 
are well informed. He therefore really supposes 
that it is the Venezuelans that have been making 
unreasonable claims and ugly aggressions. So far 
as we are aware it has not occurred to any of the 
English journalists to inform their readers as to 
what the common imderstanding has heretofore 
been. If we mistake not, the English school geog- 
raphies, atlases and other sources of ordinary infor- 
mation previous to 1840 regarded the Eseequibo 
as the boundary line, and held that British Guiana 
contained about 12,0C0 square miles. The Venezue- 
lans have never for a moment ceased to claim the 
Essequibo as the true boundary which separates 
what is theirs by rightful title from what is British 
by right. After about 1840, the English began to 
increase their claims. Standard publications, like 
the "English Encyclopaedia,"— a work which is 
especially authoritative on geographical questions 
and which assigns to England everything that can 
reasonably be claimed, — then began to assert British 
title to an area of 60,000 square milea A few ye^ 
ago the British planters and colonial officials began 
to concern themselves about a further strip of land; 




BRITISH GUIANA AND DISPUTED TERRITORY ACCORDING TO CURRENT 

ENGLISH MAPS. 

(For the map as drawn by Venezuelans see page 9 of Review op Rbvibwa for Janaary.) 



136 



THE RE^IEIV OF REI^IEIVS, 



and it was accordingly annonnced that British 
CKiiana contained 76,000 square miles, — although it 
was admitted in all English reference books that a 
large part of this territory was in dispute and was 
claimed by Venezuela and Brazil. The last edition 
of the ** English EncyclopsBdia " has not got any fur- 
ther than the 50,000 square miles ; but the last 
edition of the ''Encyclopaedia Britannica," which 
has been more recently revised, enters l^e claim 
for 76,000 square miles, freely conceding, however, 
the fact that this is largely in dispute. The ** States- 
man's Year Book *' and all other British statistical 
works, imtil a very short time ago, were content to 
claim 76,000 square miles and to accord the rest of 
the country to Venezuela. But the discovery of 
gold mines imsettled the situation again; and behold 
new claims were made which brought the total 
up to 109,000 square miles. All the new English 
reference books, and all the new English maps, now 
claim 109,000 square miles, and the English journal- 
ists are nearly all, at length and with much reitera- 
tion, iitforming their readers that England has 
always had a plain title to everything that it now 
claims, and that it has never at any time claimed 
anything less. It would at least greatly have helped 
plain English citizens to understand the moral and 
practical bearings of the Venezuelan dispute, if some 
influential English journalist or two had thought to 
inform them (1) about the character of the popula- 
tion iQ British Guiana, and (2) about the territorial 
extent of that province, as men formerly understood 
it and expressed it when they made atlases and pre- 
pared cyclopedias. 

Mr. Norman's We are familiar in the United 
Abi^^ForZr States with the claim that a British 
Arbitration Plans. Minister had once agreed to arbi- 
trate the whole question with Venezuela, but that a 
change of ministry some years ago, which brought 
Lord Salisbury into power, led to a cancellation of 
the Liberal Minister's agreement This informa- 
tion was, months ago, at the ready disposal of Eng- 
lish journalists; yet it had not seemed to occur to 
them that it would be useful to publish it It re- 
mained for Mr. Norman, of the London Chronicle, 
to come to Washing^n, ascertain various well 
known facts about former arbitration plans, cable 
them back to his paper, and thus open the way for 
a first glimmering ray of intelligence about the real 
question to peneti'ate the British mind. There had 
seemed to be a common understanding between the 
English Gk)vemment and the entire press that the 
English people were not to be told anything about 
the genesis of a question which had become so acute 
that it appeared for a week to be threatening a war 
between England and the United States. The Brit- 
ish people want fair play, are soimd to the core, 
and can be trusted to do right The American 
X>eople in like manner are moderate, unaggressive, 
and want nothing in international relations but plain 
justice. If a war had come about between these two 
great coimtries, the moral resi)on8ibility would have 



belonged to the London press, with its lack of inde- 
pendence, its distaste for any facts which do not 
support British contentions, and its reckless imper- 
ialism. What one honest and enlightened news- 
paper, breaking away from the stupid traditions of 
the London press, can accomplish for peace and 
good understanding, has been magnificently demon- 
strated by the course of the Chronicle. 

How New York Unfortunately, there were a good 
LoliXn'fnirtoad ^^^Y people in New York and a few 
of Washington, jn Boston who. although in tme 
way or another entitled to be called leaders of public 
opinion, had never happened to concern themselyes 
about the Venezuela question until President Cleve- 
land's message called their attention to it They 
were not aware that the preceding Congress had 
passed a resolution courteously requesting England 
to arbitrate; nor did they seem to know that the 
Venezuelan question in the West, in the South, and 
in fact everywhere in the country except in certain 
limited circles on the seaboard, had been quite 
thoroughly examined by American citizens. In 
their first moment of surprise, instead of looking 
to Washington for further information they looked 
to London. They learned a good deal about the 
subject that was not wholly true, and became ex- 
ceedingly agitated in their opposition to the policy 
which had been adopted by our own government 
The English press, — only too ready to believe that 
American public opinion was opposed to the govern- 
ment at Washington, — seized ux>on certain views 
and utterances, emanating chiefly from New York, 
and at once assumed a tone which threatened to add 
very much to the diflBculties that already existed. 
Again the London Chronicle has rendered a valuable 
service by assuring England of the almost absolute 
unanimity of American sentiment in favor of the 
maintenance of tue Monroe doctrine. 

M/j.^ ui^k* There was never the slightest danger of 

What Might , ^ ^, -r^ -^ a «. ^ 5^*» 

Readily war between the Umted States and Eng- 
Haoe Been. ^^^ • j ^^^ ^yie English people could be 
told what were the actual facts in the Venezuela 
question, how unanimous the people of the United 
States were for a settlement of that question by 
arbitration, and how entirely this wish for arbitra- 
tion was independent of any unfriendly feeling 
toward England. But for the failure of the Eng- 
lish press to do its duty in the long months that 
had elapsed between the Congressional request for 
arbitration and Lord Salisbury's refusal, not a breath 
of difficulty would ever have arisen. One single 
English journalist speaking bravely, truly, and 
seriously at that time, could have made it certain 
that Lord Salisbury would have replied in a gracious 
manner; and then, as a result of some further cor- 
respondence, all the details of arbitration could 
readily have been arranged vrithout the slightest 
sacrifice of English self -resx>ect and with an immense 
enhancement of America's esteem for England's 
justice and fair play. Bu : instead of a conciliatory 



THE PROGRESS OF THE iVORLD. 



137 



and friendly reply, Lord Salisbury's letter to Mr. 
Olney was in effect a supercilions refusal not only 
to admit the right of the United States to intervene 
in behalf of the integrity of Venezuela's territory, 
but also to admit the vaUdity of principles that be- 
long essentially to the policy of the United States 
respecting the Western hemisphere. 

^^ It has been charged against President 
Sditbunf's Cleveland that his message to Congress 

^^^^' contained an implied threat against Great 
Britain, and that it was therefore a most reprehensi- 
Ue missive. We fuUy agree that the concluding 
sentences of Mr. Cleveland's message were uncalled 
for, and ought to have been held in reserve; but not 
for one moment will we admit that Mr. Cleveland 
was the challenger. It was Lord Salisbury's reply, 
absdntely refusing to arbitrate and flatly denying 
that the United States had any concern with the 
qnestions at issue, that contained the challenge. 
We have also been told that if Bismarck had made 
anj such utterance as Mr. Cleveland's in this mes- 
age, he would have expected to mobilize troops 
the next day. The fact is, however, that if Lord 
Salisbury had sent to Russia any such communica- 
tion as Ids reply to Mr. Olney, the thing would have 
been taken as a declaration of war without further 
correspondence. 

9r. ctrntimmd's Meanwhile, the President's message 
uttkcd at bids fair at least to result in the settle- 
Lisa EffeeUve, j^gui; ^f ^^j^ question at issue. For more 
than half a century Venezuela has vainly been trying 
to pin England down to some kind of settlement 
i^in and again the United States has tendered its 
gwxl offices, but all in vain. Mexico, Brazil, and vari- 
ous other countries have in their turn appealed to 
John Bull with no results. Mr. Cleveland's bluff 
method bids fair to bring about a prompt adjustment, 
and thus to make for peace and harmony rather than 
fw war. Congress, without delay and by a unanimous 
Tote of both houses, consented to the President's 
recommendation for a special commission to deter- 
mine "the true divisional line" between British 
Guiana and Venezuela, and a hundred thousand 
dnUars was appropriated for the necessary expenses. 



Tki 



The selection of the commissioners was 



fwztida left to the President. After a few days' 
dmmMon. ^^i^y )^q announced his appointments. 
He decided that five would be the best number of com- 
miffiionerSf and he selected Judge David J. Brewer 
of the United States Supreme Court, Judge Richard 
E Alvey of the Appellate Court of the District of 
Cohnnbia, the Hoil Andrew D. White of the State 
of New York, President Daniel C. Oilman of the 
Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore), and Mr, 
ftederic B. Coudert of the New York bar. As to 
the peculiar fitness of these gentlemen to pursue 
the inqniiy, we shall say something in a subsequent 
PKBgiaph. But first a word as to the modua oper- 



andi, and the x>ossible consequences. The Conmiis- 
sion has established itself in quarters selected, on 
its ovni initiative, in an office building in the city 
of Washington. Having been once appointed, it is 
subject to no direction, either from the President, 
the Secretary of State, or Congress. Its task is not 
assumed as ex-parte or political; but rather as a 
scientific and judicial one. Far from proving to be 
an embarrassment and in the end an inglorious farce 
for everybody concerned, it may be believed that 
the appointment of this Commission will before 
long have commended itself to wise men everywhere 
as most f ortrmate and happy, and as an interesting 
and useful precedent. 



Prospwta of a 
Thorough 



In fact, such a Commission is free to use 
methods and arrive at results the valid- 
Inquiry. ^^ ^^ which will be more likely to be 
accepted by international public opinion than those 
of a court of arbitration, as such courts are ordi- 
narily constituted. It is now well assured that all 
the facts in the possession of the parties in dispute 
will be unhesitatingly laid before the Commission. 
Lord Salisbury had promised to put the English case 
into an exhaustive " Blue Book " which should be 
presented to Parliament at the forthcoming session; 
but after the apx)ointment of the Washington Com- 
mission he announced his purpose to hasten the 
publication of the document and to allow copies of 
it to be placed in the hands of the Commission at 
Washington previous to the assembling of Parlia- 
ment. This decision on Lord Salisbury's part is an 
eminently conciliatory one. The Venezuelans of 
course will spare no trouble to place in the hands 
of theconmiissionersall the documents and evidence 
of every kind that they possess. If any further 
searching of Spanish or Dutch archives is neces- 
sary, it will be easy for the Commission to send ex- 
perts to The Hague and Madrid, or else to secure 
the information desired through our diplomatic rep- 
resentatives at those courts. Not the slightest 
effort will be made by our own authorities at Wash- 
ington to bias the judgment of the Commission in 
any manner. 

TheM^hodFaoon We are confident that before the 
England Rather work of the Commission is ended. 
Than Venezuela. ^^ British public wiU understand 
that the inquiry is being conducted upon lines of strict 
impartiality, and without the slightest tinge of hos- 
tility toward Great Britain. Furthemiore, it should 
be remarked that this inquiry, far from being unfair 
to Great Britain in the x>olitical sense, is much more 
likely to result disadvantageously to Venezuela. 
All of those general arguments based upon a nation's 
right to hold contiguous xmoccupied territory for the 
sake of its future growth, are in favor of Venezuela, 
which is a sovereign government, with a rapidly 
expanding population and a brilliant industrial out- 
look and which is now contending for what it con- 
siders to be a part of its inalienable home domain. 



138 



THE REyiEiV OF REVIEWS. 



None of these general principles are at stake on 
England*8 part. As the stontest defenders of the 
English side themselves admit, they have nothing 
involved in the controversy that is of any more con- 
sequence to them than *' a few miles more or less of 
Sonth American swamp land " over which they, as 
dwellers far beyond the sea, pretend to hold an 
absentee right of political lordship, based upon some 
exceedingly shadowy rights acquired from the 
Dutch as incident to the transfer of three small 
seaooast trading points. As a matter of natural 
right, the position of South Americans in South 
America is substantial; while the sovereignty daim 
of non-resident Englishmen is in the nature of a 
legal fiction. But this practical distinction of po- 
litical ethics is one that the Commission will not 
be able to consider. The Venezuelans will not rest 
their case upon any such grounds of natural right, 
while on the other hand the Commission will not be 
greatly overcome with sympathy for the mythical 
forty thousand Britishers whose wishes and con- 
venience, the English journalists tell us, are of 
themselves a sufficient justification for changes of 
the line. 

Will the ^ decision based upon historical facts 
Decision —going back as far as authentic his- 
Be Accepted ? ^^^ goes— is the only kind of decision 
that this Commission can render ; and public opinion 
wOl make the line an accepted fact which neither 
party in dispute can successfully disregard. It is 
possible that the whole of England's claim, or even 
more than England has claimed, may be allowed by 
the commissioners on historical evidence. In that 
case Venezuela must bow her diminished head 
and accept the results. If she can ever by purchase 
or by peaceful cession acquire any of England's 
territory, she may do so. Otherwise, she must de- 
vote her energies to the development of the large 
territory which will still remain in her undisputed 
possession. On the other hand, if some part or the 
whole of the disputed territory should be reported 
by the Commission as belonging in their judgment 
on Venezuela's side of the *' true divisional line," 
that result would in our opinion have to be accepted 
by England. Our British friends consider that if 
the decision should be favorable to them they would 
be justified in accepting the result without giving 
a further thought to Venezuela's demand for arbi- 
tration. But if the Washington Commission should 
decide against them and in favor of Venezuela, 
they are supposing that the case would still remain 
open for arbitration, and that they could arrange 
with Venezuela to submit the matter to some Euro- 
pean potentate for decision. But in our judgment 
they totally fail to comprehend the nature of public 
opinion in Venezuela. They forget how vital the 
issue appears to the Venezuelans, and how many 
times their appeal for arbitration has been con- 
temptuously refused. 



Probably too ^^^^ should remember that Venezuela's 
Late now for tum might then have arrived to refuse 
Arbitration, arbitration. The Venezuelans would 
henceforth adjust their claim to the Washington 
Commission's ** true divisional line." They might 
not take one single step that would provoke hos- 
tilities; but within their own present restricted 
lines they would proceed to develop strength as a 
military power. They would await their own time 
for action. But sooner or later they could with 
perfect ease throw an army of 150,000 men into the 
disputed district There would be no occasion 
whatever for a single act on the part of the United 
States that would offend against the severest rules 
of neutrality. The sentiment of all the other South 
American States, as well as the moral sentiment of 
the United States,— and doubtless also of Europe and 
of the plain English people themselves,— would jus- 
tify Venezuela in occupying the district which the 
Washington Commission had pronounced as belong- 
ing by good title to the sovereignty of the Vene- 
zuelan Republic. It would simply lie in Vene- 
zuela's discretion to select her own time for move- 
ment. She might wait twenty years, if that should 
suit her purposes, without losing an iota of her 
moral claim. The South American Naboth would 
have a perfect right to select his own time for win- 
ning back his little vineyard from the haughty 
European Ahab. 

Venezuela's ^® *^ informed by the English press 
Turn to that the diplomatic relations between 
Decline, England and Venezuela, broken oft 
some seven years ago, will now be resumed, and that 
England will make haste to settle the whole busi- 
ness directly with Venezuela before the Washington 
Commission can have time to report. If this could 
be accomplished it might be well; but it would 
scarcely seem possible to persuade Venezuela to such 
a course in view of the state of sentiment in Caracas. 
Our forecast of the situation may prove incorrect; 
but it now seems to us probable that all parties will 
await the report of the Washington Commission, 
and that its verdict when pronounced will so affect 
the enlightened conscience of the world as to be- 
come virtually self executing. It has been suggested 
by certain gentlemen in New York that England 
ought to appoint five commissioners who would sit 
with the American five in order to make the finding 
more palatable to the English; but these gentle- 
men seem to be laboring under the erroneous im- 
pression that the Washington Commission is an e2v 
parte body, dealing with a dispute between Eng- 
land and the United States. It is, on the contrary, 
an absolutely impartial body, dealing with no 
controversy whatever between England and the 
United States, but dealing purely with the scientifio 
and historical facts which lie at the foundation of a 
difference between England and Venezuela. A 
joint commission of Englishmen and VenesuelanB 



THE PROGRESS OF THE ]VORLD, 



139 



oQgbt jean ago to have settled npon a boundary 
line: but England has always refused to do any- 
thing (A that sort. If Englishmen were to be added 
to the Washington Commission, it would become 
necessary to add an equal number of Venezuelans. 
Nothing then could very well prevent these gentle- 
men from acting as partisan representatives of their 
leBpective governments. Venezuela will presum- 
ably be content to await patiently the report o^ the 
present Commission, and to base her future action 
strictly upon any opinion that the Commission may 
deliver. 

iNJfoMOA for No matter what findings their inves- 
fflSSrf «???*« tigations may compel the Commission 
uaiM8tat49, to reach, there can be no reason for 
any unpleasantness between the United States and 
Great Britain. It would, of course, inunensely 
s^engthen the harmony between these two great 
powers if England should frankly and fully accept 
tiw broad principles of the Monroe doctrine. But 
England's opinion as to what American policy 
GQght to be with reference to questions on our own 
side of the Atlantic, will not affect that policy in 
the slightest degree. Upon no other one subject are 
the people of the United States so unanimous and so 
firm as upon that general policy which we call *' the 
Monroe doctrine," not because the policy was ex- 
pressed m all its phases by President Monroe, but 
because at a critical moment he expressed some of 
its leading principles in terms which have remained 
l)roadly applicable. There is no reason to believe 
that any European power will attempt by force to 
controvert our exceedingly reasonable position in 
oor own hemisphere ; and all that is necessary is the 
simple declaration of out attitude. It is probable 
that Congress will within the present month have 
adopted a resolution expressly avowing the Monroe 
doctrine as a vital principle of American policy, 
tbns sustaining the President and the Secretary of 
State. 



fi^f^gif^ The Venezuela Commission is very 
•ftb* strongly composed. The Supreme Court 
CmmiMsiim. ^^ ^j^^ United States is confessedly the 
most eminent tribunal in the world, and Justice 
BrewoT is regarded as one of the ablest and most 
deeply learned members of the Supreme Bench. 
The Appellate Court of the District of Columbia 
•leo occupies a very high place, and Judge Alvey 
has long been held in peculiar esteem by juiiets and 
lawyers. Mr. Coudert of New York has a great 
intomational reputation as a lawyer, and his expe- 
rieoce has made him unusuallv familiar with the 
bifltory, laws and languages of the Latinic countries, 
wbetbar European or American. The wit, elo- 
quence, and good temper which he displayed, along 
with mhch learning, as one of the American counsel 
before the Bering Sea Arbitration Board, was fit- 
tingly acknowledged at the time. The Hon. Andrew 
D. White, formerly President of Cornell University, 



and Dr. Daniel C. Oilman, President of the Johns 
Hopkins University, belong to a group of influential 
American citizens who hold positions not exactly 
duplicated in any other country. The president of 
an American university is at once a scholar and a 
man of affairs. He represents citizenship in its 
best form, and stands for the highest national aspi- 
rations. President White has filled the great diplo- 
matic positions of Minister to Germany and Ambas- 
sador to Russia. He is an eminent historical scholar, 
having in his younger days filled the chair of History 
in the University of Michigan. It would be impos- 
sible to name a man in the entire country better 
fitted than President White, by virtue of the whole 
training and experience of a lifetime, to serve upon 
precisely such a commission. President Oilman 
also has very exceptional qualifications. Like Presi- 
dent White he has been a great traveler. One of his 
most cherished lines of study has always been geog- 
raphy, both physical and political. He has filled 
many important public trusts with great accepta- 
bility. He is the biographer of President Monroe. 
Like President White he has a wide acquaintance 
among the best and most influential Englishmen, 
who reposo confidence in his attainments and know 
his disinterestedness. These five gentlemen will 
regard the rights of England as scrupulously as if 
they had been selected from the ranks of such En 
glishmen as Mr. Morley, Mr. Bryce, Sir John Lub- 
bock, Mr. Balfour, the ** law lords " of the House of 
Peers, or the Justices of the Queen's Bench. 

0^^ Apropos of the selection of Presidents 
College Oilman and White, it is worth while to 
Pttsidents. consider, in passing, how remarkable a 
group of men are now serving or have at some re- 
cent time served, as the heads of our leading Ameri- 
can colleges and universitiee. Perhaps no man in 
the country has expressed himself in a more states- 
manlike fashion in support of the American view of 
the issues involved in the Venezuela dispute than 
President Schurman of Cornell, although bom and 
educated under the British flag. Li such men as 
President Angell of the University of Michigan, 
President Adams of the University of Wisconsin, 
President Northrop of the University of Minnesota, 
—and many other college heads, from Presidents 
Eliot and Low all the Joxy-ta Pr eside nt Jordan at 
Palo Alto,— the country possesses a group of men of 
high ideals, broad culture and sterling patriotism, 
trained to meet men and grapple with affairs, and 
able to render distinguished service to the country 
whenever called upon. 

WaU street ^® Treasury's reserve stock of gold 
and the had for a number of weeks been melting 
Gold Criaia, ^^^^^ toward a point that suggested the 
probability of another bond issue for replenishment, 
when the President's Venezuela message was sent 
to Congress. Wall Street chose to consider Mr. 
Cleveland's message a war document, and threw 



140 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



itself into violent hysterics. The London market 
for American securities concluded that if Wall 
Street could afford to be frightened to the x)oint of 
raving insanity, there must be something seriously 
the matter with America. Consequently, prudent 
English investors began to unload their holdings. 




HON. NELSON DINOLEY, JR., 
Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee. 

The strong disposition in Europe to sell American 
stocks and bonds, resulted for a few days in a great 
slump in the market. The retxum of securities from 
abroad of course necessitated a larger export of gold 
to pay off the sellers; and gold export meant fresh 
raids upon the government's slender stock of re- 
demption gold. Thereupon President Cleveland 
followed the Venezuela message with an exceed- 
ingly urgent request to Congress to do something 
for the protection of the public credit. 

No Assistance "^® House, under the leadership of 
from Mr. Dingley, of Maine, the new chair- 

Congress. ^^^ ^f ^j^^ ^^y^ ^^ UeSdlS Com- 

mittee, promptly passed a measure for temporary 
increase of the revenue, the principal feature of 
which is a twenty i>er cent, horizontal increase in 
customs duties, wool also being taken from the free 
list and subjected to a duty. A second emergency 
measure pushed through the House without delay 
was a bill giving the Secretary of the Treasury full 
discretion to issue short-time interest-bearing obli- 
gations, whenever necessary to keep up the gold 
reserve and protect the national credit. Both of 
these measures, however, were destined to meet 
with obstruction and delay when they reached the 



Senate. Although the Republicans, as the plurality 
party in the Senate, have now been permitted to 
reorganize the committees and assume the principal 
chairmanships, they are not in position to give effect 
to the Republican measures which are readily 
passed through the House under Speaker Reed's 
auspices. Anon-partisan, or rather tri-partisan, 
combination of senators who favor the free coinage 
of silver are in control of the upi>er house; and they 
promptly made it known that no bond bill could 
pass the Senate unless it carried with it a provision 
for the free coinage of silver. 



The Loan, 
dieay 
World," 



the Syndleate 
and the " ^'^•'1** 



As soon as it became absolutely cer- 
tain that no legislation could be ob- 
tained, the Treasury department 
began to prepare for another loan on the same gen- 
eral plan as was pursued last year. Mr. J. Pier- 
pont Morgan, of the banking firm of J. P. Morgan 
& Co., New York, organized a powerful syndicate 
to bid for the entire loan. It was believed through- 
out tne country that a private understanding existed 
between the government and Mr. Morgan's syndi- 
cate; and very severe criticisms of this particular 
method of floating government bonds began to be 
heard in many quarters. The opposition to the 
syndicate was led by the New York World, which 
demanded that the treasury should make a public 
call for bids, and that everybody should be given a 




MR. JOSEPH PULrrZER, OF TBR "WORLD." 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



141 




MB. J. FOCRPONT MOBOAN. 

chance to subscribe. The World declared that the 
oouitry would readily subscribe $100,000,000, or 
|S00,0OO,OOO, if it were understood that the protec- 
tion of the government credit was the thing at 
stike; and the World announced its willingness to 
kftd with a subscription of $t, 000, 000. It tele- 
gnphed to hundreds, perhaps thousands, of banks 
in every State of the Union asking what they would 
do. At lengthy somewhat to the surprise of the 
ooontry, the Treasury department on January 6 
made a paUic call for subscriptions toward a loan 
of $100,000,000 of thirty year four per cent, bonds. 
It was generally thought that the popular subscrip- 
tion would be a failure and that the Morgan syndi- 
cate, —which, by the terms of its organization, was 
to bid for the whole loan or none, -would obtain the 
hosineea. But the rapidity with which subscriptions 
cune in soon made it evident that there was no 
necessity for any private arrangement, and on Jan- 
nary 15 Mr Morgan announced that the S3rndicate 
mm dissolved. Mr. James Creelman, representing 
the World at Washington, had thrown himself with 
immense vigor into the work w^hich Mr. Pulitzer 
bad cut out for his pax>er; and it seems to be an 
undoubted fact that this single newspaper, through 
its aggresrive energy, made it possible for the gov- 
enmient to succeed in floating the great loan by 
imbbc subecription on open call, rather than by 
private contract with Mr. Morgan's syndicate. In 



dissolving the syndicate Mr. Morgan expressly 
stated that his firm was ready to assist any person 
who desired to obtain gold in order to subscribe for 
bonds, and that it would also be ready to come 
promptly to the front to help in caring for any por- 
tion of the amount that might remain unsubscribed 
for. Nothing could have been more frank or 
straightforward than Mr. Morgan's position seemed 
to be in the whole matter, while the World certainly 
performed a useful service in showing that the peo- 
ple will readily enough subscribe to a government 
loan on a three per cent, basis, if they are g^ven a 
fair chance. It is, however, a most disgraceful 
thing that these enormous successive additions to 
the permanent bonded debt of the United States 
should have to be made, for the sole purpose of pil- 
ing up a gold reserve that the speculative money 
market at once pulls down for its own benefit, at 
the country's expense. Our financial system is sadly 
out of joint. Unhappily, the chances of agreement 
upon any reform policy while House, Senate, and 
Administration are all pulling in different direc- 
tions, seem very remote. 

invoBion of ^ *^® Week before Christmas was made 
th9 somewhat unpleasant for our English 

Transvaal, qqjj^yj^ |,y what seemed to them the 
inexplicable rudeness of President Cleveland's mes- 
sage, something worse was in store for them. 
The shock and disturbance of the Venezuela affair 
were as nothing compared with the tremendous 
wave of excitement that thrilled the whole British 
public in the opening days of January as a con- 
sequence of the news from South Africa. Dr. 
Jameson, acting as administrator of the great new 
protectorate commonly known as Rhodesia, had 
crossed the border into the Transvaal, or South 
African Republic, with a mounted force of eight 
hundred men ; had been met by the sturdy Dutch 
yeomanry of the Transvaal ; and after heavy fight- 
ing and the loss of a large number of his men, had 
surrendered unconditionally to the Boers. 

The situation in South Africa is so 
'^in'si^thAfJIca!' Complicated that it makes the fixing 

of responsibility somewhat difficult 
The British Government has permitted its large 
new acquisitions to be ruled politically and ex- 
ploited industrially by a commercial body known 
as the South African Chartered Company. The 
originator, manager, and inspiring genius of the 
Chartered Company is Mr. Cecil Rhodes. As prime 
minister of Cape Colony, Mr. Rhodes was govern- 
ing the established British dependency at the Cape, 
while in his capacity as head of the Chartered Com- 
pany he was also managing the affairs of the great 
outlying country to the north, with Dr. Jameson 
as his agent and active administrator. As for the 
Transvaal, or the South African Republic, it is the 
land of the Dutch farmers whose forefathers had 
settled at the Cape and had subsequently with- 
drawn a long way northward because they did 



142 



THE REyiElV OF RE^^IEIVS. 



not like to remain nnder the mle of the English 
conqnerers who had possessed themselves of the 
Cape Colony. Two or three times the Boers, or 
Dutch farmers, have gone further afield to get 
away from English dominion, hut only to find the 
energetic Briton sooner or later catching up with 
them and involving them in his expanding empire. 
In the period from 1880 to 1884 there was serious 
trouble between the English and the Boers of the 
Transvaal The English had undertaken to annex 
the Dutch country ; whereupon the Dutchmen met 
them in open battle and proved themselves better 
fighters than the British soldiery. Thus the Boers 
gained the absolute domestic independence of their 
republic. But it was a part of the agreement, made 
in 1884, that as regards its relations with foreign 
countries the Dutch republic should act in con- 
formity with the will of Great Britain. 

No disturbance would have been likely 

Johannesburg, ^ *™® ^^^ * ^^^ while in the Trans- 
vaal if it had not been for the discovery 
of gold some years ago. The rapid development of 
the gold fields of '* the Band " is a matter of com- 
mon fame. This magazine has more than once pub- 
lished accounts of the extraordinary development 
of gold production within 
the limits of the sover- 
eignity of the South Afri- 
can Republic. But the 
Boers of the Transvaal 
are a lot of scattered 
farmers, and they are said 
to number only 15,000 
men. Their capital is the 
little town of Pretoria. 
The development of gold 
production has brought in 
a large new population of 
outsiders, or "Uitlanders '* 
as the Boers call them, 
and it is said that these 
men now outnumber the 
Boer men four to one. 
They come from all coun- 
tries, but they are prevail- 
ingly men of English 
speech. They are gold 
hunters and adventurous 
spirits from Australia, 
from the Cape Colony, 
from England direct, to 
some extent from Cali- 
fornia and other parts of 
the United States, and in 
fact, like the Cidif ornia 
Argonauts, they have 
flocked to the gold fields 
from every portion of the 
world. The heart of the 
mining district is the new 



town of Johannesburg, which is said to be fast ap- 
proaching a hundred thousand population. The 
Uitlanders have for some time had many com- 
plaints against the administration of the Boer gov- 
ernment. The taxes fall chiefiy upon gold mining, 
or else apon the materials which the gold mining 
population find it necessary to import. The Boer 
government has refused to admit the English lan- 
guage into the public schools. The Uitlanders have 
demanded the right to vote and to participate in 
the government, but have been refused. 



Demands 

oftks 

"Uitlanders. ' 



It seems to be the unanimous opinion in 
England that the Uitlanders are justi- 
fied in demanding the suffrage. One 
little fact, however, seems to have been overlooked. 
As yet the Transvaal Republic is a sovereign country 
with its own allegiance and its own citizenship. Its 
Dutch citizens have no other country. But the 
new mining population of Uitlanders is made up 
of a great host of transients owning allegiance to 
foreign governments. We do not believe there 
is a single American in South Africa who would 
be willing to sacrifice his American citizenship 
in order to swear allegiance to the government 
of " Oom Paul " (Uncle Paul) Krflger, the valiant 




THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



143 



old head of the South African Republic. 
Nor do the Englishmen at Johannesburg, 
who think they ought to have a right to 
participate in the government of the Trans- 
Taal, propose for one moment to do any- 
thing that would cost them their English 
cJtJKCTiship. Inasmuch as the laws of the 
Transvaal require only two years' residence 
for naturalization, and then admit the nat- 
nralised citizen to a large share in the gov- 
ernment of the country, it may be ques- 
tioned whether the Uitlanders have been 
altogether moderate and considerate in the 
claims they have been making. They have 
asked the control of the government of the 
little farming republic which has permitted 
them to enter its borders and carry off its 
rich deposits of gold, without transferring 
their allegiance to it. 



From 

Jam—om'» 

PoiNt of ¥i€W, 



The difficulty between the 
Uitlanders and the Boer gov- 
ernment had been growing 
more and more critical for a year or two, 
and the outbreak of an organized revolu- 
tion seemed inevitable sooner or later. It 
had therefore appeared to Mr. Cecil Rhodes 
a discreet thing to permit Dr. Jameson to 
approach the boundaries of the Transvaal 
with an armed force, not in order to pro- 
mote a revolution or to upset the Boer gov- 
emment* but to help restore order and pro- 
tect life and property in case of the actual 
outbreak of the threatened revolution at 
Johannesburg. In this Mr. Rhodes does 
not seem to us to have acted otherwise 
tiian sensibly and prudently. It now appears that 
extremely urgent representations were at len^h 
Mnt to Dr. Jameson from the leaders of the Uit- 
landers at Johannesburg, assuring him that they 
were in the utmost danger for their lives, and beg- 
ing him in the name of humanity to come at once 
to their relief. Dr. Jameson saw that this mission 
oould only be accomplished vnth good effect by 
his acting promptly upon his own responsibility. 
Whereupon in order that his movements might not be 
countermanded by Mr. Cecil Rhodes or Sir Hercules 
Robinson (the English governor at Cape Town) or 
by Mr. Chamberlain at the British Colonial Office in 
London,- -and also in order that the Cape Town and 
London officials might be relieved from all suspicion 
of respQusibility for the i>os8ibly disastrous outcome 
of his march,— Dr. Jameson cut the telegraph wires 
behind him and dashed boldly into the Transvaal 
toward Johannesburg. Jameson's action seems to 
us to have been honorable in the highest sense, 
although it was extremely unfortunate. The Uit- 
landers, who had been importing arms for a long 
while and were in overwhelming numbers, did not 
■o much as lift a finger to aid the gallant fellow 
who had come to their relief at their own urgent 




PRESIDENT PAUL KBUOER OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. 

supplications ; and they allowed the Boers to cut 
his tired and half-starved force almost to pieces. 



Chamberlain, 

Rhodes and 

Kruger. 



Mr. Chamberlain, at the Colonial Office 
in London, acted with a cool head and 
great promptness. The invasion of the 
Transvaal was promptly disavowed, the Chartered 
Company was called to account, Dr. Jameson was 
superseded in his position as administrator, Mr. 
Cecil Rhodes resigned his prime ministership of 
Cape Colony, and suitable assurances were given to 
President Ertiger. Subsequently Kroger gave up 
Dr. Jameson and his companions, who had for some 
days been held as prisoners at Pretoria, and they 
were all turned over unconditionally to the British 
authorities, to be dealt with as offenders against the 
laws of England, which forbid invasion of the 
domain of a friendly power. Sir Gk)rdon Sprigg, a 
long-time friend and supporter of Mr. Cecil Rhodes, 
became prime minister at Cai>e Town, and it was 
reported that Mr. Rhodes had embarked for London, 
where the comparative dimensions of two large per- 
sonages, Chamberlain and Rhodes, will soon be noted 
by the public. Nothing whatever in the incident 
bids fair to destroy Mr. Rhodes' great influence as 



144 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 




MR. CECIL J. RHODES, OF CAPE COLONY AND '*RHODESLA.." 



the one prominent imperial figure looming high on 
the African horizon. Relations between the Trans- 
vaal and the British government will probably be 
adjusted without serious difficulty, although Presi- 
dent Kruger will doubtless hold out for a stiff 
indemnity, which the British South African Char- 
tered Company will be expected to pay. The ques- 
tion must be settled in England whether henceforth 
the new British territories shall be administered for 
England by the Chartered Company, or shall be 



brought directly under the x>olitical management of 
the British Colonial Office. In any case Mr. Cecfl 
Rhodes, as diamond king, gold king, railroad and 
telegraph builder, head of the industrial enterprises 
of the Chartered Company, and actual master of the 
X>olitical situation in the whole of South Africa, 
will continue to wield an undiminished influence 
and to make history on a large scale. He is still a 
young man, and considers his political career as 
scarcely yet begun. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



]45 



The excitement which stirred the 
AgaiJutaHrmanu, ^i^tiflh nation to its depths was not, 

however, chiefly due to the facts in 
tbe Sonth African sitnation itself. It resulted 
rather from the attitude which the German Em- 
peror unexpectedly assumed in sending a telegram 
of congratulation to President Krtiger. Dr. Leyd, 
the Secretary of the South African Republic and a 
member of President Krflger*s cabinet, happened 
to be in Berlin. His conferences with t^e German 
govermnent and the Emperor led to the report that 
C^ermany intended to insist upon the abrogation of 
tbe British suzerainty over the Transvaal Republic. 
The tone of the Emperor William's communication 
to President Er&ger certainly seemed to warrant 
the inference that Germany had been deliberately 
planning to sustain the Boers in cutting loose abso- 
lutely from their connection with the British 
empire. It appeared that Germany had endeavored 
to secure from Portugal permission to land troops 
in Delagoa Bay and to march them across the forty 
miles of coast strip which is owned by the Portu- 
guese and which separates the Transvaal Republic 
from the sea. It was imderstood that Portugal had 
refused to entertain any such proposition. Fur- 
thermore, it was reported that the German Emperor 
was endeavoring to secure the support of Russia 
■nd France in a policy designed to check British 
espansion in South Africa. 



Naval Demonstra- 
tions 
Unpreo dented. 




The British government certainly 
took these indications of German 
hostility as something grave and 
menacing. Activity, to a degree imprecedented in 
the modem history of England, was witnessed in 
all the British navy yards. Besides the imposing 
Channel fleet,— which though always ready for 




n 



JOCBEBT, or THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. 



DR. JAMESON. 

action was now strengthened, — a most formidable 
flying squadron was fitted out, composed of battle 
ships, cruisers and torpedo vessels. No intimation 
was given to the public as to the destination of the 
squadron, but its commissioning was evidently 
intended to serve the notice of ** hands off " on the 
E^aiser. British pride in the immensity and prowess 
of the navy never before reached the height that it 
exhibited in January. The bitterness of the English 
feeling expressed against Germany, and chiefly 
against the German Emperor personally, was amaz- 
ing. For a few days the situation qieemed to be a 
deeply critical one, but as we go to press the war 
talk has almost wholly subsided. No further indi 
cation has appeared of any intenion on the part of 
Germany to attempt openly and defiantly to deny 
England's suzerainty over the Transvaal. 

As to the future of the South African 
'^^nltniuMi!'' Republic there can be no serious doubt. 

The Uitlanders bid fair in a very few 
years to be ten times as numerous as the Boers. If 
the Boers, therefore, do not grant the demands of 
the Uitlanders, the newcomers will simply take the 
reins into their own hands, set up a government at 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 



."A 



^'W-^^'^Ti^^ 







BCKKCU SCIIEAHI^ BEFOtlE THB n^TEENATtOlfAl. 
FOOTLIGHTS. 

From Mooruhine (London). 



Peace and GKx>d Will. 
Prom the Evening Telegram, New York. 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 



149 




JOHN bull's movable VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY UNE.^ 

From the Evening World (New York)* 







**THS COMPLIMENTS OF THE SEASON ! I" 

P mema» m»t Cleveland : '* Waal, Salisbnir. Sir, whether 
yoa Ifk* it or not. We propose to arbitrate on this matter Our- 
•elTCik «ad, in that event. We shall abide by Our Own de- 



From Punch. London. 



TREADING ON JOHN BULL'S CORNS. 

From the Evening Telegram (New York). 




THE REI^IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 




AN OBSTREPEROUS YOUTH. 

Queen Vic: "Why, you wouldn't lick your grandma, 
would you, Willie?" 

NOW WILLIAM PUTS HIS FOOT IN IT. «_ o «- ^ ^ . i 

From San Francisco Chronicle. 

Jonathan : " Brother Bull seems to be a trifle techy about 

hevin' his map spiled, as well as I be/'— From Harper^a Weekly. 




A CARICATURE OF EMPEROR WILLIAM'S CARTOON. 

(See ProntiBpiece of Review of Reviews for January.) 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 



151 



3... i 1^ 




THE OONCKBT OF EUROPE. 

STwgmli Abdul of Turkey : ** Ton can blay your own musio ; but yoa 

will take ze time from me/' 

From the WtMtmiiut^ Budget (London). 



ARMENIANS APPEAL TO THE POWERS. 



Armenia (bitterly) : ** Quardsbips I But— will none of you 
draw the sword to save m« / " 

Prom Puncht (London). 



■^^ 




"^ 



'4^1*jv* 




GULLTriB CHAMBKELAIN : THE MAN OF THE MONTH IN 
GREAT ERITAIN. 



SALISBURY BLACKING CHAMBERLAIN'S SHOES : A 
PROPHESY. 



154 



THE REI^IEIV OF REI^IEWS. 



December 28.— The city government of Milwankee, 
Wis., occupies the new City Hall — The government of 
Manitoba appeals to the country on the school question ; 
a general election is ordered. 

December 24.— Dr. Montagrue resigns the office of 
Minister of State in the Canadian Cabinet, and accepts 
* that of Minister of Agriculture. 

December 26.— The government of Manitoba, in a 
formal reply to the Dominion government's apjieal for 
the establishment of separate schools, definitely rejects 
the proposition.. .Secretary Herbert, with the Presi- 
dent's approval, awards the contract for the construc- 
tion of battle-ships Nos. 5 and 6 to the Newport News 
(Va.) Company, at its bid of 12,250,000 for each ship. 

December 27.— The Board of Estimate of New York 
City appropriates 13,000,000 for street-cleaning in 1896. 
....The New York State Prison Coomussion recom- 
mends that convicts be employed in making supplies and 
doing work for public institutions. 

December 28.— Mayor Swift, of Chicago, accuses prom- 
inent citizens of bribing members of the Common Council 
to secure franchises. 

December 81.— New York City's budget for 1896 calls 
for $44,000,000 to be raised in taxes-16,500,000 more than 
in 1895.... The candidacy of (Governor Morton, of New 
York, for the Presidency is formally announced. 

January 1.— Legislatures meet in Maryland, Massa- 
chusetts, New York and Ohio ; a Reform Democrat (Mr. 
William Cabell Bruce) is chosen President of the Mary- 
land Senate ; in the other three states the Republicans 
are in control with large majorities ; the American Pro- 
« tective Association counts 78 members in the Massa- 
chusetts House... Representative R. H. Clarke (Dem., 
Ala.) announces that he will stand as a ** sound money '* 
candidate for Governor of Alabama against Joseph F. 
Johnston, the free-silver candidate. . . .The candidacy of 
Governor Morton, of New York, for the Republican 

nomination as President is officifdly announced Vil 

lages having an aggregate papulation of 16,000 and 
covering an area of twelve square miles are annexed to 
the city of Cincinnati, increasing the population to 855,- 
000. . . .Numa Dudoussat, convicted of bribery as a mem. 
ber of the New Orleans city council, begins to serve his 
three years' sentence in the penitentiary. 

January 2.— Inauguration of Governor Greenhalge, of 
Massachusetts.... Governor Clarke, of Arkansas, is an- 
nounced as a candidate for the Democratic nomination 
for United States Senator against Senator Jones.... 
Opening of the Canadian Parliament ; Lord Aberdeen 
declares remedial legislation concerning the Manitoba 
school question necessary. 

January 8.— Postmaster General Wilson appoints L. T. 
Myers, of Richmond, Va., to be Assistant General Super- 
intendent of the Railway Mail Service. 

January 4.— President Cleveland issues a proclamation 
admitting Utah to statehood. . . .All but four of the Cana- 
dian Ministers tender their resignations, in pursuance 
of a plan to make Sir Charles Tupper Premier in place 
of Sir Mackenzie Bowel 1. 

January 6.— President Cleveland asks bids for a public 
loan of $100,000, 000.... Inauguration of the first state 
officers of Utah. . . .The appellate and criminal branches 
of the New York Supreme Court are opened for busi- 
ness.... New York's claim for interest on money ex- 
I>ended for equipping troox>s in the Civil War is allowed 
by the United States. 



January 7.— Legislatures meet in Kentucky and Mis- 
sissippi.... The Pennsylvania Senate oonmiittee elidts 
testimony showing corruption in the Philadelphia police 
department. . . .Mayor Strong, of New York City, sends 
his annual message to the Board of Aldermen. 

January 8. —Lloyd Lowndes is inaugurated Governor of 

Maryland A statehood convention in Oklahoma 

breaks up in a fight among the representatives of rival 
cities. . . .In the New York Senate, a state liquor tax bill 
is introduced. 

January 9.— A letter is made public from President 
Cleveland, replying to new8pai>er attacks, in connection 
with the new bond issue. . . .The New York Senate votes 
for investigation of the Greater New York question. 

January 10. — GK>vemor Bradley's message to the legis- 
lature of Kentucky urges reform and economy in all de- 
partments of the government.... Senator Blackburn 
(Dem.) is renominated by the Democratic legislature 
caucus in Kentucky. 

January 11. -The Republican member^ of the Ken- 
tucky legislature nominate Representative Gk)dfrey 
Hunter for United States Senator. 

January 18.— Asa S. Bushnell is inaugurated Governor 
of Ohio.... The New York legislature adopts the reso- 
lution for a joint committee of inquiry on the Greater 
New York question. . . .Meeting of the Iowa legislature. 

January 14.— Governor Upham, of Wisconsin, issues a 
call for a special session of the legislature to convene 
February 18 to consider a bill reapportioning the state 

into legislative districts according to the new census 

Meeting of the New Jersey and South Carolina legisla- 
tures. 

January 15.— Joseph B. Foraker (Rep.) is chosen United 

States Senator from Ohio, to succeed Calvin S. Brice 

Senator Allison (Rep.) is renominated by the Iowa Re- 
publican legislative caucus. Delegate Frank J. Cannon 
and Arthur Brown are nominated for the United States 

Senate by the Republicans of the Utah legislature 

Secretary Carlisle modifies the bond call by extending 

the time in which payments can be made Thomas 

Greenway is re-elected Premier of Manitoba, and the 
sex>arate-schools party is defeated by a large majority. . . . 
The six Canadian Cabinet Ministers who recently re- 
signed return to office; Sir Charles Tupper, Sr., also 
takes a portfolio. 

January 16.— Inauguration of Governor Drake, of Iowa. 
. . . .The Democratic national oonmiittee decides to hold 
the next national convention in Chicago, July 7. 

POLITICS AND OOVERNMBNT-FORBIGN. 

December 19.— The Italian Chamber of Deputies ap- 
proves the credits asked for by the government for the 
Abyssinian campaign, votes confidence in tUe ministry 
(255 to 148) and adjourns till January 20, 1896. 

December 21.— The Italian Senate approves the Abys- 
sinian credits The Chinese march into Port Arthur 

and hoist their fiag. 

December 22.— Riot in Tarragon >i, Si>ain, resulting 
from the levjring of octroi duties. 

December 23.— Augustus William Lawson Hemming is 
appointed Governor of British Guiana to succeed Sir 
Charles C. Lees. 

December 25.— The Sultan of Turkey officially an- 
nounces the appointment of three Chr istians as «a<>if«t«p 



RECORD OF CURRENT El^ENTS. 



155 



gorernors in Siyaa Bitlis, and Erzeromn. . . .A new law 
in Hondnras enlarges the liberties of the press. 

December 27.— French Chamber votes a supplementary 
credit for equipping gnmboats for the far East and Cochin 
China. . . .Indian National Congress opened. 

December 28.— The Japanese Parliament is opened ; 
the Emperor sends a message of congratulation over the 
result of the war with China. 

December 90.— The decree defining the powers of the 
French Resident in BCadagascar is published in Paris. 

January 1.— The Hawaiian government releases all the 
remaining political prisoners. 

January 3.— Decrees of the Si>anish government are 
pobbshed at Havana, Cuba, placing the provinces of 
Havana and Pinar del Rio under martial law« establish- 
ing a stricter censorship over the press, and placing all 
hoTBes at the disposal of the government at a fixed price. 

January 5.— Cecil Rhodes resigns the Premiership of 
the Cape Colony. 

January 6.— Sir J. Gk>rdon Sprigg is appointed Premier 
of the Cape Colony to succeed Cecil Rhodes. . . .The resig- 
nation of Captain-Gtoneral Campos, in command of the 
Spaniih forces in Cuba, is announced. 

January 9.— Reassembling of the Qerman Reichstag. 

January 10.— Twenty-two persons at Johannesburg, in 
the Transvaal, indndi^ a brother of Cecil Rhodes, are 
arrested for treason. 

January 11.— The Italian Parliament is prorogued. . . . 
Dr. Jameeon is removed from the position of Admims- 
trmtor of Hashonaland, and is succeeaed by F. J. New- 
ton, Secretary of the British Colony of Bechuanaland. 

January 14.— The flying squadron of the British Navy, 
onmiBting of twenty-one ships from the reserve, goes 
into oomnusBion on five days* notice. 

January 15.— The British Gk>vemment decides to bring 
Dr. Jameeon and his officers to London for trial. 

January 16. — M. Loubet, formerly President of the 
French Ministry, is elected President of the Senate. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

December 20?— In accordance with the advice of Min- 
ister Terrell, the government of the United States de- 
cides to remove American missionaries and citizens from 
the disaffected district of Marash, in Asia Minor. 

December 21.— Senous fighting reported bet ween Turk- 

iih troops and the Druses near Antioch Armenians im- 

prisoned in Constan^ople without specific accusations 
are released. 

December 23.— The International Arbitration Society 
at London reasserts its demand for arbitration of the 
Venexuelan boundary dispute, while regretting Presi- 
dent Cleveland's attitude — Portuguese Government in- 
taeum King Qungunhana that complete submission is 
Mm— ry prriiminary to negotiations for peace. 

December 34.— The American Peace Society passes a 
renlution calling on Great Britain and the United States 
to recede from their present positions on the Venezuelan 
boundary dispute.... Powers offer to mediate between 
the Parte and the Armenian insurgents at Zeitum. 

December 25.— The relations between Austria and the 
Vatican are barmonixed, the Papal Nuncio Agliardi hav- 
ing been recalled. 

December 26.— Extradition treaty between France and 
HoDflad ratified. 

Dtcember 20.— Dr. Jameson leads five hundred armed 



men across the Transvaal ttou^et to aid the Uitlanders 
against the Boers. 

January 1.— President Cleveland appoints Justice 
Brewer, of the United States Supreme Court ; Justice 
Al vey, of the District of Columbia Court of Appeals ; Mr 
Frederic R. Coudert, of New York ; President Gilmau, of 
the Johns Hopkins University, and ex-Minister Andrew 
D. White, as Commissioners to determine the true divis. 
sional line between Venezuela and British Guiana. ... Dr. 
Jameson, Administrator of the British South Africa 
Comi)any, leading a force of less than 500 armed'men into 
the territory of the South African Bepublic in the Trans- 
vaal, engages in battle with 2,000 Dutch Boers who oc- 
cupy a strong position near Kriigersdorp ; his action is 
promptly disavowed by Great Britain. 

January 2.— Dr. Jameson's force is repulsed by the 
Boers, and after a serious loss of life is compelled to sur- 
render ; the Boers make prisoners of the entire i>arty 

near Johannesburg Lord Aberdeen, in his si>eech at 

the opening of the Dominion Parliament, announces the 
signing of a joint report by the Commissioners of the 
United States and Canada on the Alaska boundary. . . . 
The London Chronicle begins the publication of impor- 
tant cabled correspondence from its special representa- 
tive at Washington sent to investigate the state of feel* 
ing on the Venezuela boundary question. 

January 8.— Emperor William of Germany congratu- 
lates President Krilger of the South African Bepublic 
on his victory over Dr. Jameson's force ; the message is 
interpreted as hostile to Great Britain.... The Turkish 
government grants permisson to the Americans at Har- 
I>oot to distribute relief to the Armenians there. 

January 4.— Justice Brewer is elected chairman of the 
Venezuelan Boundary Commission. 

January 7.— Delegate Palma, representing the Cuban 
revolutionary government in this coimtry, lays before 
Secretary of State Olney the complete history of the 
present rebellion, from the insurgents' point of view, and 
appeals to the United States for recognition of the bel- 
ligerent rights of the revolutionists The Evangelical 

Alliances of the United States and Great Britain open a 
week's season of prayer in concert for peace between the 
nations. 

January 9.— The British Colonial Office denies the re- 
port that British troops have trespassed on Venezuelan 
disputed territory. . . . Mr. Henry Norman, special repre- 
sentative at Washington of the London Chronicle^ con- 
cludes his service in that capacity by obtaining the views 
of members of Cong^ress. 

January 10.— The Abyssinians make three attacks on 
the town of Makalle, but are repulsed with heavy loss. 
The Italians lose five killed and twenty wounded. 

January 11.— Sir Claude McDonald is appointed British 
Minister to China, in place of Sir Nicholas O'Conor, re- 
cently appointed Ambassador to Russia.... The Italian 
troops again repel the Abyssinians at Makalle. . . . Presi- 
dent Crespo of Venezuela appoints a commission to 
search for data concerning the British Guiana boundary 
line, in order to assist the United States Commission. 

January 18.— Senator Gray (Dem., Del) introduces a 
bill in the Senate to repeal that section of the Revised 
Statutes which imposes a penalty on any one who corre- 
sponds with an officer of a foreign government v^th in- 
tent to infiuence such government in relation to any 
dispute with the United States. . . .The Turkish Govern- 
ment refuses to permit the Red Cross Society to distrib- 
ute reUef funds among the Armenians.... The Abyssin. 
ians are again repulsed at Makalle. 



]56 



THE REI^IEW OF REI^IEWS. 



January 14.— ^e International Arbitration Leagne, at 
London, appoints a committee to forward the movement 
for a permanent arbitration court to decide questions 
between the United States and Great Britain. 

January 15.— The Chengtu Commission appointed by 
the United States, consisting of Consul Read, Lieuten- 
ant-Conmiander Merrell, and Mr. Chesh* 
ire, receives unusual honors in China. 

INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL AND 
FINANCIAL DOINGS. 

December 19.— The strike of steamfit- 
ters in New York City, involving many 
sympathetic strikes, is brought to an end, 
the men modifying their demand that 
piping should not be cut by machinery, 
but asking that it should be done by union 
men only. 

December 20.— The Philadelphia trolley 
car strikers seek the aid of Eugene V. 
Debs, and ez-President McBride, of the 
American Federation of Labor.... Three 
Wall Street firms of brokers suspend as 
a result of the fall in stocks caused by the 
war scare. . .There is an average drop of 
five points in American securities on the 
London stock market. 

December 21.— The president of the 
Union Traction Comi)any, of Philadel- 
phia, refuses the settlement agreea to by 
the striking motormen and conductors 
. . .Two more Wall Street failures are an- 
nounced. 

December 23.— The strike of motormen 
and conductors on the Philadelphia trol- 
ley lines is settled, the terms of agree- 
ment being that the men shall go to work 
on the old basis and under the old rules 

The Memphis Cotton Exchange adopts 

resolutions reconmiending to producers 
that the acreage of cotton be not increased 
over that of the past season. 

December 24. — The Boston Clearing 
House Association decides to issue to its 
members certificates similar to those is- 
sued by the New York Clearing House. 

W. Q. Hopper & Co., bankers and 

brokers, of Philadelphia, assign. 

December 26. — Some of the Philadel- 
phia trolley men again go on strike, but 
a temporary settlement is effected.... The coke com- 
Iianies of the Connellsville district of Pennsylvania an- 
nounce an advance of from 10 to 15 per cent, in wages 
for all grades of labor. 

December 28.— Trust comiianies take most of the new 
Philadelphia 3^ per cent, loan of $1,000,000 — The price 
of coke is advanced 25 per cent. 

December 27.— The Interstate Commerce Commission 
takes steps to dissolve the recently-formed Joint Traffic 
Association of the leading railroads of the country. 

December 31.— A new bond syndicate, under the direc- 
tion of J. Pierpont Morgan, is formed for the purpose of 
selling 1200,000,000 in gold to the government of the 
United States. . . .The Philadelphia Bourse, the first gen- 
eral exchange to be erected in the United States, is dedi- 
cated The Atlanta Exposition is formally closed ; the 



turnstiles indicate an attendance, since the opening day 
(September 18), of 1,288,863 persons, of whom 817,028 
paid for admission ; the total receipts approximate 
$1,250,000, and are not exceeded by the expenditures. 

January li— The Santa F6 railway system is trans- 
ferred by the receivers to the new organization.... A 




By oourtesy of SMpving and Comaneroial Liat. 

NEW BUILDING OF THB NEW YORK CLEARHVO HOUSE. 
Dedicated January 15, 1898. 

strong combination of the ice companies of New York 
City and vicinity is effected. 

January 3.— A recond strike of motormen and con- 
ductors of the Philadelphia Union Traction Company re- 
sults in failure. 

January 6.— Eight hundred members of the Stonecut- 
ters* Union, employed in 26 stoneyards in Chicago, strike 
because of the use of stone-cutting machines by their 
employers, working from 16 to 24 hours a day ; they de- 
mand an eigbt-bour day for the machines^ with union cut- 
ters to operate them. 

January 8.— The bituminous coal miners of Indiana de- 
mand an advance in the mining scale from 60 to 66 cents, 
to take effect April 1, when the Pittsburgh price is to be 
advanced from 64 to 70 cents. 

January 9.— Under instructions from the Attorney- 



RECORD OF CURRENT EI^pnTS. 



157 



O«oeral, action ia begun against the Joint Traffic ABBocia- 
Hon. 

January 10.— Charles W. Smith Is appointed receiver 
of the Atlantic and Pacific Bailroad by Judge Collier at 
Albnqnerqne, N. M....The New York Life Insurance 
Company withdraws its subscription of 110,000,000 from 
the Morgan bond syndicate. 

January 11.— Failure of the Keen-Sutterle Company, 
leather importers, of Philadelphia. 

January 18.— The rolling-mills of Birmingham, Ala., 
grant puddlers an additional 25 cents a ton, and all other 
employees an advance of 2 per cent, in wages. 

January 15.— Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan announces the 
diflBolution of the syndicate formed to purchase United 

States bonds The new building of the New York 

Clearing House Association is dedicated with appro- 
priate ceremonies. 

January 16.— Employees of the Westinghouse Electric 
Company, Pittsburgh, strike because of a 25 i>er cent, re* 
doctioii in wages. 

NOTABLE QATHBRIN08. 

December 19.— In New York City a dinner is held in 
celebration of the centennial anniversary of the com- 
mercial treaty which John Jay negotiated between the 
United States and Great Britain ; many prominent i>er- 
soBs are present, and speeches are made in eulogy of Jay 
andhia work. 

December 20. —Meeting of the Indian Rights Associa- 
tion at Philadelphia. 

December 2L^The 275th anniversary of the landing of 
the Pilgrims is celebrated at Plymouth, Mass.: Senator 
Roar is the orator of the day. 





CARDINAL 8ATOLLI, 

Who received the red hat at Baltimore, January 6, 18e6b 



DR. JOHN SHAW BILLINOS, 

Appointed chief librarian of consolidated New York 
libraries. 

December 26-81. — Meetings of various scientific and 
literary societies having a membership composed largely 
of university and college instructors. Among these may 
be mentioned, the American Society of Naturalists, the 
American Physiological Association, the G^eological So- 
ciety of America, the Association of American Anato- 
mists, the American Morphological Society, and the 
American Psychological Association, all in session at the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia ; the thir- 
teenth annual meeting of the Modem Language Associ- 
ation of America at Yale University, the American His- 
torical Association at Washington, D. C, and the Ameri- 
can Economic Association (in joint session with the 
Political Science Association of the Central States) at 
Indianapolis. 

December 30.— A great Armenian relief meeting in the 
Boston City Hall is addressed by Miss Clara Barton, of 
the Red Cross Society. 

January 5.— The Cardinal's beretta is conferred on Mgr. 
Satolli in the Baltimore Cathedral in the presence of the 
leading Roman Catholic dignitaries of the country. 

EDUCATIONAL AFFAIRS. 

December 20.— Deputation to Sir Michael Hicks-Beach 
on British Church aid to university colleges. 

December 27.— The New York Association of Academic 
Principals appoints a committee to confer with the col- 
leges on uniform entrance requirements. 

December 28.— A bill to establish a national university 



168 



THE REI^IEW OF REI^IEIVS. 



at Washington is introduced in both houses of Congress; 
it authorizes co-operative relations with other institu- 
tions in the country. 

December 30.— Birs. Elizabeth G. Kelly, of Chicago, 
promises to erect a chapel for the University of Chicago, 
to cost $100,000. 

January 2.- Houston Hall, a club-house at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, is dedicated. . .Formation of the 
Brookljm (N. Y.) Public Library Association. 




MR. W. L. COURTHOPB, 
Professor of Poetry at Oxford. 

January 8.— Dr. John Shaw Billings is appointed su- 
I)erintending librarian of the consolidated New York 
Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden foundations, 

January 10.— It is announced that there will be no 
more morning prayers at Wellesley College until a chai>el 
shall be provided large enough to accommodate all the 
students. 

January 11.— Founder's Day is observed at Cornell 
University; President Schurman, Andrew Carnegie, 
and others make addresses. 

January 15.— Twelve students are expelled from the 
University of North Carolina for hazing and conduct 
unbecoming gentlemen. 

CASUALTIES. 

December 19.— An explosion of gas in a bituminous 
coal mine in Chatham County, North Carolina, causes 
the loss of 38 lives. 

December 20.— An explosion of firedamp in the Nelson 
mine, near Dayton, Tenn., kills 24 miners.... Floods 
cause much destruction in the Mississippi Valley. 

December 22.— The British steamer AHcxcl, bound for 
Bilboa, is sunk in collision with the British steamer Netley 
Abbey, from London for Blythe, Eng.; five persons are 
drowned.... The International Navigation Company's 
steamship Berlin runs into and sinks the British ship 
WiUowbank, about thirty miles southeast of Portland, 

Eng The Red D Line steamship Nausemond is sunk 

off the island of Oruba, in the Caribbean Sea, after col- 
lision with the Spanish steamship Mexico; eight are 
drowned. 

December at.— Severe gales are reported along the 
English and Irish coasts ; many vessels are lost. 



December 25. — Fhe French steasner Emile-H^loise is 
run down and sunk, off the coast of Algiers, by the British 
steamer Bellerophan^ and thirty passengers ore drowned. 

December 27.— More than twenty persons are killed in 
a panic caused by a cry of fire in a Baltimore theatre. 

December 81.— The British four-masted steel ship 
Janet Cotoan goes ashore on rocks near Carmanah Point, 
Vancouver Island, and becomes a total loss; her captain, 
M. A. Thompson, and six of the crew lose their lives. 

January 2.— Six persons are killed in a fire at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, caused by an explosion of natural gas. 

CRIME AND VIOLENCE. 

December 29.— Near Lebanon, Ky., a woman is burned 
aliye in her house, and a man is shot to death, by a mob. 

January 5.— (Governor Morton, of New York, receives 
a statement from John McGh>ugh, a prisoner in Clinton 
prison, to the effect that he fired the shot which killed 
Robert Roes in the election riot at Troy in 1894, and for 
which Bartholomew Shea had been sentenced to death; 
Governor Morton reprieves Shea for 28 days. 

January 9.— The Grand Jury returns an indictment 
against Chief Justice Snodgrass, of Tennessee, for 
felonious assault. 

January 10.— A murderer in Niagara County, New 
York, is pursued and shot to death by a posse. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. 

December 19.— The jury in the case of Sheriff Tamsen, 
of New York, fails to agree on a verdict.... The New 
York Court of Appeals decides in favor of Erastus 
Wiman in the forgery case. 

December 28.— The United States Supreme Court de 
cides that abraded coins are a legal tender. 




GENERAL BARATIERI, 

Commander-in-Chief of the Italian Army in Erythria, 

December 27.— The investigating committee of the 
New Tork Yacht Club begins inquiry into the charges 
made by Lord Dunraven against the management of the 
Defender in the races of September last; Lord Dunraven 
is examined and cross-examined at leng^; the sessions 
are secret. 



RECORD OF CURRENT El^ENTS. 



159 



December 26.— Great demonBtration in Havana, Cuba 
in honor of Captain-General Campos . . .Baron von Ham- 
merstein, who left Germany under charges of f orger>' 
and embezzlement, is arrested in Athens under direct 
arden from Emperor William. 

December 20.— Celebration of Bfr. Gladstone's eighty- 
lixth birthday. 

December 31. — Alfred Austin is appointed Poet Lau- 
reate of England The New York Yacht Club commit- 
tee completes its inquiry into Lord Dunraven's charges. 

Janoary 1.— The ** Tournament of Roses,** an annual 
fkirml fSte. at Pasadena, CaL, is attended by ten thou- 
Btnd visitors.... An ice palace is oi>ened at Leadville, 
Cok). 

January 7.— The report of the Americana Cup Commit- 
tee on the Defender-Vcukyrie III. races is made public. 

January 13.— Prince Leopold of Prussia resigns his com- 
mand in the German Army as a result of a quarrel with 
Emperor William. 

January 15.~Conunander Ballington Booth and Mrs. 
Booth, of the Salvation Army, announce their recall ft^m 
work in the United States. 



OBITUARY. 
December 20.— Rev. Dr. Josiah Tyler, for forty years 
i missionary of the American Board among the Zulus of 
South Africa. .. .Charles Frederic Williams, the well- 
known writer of legal works, 53. 




THI LATE NATHANIEL OEOROB CLARK, D.D. 

I>ecember 21.— Samuel T. Shugert, of Pennsylvania, 
CommiaBioner of Patents under President Buchanan, 87. 

December 22.— Gen. James C. Veatch, of Indiana, 76. 

December 38.— Sergius Michael Dragomanoflf Stepniak 

(pneudonym), the Russian nihilist, 54 George Godol- 

phinUKborne, ninth Duke of Leeds, 67. ..John Russell 

Hind, the English astronomer, 72 Sir Edward James 

Harlacd. member of the British Parliament for North 
Belfast, Ireland, since 1889, 64.... Daniel Newhall, a 
pioneer of Milwaukee, Wis., and prior to the Civil War 
the largest grain-shipper in the West, 74. 



December 24.— William John Pitz Patrick, a well- 
known Irish author, 65.... Re v. Dr. G^rge W. Dame, 
Rector Emeritus of the Church of the Epiphany, New 
Yoik City, 83. 

December 25. — James Chauncey Johnson, music writer 
and teacher, 75.... John De Haven White, known as 
** the father of American dentistry, *' 80. 

December 26.— Rt. Rev. Acigius Junger, D.D., Roman 
Catholic Bishop of Nisqually, comprising the state of 
Washington and part of Oregon.... George W. Lawe, 
one of the oldest white men born within the limits of 
the present state of Wisconsin, 85. 

December 27.— George Wellington Dillingham, the 
well-known New York publisher, 54.... Captain James 
Prentice Butler, of Saratoga, N. Y., 79. . . .General Meer- 
Bcheidt HtUlesen, commander of the German Garde du 
Corps. 

December 28.— William H. Wallis, a veteran American 
actor, 70. . . .Robert F. Walsh, of New York City, a well- 
known writer, 37 William Ag^r Booth, prominent in 

religious and philanthropic work, 90. 

December 29.— Charles H. Bulkley, president of the 
Park and Boulevard Commission, of Cleveland, C, 53. . . . 
Russel Arnold Ballon, Universalist editor and lecturer, 
68 Rev. Myron Adams, of Rochester, N. Y. 

December 30.— Lady Fanny Gregory (Mrs Stirling), 
the English actress, 78 — Kenton C. Murray, editor of 
the Norfolk (Va.) Landmark. 

December 31.— Stephen P. Irwin, one of the earliest 
cotton manufacturers in New England, 98. 

January 1.— Alfred Ely Beach, for nearly fifty years 
active in the editorship of the Scienti/lo American, 70. 
....Mrs. Patty Vinton Richardson, of Bethel, Vt., who 
drew a pension as the widow of a Revolutionary soldier, 
95. . . .John B. Blair, artist and inventor, 95. 

January 2.— Judge Aristee Louis Tissot, a prominent 
New Orleans Democrat, 57. . . .Prof. James Webb Rogers, 

of Bladensburg, Md., 74 Hubert Joseph Walther 

Fr^re-Orban, Belgian advocate and politician, 83. 

January 3.— Rev. Dr. Nathaniel G^eorge Clark, for many 
years secretary of the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, 71. 

January 4.— Commander Louis Kingsley, U. S. N 

Judge Henry A. Moore, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 70. . . .Prince 

Alexander of Prussia, General of Infantry, 75 Dr. 

Joseph Hubert Reinkens, one of the leaders in the ** Old 
Catholic" movement in Germany, 74.... Alfred Henri 
Marie Jacquemart, a well-known French sculptor, 72. 

January 5.— Bfrs. Mary Esther Miller, of Springfield, 
Mass., a writer on New England life and manners, 70. 
. . . .Captain George W. Couch, one of the veteran steam- 
ship commanders of the Old Dominion Line, TZ. 

January 6.— Col. Thomas Wallace Knox, author of 
many popular juvenile books, 61 Major James Clar- 
ence Post, U. S. A....Gen. Mortimer Dormer Leggett, 
of Cleveland, C, 75.... Gen. William Polke Lasselle, 50. 
.. . .Count de Laubespin, Senator for Nievre, France, 85. 

January 7.— Sir Julian Goldsmid, member of the Brit- 

i8h Parliament, 58 John W. Coleman, founder of the 

San Francisco Stock and Exchange Board, 61 Charles 

Frederick Dietz-Mounin, Life Senator of France, 69 

Herr Reclam, the Leipsic publisher E^dward B.Wilson, 

of Kingston, Ont., major in the late Royal Canadian 
Rifles, 71 — M. Felix Francois Deville, member of the 
French Chamber of Deputies, 85. 

January 8.— Circuit Court Judge Taylor Berry, of Vir- 



160 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



ginia Baron Blackbom, 83 ...Paul Verlaine, the 

French poet, 51 ... . Cardinal Goiscppe Maria Granniello, 

62.... Senator Kanlbach, of Nova Scotia CoL James 

A. Green, ot Milledgedlle, Ga., 80 ...Ex-Governor Will- 
iam R. Marshall, of Minnesota, 73 (reported dead April 
4, 1895). 

January 0.— Eugene B. Wight, for twenty-five years 
Washington correspondent of Chicago newspapers, 52. 

January 10.— Bev. Dr. William Morton Postlethwaite, 
chaplain of the United States Military Academy at West 
Point Thomas Dunlap, the oldest member of Tam- 
many Hall, 80.... Walter Clark Nichols, a writer in the 
empioy of Harper & Brothers. 

January 11.— Ex-Senator G^eorge Q. Wright, of Iowa, 
76 — Most Rev. Robert Samuel Gregg, D.D., Protestant 
Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland.... Gton. Francis Chan- 
ning Barlow, of New York, 62 Isaac Wilson, a Demo- 
cratic member of the Kentucky House. 

January 14.— Chief Judge John M. Robinson, of the 
Maryland Court of Appeals, 68. . . . Mayor Henry S. Tyler, 
of Louisville, Ky., 44 Judge William S. Shurtleff, of 




By courtesy of the Scierdific American. 

THE LATE ALFRED ELY BEACH, 
Editor of the Scientific American. 

Springfield, Mass., 66 Gen. Charles A. Heckman, of 

Philadelphia, 73 

January 15.— Reginald Windsor Sackville, seventh Earl 
De-La- Warr, 79. 



January 16. — Ex-CongresBman Nathaniel Barrati* 
Smithers, of Delaware, 78. . . .Gen. Edward B. FowltjT, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 69. 



FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 

MSXTINQ OF THE BRITISH PARLIAJOEXT. 

The British Parliament will be reconvened on Fe' 
ruary 11. 

INTERCX)LLBOIATB DEBATES.* 

The annual Cornell-Pennsylvania debate will take 
place this year at Ithaca, on Washington's Birthday, 
February 22. The subject will be, " Resolved, That the 
federal government should provide by public taxation 
for the establishment and maintenance of a national 
university at Washington.'* 

The Harvard-Princeton debate will be held at Cam- 
bridge, March 13, on the question, "Resolved, That 
Congreis should take immediate steps toward the com- 
plete retirement of all legal tender notes," Princeton 
taking the affirmative and Harvard the negative. 

The Yale-Harvard debate will be held at New Haven 
early in May, but particulars have not yet been an- 
nounced. 

FOREIGN EXPOSITIONS OP 1896. 

The opening of the Mexican International Exixwition, 
originally set for April 2, 1896, has been i)ostponed six 
months, in order to admit of the completion of th^^ 
grounds and buildings. 

The cpreat exx>o6ition to be held at Budapest in cele- 
bration of the millennium of Hungary will be opened 
with imposing ceremonies on May 2, 1896, by the Em 
peror Francis Joseph, and it will remain open continu- 
ously till the end of October. The fair will be a purely 
national institution, only such wares being exhibited as 
are produced in Hungary, or the component parts of 
which are raised on Hungarian soil. 

An International Exhibition for Navigation and Fish- 
eries is to be held at Kiel from May 13 to September 90, 
under the auspices of the German (Government. It is 
exi>ected that the United States will make a river and 
harbor exhibit similar to that displayed at Chicago, and 
adso a fisheries exhibit. 

An International Art Exhibition is to be held at Ber- 
lin from May to October next. United States Consul- 
General De Kay, at Berlin, reports to the State Depart- 
ment that he has secured an allotment of room for 
American artists, and a promise from the president of 
the exhibition committee that the American artists 
shall have the same privileges as artists in Liondon and 
Paris, viz. : Their works shall be selected by a committee 
in New York appointed from home artists and art lovers 
and shall be brought to Berlin and returned to New 
York free of charge. The Consul-General says he could 
secure yet more liberal treatment if there were some 
expression of opinion in America to indicate the prob- 
ability of a large and representative collection of home 
work being brought together. 

THE TU8KEOEE CONFERENCE. 

The annual Tuskegee Negro Conference will be held 
at Tuskegee, Ala., under the auspices of the Normal &v.A 
Industrial Institute, of which Mr. Booker T. Waahingt* 
is the head, on March 4. 



THE STORY OF CRIPPLE CREEK, 



161 




'TUE&K WERE KO HOUSES U£RE WHEN THESE FIVE MSN ROCKING THIS PAN CAMPED IN THE OULCH/ 



THE STORY OF CRIPPLE CREEK 



BY CY WARMAN. 



THERE were no houses here when these five men 
rocking this pan camped in the gnlch. One 
of their burros had gone lame and they had stopped 
to rest him; but when they washed out some of the 
and and got gold they decided to prospect. They 
built a cabin. One of them fell from the top of it, 
Ut on the dog, broke the dog's leg and his own arm, 
making three cripples in the camp; and they called 
rt Cripple Creek. The creek itself is about a yard 
wide. These men knew that ten years prior to 
their coining a man had salted a claim at Mt. 
Pisgah, not more than a mile from where they 
WCTe, got himself talked about and came very nearly 
getting hanged. But they knew other things as 
wen, and among them gold. So they stayed and 
prospected and others came. The whole country 
was at that time a cattle range. During the year 
18dl a number of locations were made, some pay 
dirt f oond, and stories of the camp began to appear 
in the Denver papers. In the spring of 1892 people 
were crazy over Creede, and went there by hundreds 
and hy twos and fours to Cripple Creek, and in that 

way Uie gold camp was kept back a year at least. 

Cripple Creek is at the foot of Pike's Peak on the 



west, by rail one hundred and thirty-three miles 
from Denver; and just over on the east side is Colo- 
rado Springs, a smart little city, full of young men. 
All through 1892 these youthful ** brokers " swag- 
gered about the hotels transferring mining shares 
by the tens and hundreds of thousands as carelessly 
as they exchanged cigarettes. A prospect hole 
would be stocked at 1100,000 and the shares would 
probably sell for a quarter of a cent, and that was 
too much. In the meantime the Sherman law was 
repealed, silver went down, many of the silver 
mines and some of the camps were closed, and the 
prospectors went out in search of gold. Experi- 
enced miners took the places of those who were 
guessing in the new camp; men with whiskers and 
ihoney crowded the boy brokers off the walks at 
Colorado Springs, and things began to get them- 
selves on solid ground. 

Two stage lines, one from Divide on the Colorado 
Midland, the other from Cafion City on the Denver 
and Rio Grande, carried people to and from the 
camp. In 1893 the Midland Terminal Railroad 
began building from Divide, and in 1894 the Flor- 
ence and Cripple Creek Railroad was built to con- 



162 



THE REyiElV OF REI^IEIVS. 




THE RUSH TO CRIPPLE CREEK. SUMMER OF '94. 



nect with the Rio Grande. It required nerve to 
build a railroad in Colorado at that time, and Mr. 
H. CoUbran made more than one trip to New York 
before he secured the money necessary to build the 
Midland Terminal President Johnson of the F. & 
C. C. was more fortunate, being backed by Mr. D. 
H. Moffat, who furnished 78 per cent, of the money 
for that road, which, I believe, paid from the first 
month. Moffat is a Midas, and when he puts up 
his ** 51 per cent.'' capital rushes to him from every 
comer of the country. 

This latter line, which was expected to haul ore to 
Florence for a dollar a ton, was barely opened when 
the miners, backed by an erratic governor whose 
mind was always troubled in times of peace, went 
on a senseless strike,* and so the camp was given 
another year's setback. 

But gold! gold! was the magic word, and the trail 
blazed by the amateur prospector and the beardless 
brokers, who were the real pioneers, was followed 
up until all the West knew about Cripple Creek and 
believed in it. 

During the summer of 1892 an old man, ** grub- 
staked " by his son, who was a locomotive fireman 
on the Midland Railroad, sunk a hole on Summit 
Hill. When he could no longer throw the dirt out 
he would lower his bucket, climb down the ladder, 
fill the bucket, climb out and haul the dirt up after 
him. In this way the patient old man succeeded in 
the course of two or three months in sinking a shaft 
thirty feet deep. Here he struck gold— gold that he 
could see with his naked eye, bedimmed as it was 
by age; and, being offered $40,000, sold the claim 
and went away. Fifty feet from that shaft I have 
seen them ploughing up the dirt with a street plough, 
throwing away only the sod, and hauling *' the 
scenery " down to the stamp mill. A hundred yards 



to the west I have seen them 
picking out and sorting the 
storm- stained rocks that for 
centuries have lain bare, catch- 
ing the summer's sun and win- 
ter's snow, and they, too, went 
to the milL 

Another railway employee 
staked a ranchman, with whose 
daughter he was in love, and 
they found gold ; and the young 
man foimd something better 
than gold, in a happy marriage 
with the ranchman's daughter. 
One need not romance hera 
The simple true tales of the 
many poor men who have found 
fortunes, great and small, in 
this godsend to Colorado in her 
silver calamity, would make 
good reading if well told. 
1 remember the first graphic 
description I had of Cripple Creek. I was making 
my first pilgrimage to the new find, and when we 
had left the railroad and piled into the old rickety 
Concord coach, I asked my via-a-vis if the camp 
were lively. He was from Texas, and his dark 
mustache hung over his mouth like a horseshoe over 
a door. 

*' I reckon seau," he said, with the hard pedal on 
the so. *' Two stage lines, two telegraph lines, two 
dance halls, two hotels, time locks on the dinin' rum 
do's, waite's on rolah-skates an' head waite's on 
hossback — I reckon we'er pnrt nigh in it." 




• This strike cost the Stat« $ia'),000. $HO.O0O of which fell 
upon El Paso Couuty.— C'ripp/c CretK Illuatrated.^W&rren & 
Stride. 



THE MAN WHO LOCATED THE EL PASO, THE FIRST Mm 
IN CRIPPLE CREEK. — STILL A MINER. 

Then there was a long, tiresome ride of sixteen 
miles (now thirty-one by rail) over a new road that 



THE STORY OF CRIPPLE CREEK. 



1G3 





THE GREAT UTE AND HIS SQUAW. THE MASONIC TEMPLE. 

SCENES ON THE ROAD TO CRIPPLE CREEK. 



had been made through wild gorges, along the sides 
of steep hills, over the flat tops of high mountaiiis, 
thioagh tangled forests of fallen pine, with wide 
spaces here and there where teams could pa8s ; where 
eren the mail coach had to side track for the heavy 
freight wagons laden with ore. Nine miles out we 
exchanged our tired bronchos for six fresh horses, 
heavier than the others, to take us over the long 
high hill, the summit of which overlooked the camp. 
Slowly down the long slox>e we rolled until we were 
at the edge of the town; then the driver, shaking 
oat nis reins, threw his long whip out over the team 
aad away we dashed right into the camp, through 
the narrow crooked streets, never slacking our pace 
mttil we swung round and came to a quick stop at 
the door of the big wooden hotel Stage coaches 
always arrive that way— it's one of the ** theatri- 
cals ** of the camp. Now we all scrambled for rooms 
at the hotel just as we had scrambled for seats in 
the coach, and when we had registered some of us 
•crambled into the bar-room, for we were chilled, 
cramped and stiff from long sitting in the narrow 



seats. From that time until midnight it seemed to 
me that the swinging doors between the lobby and 
the bar never came to rest, either open or shut, for 
a single moment. Through one side flowed an end- 
less stream of men that flowed as steadily out 
through the other. Everybody was busy, either 
giving or receiving information about the camp, 
talking mines, mills or comer lots. Everywhere 
could be seen the signs of life ; that nervous sort of 
life peculiar to mining camx)s; and all the people 
had about them an air of suppressed excitement, 
and some of them appeared nervous — almost scared 
— as, I fancy, soldiers seem before a battle. 

Everybody was in a hurry. " We ain't got time 
to change forks at this station,'* said the tired look- 
ing table girl, replacing the fork which 1 had left 
on the fish plate for her to take away. Next morn- 
ing at breakfast I saw a man butter a big round 
buckwheat cake, and having no fork, and no time to 
wait for one, he turned up the edge of the cake near 
him until it began to roll, then he shot his hand over 
it, picked up the roll and began to eat it as a coim- 



164 



THE REVIEW OF RE^^/EIVS. 



try boy eats striped candy. Bat the pictnresqueness 
of the place is gone ; it went with the disappearance 
of the stage coach, whose driver, hearing the whistle 
of the locomotive, that great civilizer, folded his 
long lash, slipped from his high seat, and, mingling 
with the star of empire, the desperado and the red 




THS ANACONDA MINE, CRIPPUC CREEK. 

man, went West The business of the camp, which 
a little while ago was handled by two stage lines 
and a half hundred freight wagons is now an im- 
portant item in the traffic of two railroads. Three 
sleepers leave Denver every night over the Rio 
Grande via Florence direct to Cripple Creek. From 
thirty to forty cars of merchandise and supplies go 
in, and as many cars of ore come out over the Santa- 
F6 route daily. 

If the railroad comx)any can hold all their discov- 
eries this road ought to 'paj without hauling freight 
General Passenger Agent Bailey, of the Colorado 
Midland, tells me that ** in establishing the grade 
for the Midland Terminal over twenty different 
mineral veins were developed." 

Most mining camps are dreary, bleak and cold in 
winter and not over cheerful in summer; but Crip- 
ple Creek is an exception to the general run. Here 
the hills are rounded, gprass-grown and pine-clad, 
with miles of carriage roads and hundreds of miles 
of good trail, or biidle paths, little sunny vales 
full of wild flowers where crystal brooks gurgle 
through the tall grass. Leaving Cripple Creek, the 
Florence Railroad winds away through forests of 
pine, while the Midland, after crossing an open 
park, drops suddenly into dark caSons, deep 
gorges and wild glens. The scene from Cripple 
Creek at morning, when heaven's searchlight teeters 
up over the shoulder of Pike's Peak, catching the 
summit of Sangre de Christo range and burning its 
way down to the base, showing every gorge and 
peak— almost every piaon— fifty miles away, is 
worth crossing the Atlantic to see. More gorgeous 
still is the scene at evening, when the sun teeters 
down across the western range and bums its way up 
to the top of Pike's Peak, turning the trees to 
torches and the crags and spires to splinters of gold. 
The thousands of tourists who will go to the top of 



the Peak next summer can, by the aid of their 
glasses, look down into these great gold fields and 
count a half dozen busy towns, holding no less than 
twenty-five thousands souls, that have been built up 
round the original camp of the cripples. Last sum- 
mer they ran suburban trains every hour out of 
Cripple Creek, and now they are to have a free 
delivery of mails, and there is talk of another rail- 
road direct from Denver. This latter enterprise, it 
seems, would be a senseless undertaking, not at all 
necessary to the prosperity of the camp nor the 
country at large. The sharp competition between 
the rival roads already there will insure low rates, 
probably lower than the railroads can afford. What 
more do they need ? 

While a few American miners have "trecked" 
away to the malarial wild 4 of South Africa, where 
prospecting is not only expensive but extremely 




MR. STRATTON. 

hazardous, hundreds have found fortunes in our 
Western hills. 

Mr. Stratton, it is said, walked into Cripple to 
save $3.50 stage fare, and now his gpreatest stmRglo 
is to keep his foreman from taking more than $100,- 
000 a month out of the Independence mine. It 
would be absurd, of course, to say that all the people 
who go to Cripple Creek prospect, or that all mines 
pay. There are always some sad faces to be seen 
about the hotels, but comparatively few. It ha-* 
been called ** the Cripple Creek craze." but to one 
who has seen the place once or twice a year since itr* 
discovery, seen them chop streets through pine 
forests in spring, build towns in summer, open 
saloons, theatres and Sunday schools in the early 
autumn— where wages are good, no beggars and few 
loafers — this designation seems inapplicable. 

In March. 1893, I met Mr. A. F. Wuensch, a well- 
known mining expert, who is almost constantly 
employed by Mr. Moffat and other heavy investors, 
who was making his first examination of the camp. 



THE STORY OF CRIPPLE CREEK. 



165 



•* In what respect," I asked, " does Oipple Creek 
differ from other gold camps in the West, and what 
do yon think of the prospects ? " He answered that 
I could not remember if he told me. 

** Then write it." said L and. seating himself at a 
lonfir table in the great lobby of the Clarendon Hotel, 
where a hundred incandescent lights burned in the 
ceiUng and great pinon logs cracked and blazed in 
the open fireplace; amid the hum of a hundred 
voices, the bursting of champagne corks and the 
rattle of dishes in the dining room, the nervous 
chck of the telegraph, the typewriter and the iK)ker 
chip: the cracking of billiard balls, the monotonous 
call of the keno man and. at times, above it all the 
cry of the night without, where the winds moaned 
and the storm beat against the windows, he wrote: 

** The district, so far. has not received the careful 
investigation and studious attention necessary to 
warrant a pronounced opinion. The base or primi- 
tive formation of the district is archcean granite, 
there existing no deix)sits of sedimentary rock. 
This feature prevailing, it is evident that the merid- 
ional continental vertebra of which Pike's Peak is a 
prominent feature was elevated above ocean level 
for eons prior to and for ages after the paleozoic 
period As a consequence none of the stratified 
mcfcB are found, but the granite rock is capped with 
the eruptive rocks, principal among which is an iron 
earing siliceous felsite, locally known as * pyritif- 
-rous porphyry.' This eruptive rock covers an area 
)f eight by six miles and is again broken through 
by more recent dikes of rhyolite and andesite. 
(Mpple Creek consequently exhibits three different 
a^esand distinct varieties of igneous rocks. The 
time of the first eruption was not later than the 
cretaceous period, as demonstrated by similar igne- 



ous rock overflows in Colorado, where sedimentary 
formation afforded a safe datum. Then followed 
the dikes and intrusions of junior eruptive rocks, 
the age of which cannot be definitely fixed. There 




MB. D. U. MOFFAT. 

is a greater diversity in the vein system of this dis- 
trict than is usual in most mining camps, there 
being at least three characteristic pay veins. One 
of these is between the overflow of porphyry and 
the underlying archsean granite : the other follow- 
ing along the latter dikes of eruptive rock, and 




PRINCIPAL STREET IN THE TOWI* OF CRIPPLE CREEK. 



166 



THE REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



lastly the vein occnpying fault 
and fracture crevices and fis- 
sures. 

''Regarding the genesis of 
the ore few if any well in- 
formed mining engineers and B.L<r wmuj 
economic geologists care to ex- 
press themselves at the pres- 
ent time, all agreeing, how- 
ever, that the nature of the 
country rock and composition 
of the dike material is favor- 
able to gold lodes or ledges of 
commercial value." 

I went down one shaft that 
had passed through three dis- 
tinct layers of ore ranging 
from four to eight feet thick. 
These veins were encountered 

at about forty, sixty and sev- putting in 

enty feet from the surface, 
and it was as easy, having once seen the ore that 
produced gold, to detect the pay-streak, as it is to 
tell the jelly from the breadstuff in a stratified cake. 

There are, perhaps, seventy-five mines in the 
whole camp t^hat are able to ship ore now that the 
new cyanide mills at Florence have been completed. 
Mr Moffat, who is largely interested in that enter- 
prise, says the Florence mills can treat ore at a 
profit that carries $5 worth of gold to the ton. It is 
all down hill to Florence, and the length of ajtrain 
depends more on the size and capacity of the air- 
pump than on the strength of the locomotive. 
Florence is on the Arkansas River, where the great 
oil wells are, and the foot-hills all about are full of 
coal and lime, making it a desirable and advanta- 
geous point for smelting. 

The fact that Cripple Creek is now pouring gold 
into the Denver mint at the rate of $1,000,000 a 
month has set men prospecting for the precious 
metal everywhere. 

New fields are being found and old camx>s long 
abandoned are being reopened. Leadville, the 
famous silver camp, managed in 1895, while produc- 
ing thirteen and a half million ounces of silver, 
sixty-two million pounds of lead, four and a half 
million pounds of copper and a million pounds of 
zinc, to thresh out one hundred thousand four hun- 
dred and ninety-nine ounces of gold, nearly |5,000,- 
000 more gold than came from that camp in 1894. 

Cripple Creek has enabled Colorado to wrest from 
California the title of ** The Gtolden State," her out- 
put being nearly $2,000,000 ahead of California. 
This is her record for 1895 : 

Gold $17,340,495 

Silver 14.259,049 

Lead 2,955,114 

Copper 877,000 




THJC SHAFT.— WILL IT PROVE TO BE A BONANZA ? 

Coal 5,800,000 

Iron aio0.flno 

Stone 1.52&.0LiO 

Farms, orchards and livestock SS,700,0()0 

Denver manufactui*e8 40,000^000 

Total $111,608,656 

1805. 1804. 

Gold $17,34a4«6 $11^235.508 

Silver 14,259,040 14,721.7W 

Lead 2,956,114 8,288.61:1 

Copper 877,492 767,42 

Totals $35,432,150 $30,983,200 

For the first time since 1871 Colorado has pro- 
duced more gold than silver. 

The following table is a complete history of Crip- 
ple Creek's gold production : 

1802- First yearns output SOOaOOO 

I89;i— Second year's output 2,100.000 

1894— Third year's output 3,000.af) 

1895— Fourth year's output 6,000,000 

It is easy to see that the repeal of the Sherman 
law has been a greater blessing to Colorado than it 
can x)ossibly be to any other section. It is also in- 
teresting to note that with all her gold, her farm, 
orchard and live stock products for last year were 
$7,000,000 in excess of her gold output. One result 
of the development of Cripple Creek is the increase 
in the number of mining exchanges, there being no 
less than a dozen in Colorado. Colorado Springs 
claims that more mining shares are sold there daily 
than in any other city in America. It would be 
unwise for any one to invest in mining shares with- 
out reliable information as to the prospects of the 
property, and yet it transpires that if in the absence 
of such information an investor had bought one 
thousand shares of each of the Cripple Creek stocks 
listed on the Colorado exchang*es January 1, 18d5, 
and sold them December 1, 1895, he would not have 
lost on a single share. 



'THAT FLOOD OF GOLD!" 



BY CARL SNYDER. 



NOTHINO could have been farther from the 
minds of men, six or seven years ago, than a 
gfxst of gold. The man who would have promised 
such a thing would have been laughed at as a 
dreamer of dreams. Gk>ld mining seemed on the 
decline. The supply was falling. The richest fields 
were failing. There was a dread even among con- 
wfratiTe men of a yellow metal famine. The chief 
commercial nations were on a gold basis, and there 
did not seem enough to go round. It was Bismarck 
who said of the matter : *' We are all in one bed, and 
Uie blanket is too narrow to reach ; each nation is 
tagging at this blanket and pulling it off some one 
elsei'* There seemed nothing more likely than a 
world-wide scramble for this precious metal 

And all this was true even as late as the panic year 
of 1893. 

Yet even while silver-tongued prophecies of dis- 
aster burdened the air; while we were summoned to 
be witness to a further fall in prices, the ruin of the 
debtor class and the wreck of industry, the output 
of gold was rising at a rate unknown to this genera- 
tion. In 1887 all the world turned out but $106,000,- 
000. In 1890 it wsa only 1113,000,000. In the five 
or seven years that have elapsed the output has 
doubled. It was $155,000,000 in the year of the 
panic, $179,000,000 in 1894. Last year it rose to the 
enormous aggregate of $203,000,000. 

Not in history has the like been known before. 
The yield last year was greater by 50 millions than 
the largest known in the bonanza days, when the vir- 
gin fi^ds of Oalifomia gave forth such a product as 
threatened to upset all the monetary systems which 
rested upon a gold basis. It was greater by 70 mil- 
boDs than when the Ck)mstock lode unveiled its daz- 
zling treasures. It was greater by more than a dozen 
times the average yield of the century down to the 
diacoveries of 1849. This single year equaled the 
entire product of any two decades down to 1840. 

Nor does there now appear any force strong 
enough to check the rising flood. The causes 
operating to produce the latter are not temporary; 
and so far as. any man can see, they promise to con- 
tinue in unabated vigor for at least another decade. 
If they remain in operation no longer than for another 
five 3rear8, the result will be such an outpour of gold 
as will test the absorbent capacity of the nations to 
the utmost The rate of increase for the last five 
years has been above 12 per cent, for each year. If 
the aver^^ for the next five years is no more than 
10 per cent, this will mean that the production in 
the last year of the century will reach the vast sum 
of 320 millions. It would mean a yield for the five 
yean of above 1,300 millions. If this be added to the 



800 odd millions of the last five years, the world's 
stock of gold will be increased by more than 2,000 
millions. The mind quite fails to grasp the propor- 
tions of the fact. Two billions of gold would be 
more than all the mines gave forth in ihe 200 
years preceding the discoveries in California; while 
the rate of production will have been tripled, as that 
rate has been known to the generation now living. 
Yet ten years ago there was not so much as a hint 




AT WORK WITH TB£ AIR DRILLS IN A GOLD MINE. 

either of the present fact or the present possibility. 
There was no question of the exhaustion of the fields 
from whence had come the chief supply of the last 
half century. There was no question of the steady 
decline of gold mining. The world's output, which 
in 1853 reached $155,000,000, had fallen in 1874 to 
$90,000,000. It was but $95,000,000 in 1883. The 
average for the twenty years from 1870 to 1890 was 
a little over $110,000,000. The value of Califomia's 
product had fallen from $51,000,000 in 1851 to less 
than $12,000,000. That for Australasia, which was 
$62,000,000 in 1853, had fallen in 1887 so low as $25,- 
000,000. And no new Golcondas were found. The 
cost and difficulty of obtaining gold steadily in- 
creased ; mines which had yielded the revenues of 
kingdoms were abandoned; placer fields which hal 
employed hundreds of men and produced millions or 
treasure were deserted. Capital turned into new 
channela 

The causes which have wrought this swift and 
startling change from a possible famine to a possi- 
ble flood have been curiously misunderstood. The 
new conditions, the kaleidoscopic reversal of the 
whole prospect, both present and distant, are not 
due to the discoveries of new gold flelds. There 
was a mining ** boom '* in South Africa as far back 
as 1884; but the mines were a partial failure, 
and the ** boom '* collapsed. The change is not due 



168 



THE REI^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



to any wonderful ** strikes." Even so great a find 
as Cripple Creek does not make a large figure, put 
against the total yield of the earth. The revival is 
not due to the closing of the mints against silver- 
only a man whose horizon is rin^med and ribbed 
with silver thinks that. The revival began before 
the mints of the United States and India shut down. 
It began almost at the same time, almost in the same 
year, in the most widely separated parts of the 
earth. The mining boom is to-day world wide. It 
is to be found alike in West Australia and in South 
Africa, in Colorado and in Patagonia, in Russia and 




ORE READY FOR ''STOPINO." 

in British Columbia, in Alaska and in New Zealand. 
And it is everywhere attributable to a single and 
Hufficing cause — cheapened production through new 
methods of working and low cost supplies. To- 
gether, these have wrought a revolution in gold 
mining, and have alone made possible, in the face 
of failing and exhausted fields, the present enor- 
mous yield. 

The nature of the revolution indicated will best be 
understood by contrasting the conditions of gold 
raining twenty years ago and at the present time. 
The chief source of the gold supply, up to a very 
recent day, has been the rich gold-bearing alluvium, 
which bears the same relation to gold deposits in 



general as a layer of cream to a pot of milk. It is 
estimated that from 1848 to 1875 nearly nine-tenths 
of the world's gold came from this alluvium. Now, 
in greater part, this rich cream has been removed 
and at the present time not much more than a third 
of the supply is derived from this source. In other 
words, placer mining has changed places with lode 
mining, and the greater part of the world's gold 
can no longer be washed down from the hillsides at 
comparatively slight expense, but has to be sought 
in the bowels of the earth, often at far depths. 
More than this, quartz mines of extraordinary rich- 
ness are by no means so common at the present time 
as they were two or three or four decades ago. The 
difficulty of working has steadily increased, while 
the average value of the ore has steadily declined. 

You may judge of the comparative cost of work- 
ing by a comparison between this and the former 
day. The gold-bearing beds of the Transvaal are 
not difficult of access, nor expensive to work. They 
lie in a curiously regular fashion, resembling coal 
beds much more than the general run of gold bear- 
ing veins. The total output of these fields waa 
about 33 millions in 1894, and a mining authority. 
Professor Rickard, has estimated that to gain these 
33 millions of gold probably cost as much as all the 
143 millions which California and Australia put 
forth in 1851-1853, taken together. Or, to put the 
matter in another way, it has been computed that 
in the bonanza placer days two men with a shovel, 
a pick and a rocker could gain as much gold as ten 
men and ten stamps gain at the present time. 

In order, therefore, that ores of decreasing value 
may be worked at any sort of a profit, gold mining 
has had to be reduced to little short of an exact 
science, applied with the most rigid economy. It 
has been necessary, too, that the price of mining 
supplies should be reduced in an extraordinary 
degree. And exactly this has happened. 

The Mining Industry and Review of Denver haa 
compiled an interesting table showing the det?line in 
charges in Colorado from twenty-five years ngo- 
Where in 1870 smelting charges ranged about §415 
per ton they now range about $10. Stamp inill 
charges have declined in that State from $35 to $10. 
As you may know, lumber is an important item m 
tmderground mining. Whole forests have been put 
away in black holes, to keep the shafts and tinmels 
intact. Lumber in Colorado has fallen from ^0 per 
thousand feet to al>out $18. Teaming which iimd 
to bring $16 now brings but about $4. Candles 
which were once worth $20 a box now sell for leas 
than $5. Giant powder then cost $1 a pound, now 
it is less than 14 cents. The price of fuses per thou- 
sand feet has dropped from $80 to $6, nails from ^m 
per keg to $3, iron from 25 cents a pound to 3 oeiir^. 
steel from 40 cents to 9 cents, shovels and picks from 
$2.75 and $3.75 to $1 each. Still another important 
item of expense is fuel. Twenty-five years agfo coal 
could scarcely be had in Colorado at any price. Now 
it is mined in large quantities and can be had 



THAT FLOOD OF GOLD. 



109 



Almost 80 cheaply as in Pennsylvania. Petroleum, 
which is also widely nsed as a fuel, has fallen in 
price from $8 a gallon to 20 cents, and about the 
Colorado oil fields to not more than 15 cents. 

Striking an average, this mining journal estimates 
that at the present time |27 will buy the same sup- 
plies which cost $100 in 1870. In other words, the 
cost is hardly a fourth what it was a quarter of a 
century ago, while the price of gold is the same to- 
day as then, the same as in 1849 — the same as it has 
been for more than half a century. All other 
▼alnes have fallen; this alone stands. 

Of not less importance has been the introduction 
of high explosives and rock drills. In 1870 dyna- 
mite was unknown. So also the compressed air drill 
Drilling had to be done by the slow hand process, 
requiring many men for many days. Now one 
man with a big steel grasshopper such as are to be 
seen at work in excavations for large city buildings, 
can do the work of a dozen men, perhaps more, 
drilling by hand. And it is possible now to drive 
the holes very deep and to put in heavy charges of 
dynamite or nitro glycerine and throw out large 
quantities of rock at a blast. The result of this is 
that the cost of ** drifting," as it is known, in ordi 
nary rock or ore, in our Western States has fallen 
from around $14 per foot to less than $5. ** Stoping," 
that is to say, knocking down the ore after it has 
^>een reached by shafts or tunnels, now costs but 
about 65 cents as against $2.50 under the old 
method. And not merely has the cost been reduced, 
bat likewise the rapidity with which the ground 
may be pierced, so that now a mine may be opened 
up in weeks, or even in days, where it once re- 
quired months. Indeed, it would be quite impossi- 



ble to do the work now done, or attain anything like 
the present output, under the old method, no matter 
how many men were employed. 





VATS USED IN THE CYANIDE Pr%(JCESS. 



Oourtesy Earle C. Bacon. 

AN ORE CRUSHER. 

Here are two of the prime factors of mining of the 
present day — cheap supplies anri improved methods 
of working. A third, and perhaps greater than 
either, is cyanide. Few, save among experts, are 
aware of the part which this new process of extrac- 
tion plays in the i>resent output of gold. Perhaps 
it would be impossible to indicate exactly its im- 
portance, but a single instance will do this roughly. 
The mines of the Transvaal, as already noted, 
were in the beginning practically a failure. Though 
the ore lay, easy of access, in measureless quantities, 
it was at once low grade and refractory. For the 
most part it did not carry more than an ounce of 
gold in the ton. And though 
ore of only half this value is 
now made to turn out millions 
upon millions of dollars a year, 
if you examined the rock it- 
self, and did not happen to be 
acquainted with the matter, 
you would be astonished to find 
that the yellow metal it con- 
tains seems scarcely more than 
a golden shadow. An ounce of 
gold in a ton of rock is only one 
twenty-four thousandth part 
by weight of the entire bulk. 
Unless it chances to be what is 
known as " free milling" ore 
you cannot see it at all. The 
gold-bearing rock is as in- 
tensely uninteresting as any 
other. 

But this was the rock which 
the miners of South Africa had 
to deal with, and even though 
its value ranged only from $10 
to $20 per ton, by the stamp mill 
and the amalgamation process 



170 



THE REyiEl^'OF RE^IEIVS. 




BATTERY OF A GOLD KILL.— CYANIDB PROCESS. 



only about half of this value could be gained. Unless 
the balance could be saved, countless millions of tons 
of gold-bearing rock would be worthless. It would 
have lain untouched. It was here that cyanide entered 
the field. The new process was exceedingly simple 
and exceedingly effective. It consisted in little 
more than taking the residue from the stamp mill— 
what are known as the " tailings ''—and throwing 
these into huge vats containing a weak solution of 
cyanide of potassium. This is a chemical which 
has a peculiar affinity for gold, and it takes up the 
latter very much as a glass of water will dissolve 
and absorb a lump of sugar or salt. When the gold 
is thoroughly leeched out — that is to say. absorbed 
by the cyanide — the solution is put through a sort of 
filter made up of fine, bright zinc shavings. The 
effect of this is to precipitate the gold from the 
cyanide solution and make a coating of gold on the 
zinc. These zinc shavings are afterward put into 
clear water and shaken vigorously, when the gold 
drops off and falls to the bottom of the tub, where 
it may be gathered up and sent to the refinery. 

You might think that anything so simple as this 
would have been found out years ago, but it was 
not, and it was only with the application of this new 
process that South Africa's present production of 
gold was made x>08sible. Directly not more than 
30 and 40 per cent, of the ore values are saved by 
this means. But this represents all and more than 



all the profit there is in working the mines. So that 
it is fair to say that without cyanide there would 
practically be no South Africa. The present out- 
put of the Transvaal is f42.000.000 a year. That is 
much more than a third of the world's gold produc- 
tion, as the output stood before cyanide was intro- 
duced. And so, in this instance alone, the new 
process has added by at least a full third to the an- 
nual output of the yellow metal. 

What cyanide has done elsewhere is not so easy 
to compute. It has been very successful in New Zea- 
land, where 80 or 90 per cent of the product is said 
to be obtained by this process. In California and in 
many other gold fields it has been foxmd of little 
value. It is not a panacea or a cure alL It is only 
adapted to certain kinds of ore. But where these 
exist it is, because of the low cost of treatment, of 
incalculable value. 

It would be quite impossible to indicate anj^thing 
like what will be the future of gold production 
imder this revolutionary process; only this may be 
said: All over the earth there exist measureless 
quantities of gold-bearing ore of very low grade. 
At the present time the cost of treatment by the 
cyanide process is $3 a ton and upward. Tailings 
are treated for less than a third this. It is inevit- 
able that with the extension of the cyanide process 
immense quantities of rock that were once thrown 
away or passed by as utterly worthless, will be 



THAT FLOOD OF GOLD. 



171 



made to yield up their hidden riches. In the little 
district about Johannesburg eminent mining experts 
have estimated that there is calculable ore *'in 
sight " to the value of upward of 2.500 millions. In 
the whole Transvaal it is estimated that there is 
upward of 3,500 millions. 

Meanwhile there are many notable mines worked 
with large profit, whose ores are of surprisingly low 
value. In the Deadwood-Terra Mine in South Dakota 
it costs but 11.25 per ton to mine and mill the ore and 
convert the product into bullion. In the famous 
Treadwell Mine in Ala»ka the average total cost last 
year was about $1.50 a ton, 93 cents for mining and 
the balance for milling, treatment and shipping the 
bullion to market These are, of course, exceptional 
instances, and in general, in this country at least, 
the rock must carry at least half an ounce of gold to 
be treated with profit Nevertheless, this limit is 
being gradually reduced, not merely in this 
country but everywhere over the earth. Five years 
ago the average amount of gold x)er ton from the 
mines of the Transvaal was 22 pennyweights, or 
above an ounce. To-day this average is not more 
than seven or eight pennyweights, or $7 or $8 in the 
ton, and still the mines are worked to enormous 
profit Probably nowhere else has mining been 
reduced to so fine an art, nowhere else are such won- 
derful machinery and mechanical devices to be 
found. Parenthetically, it is not unworthy of note 
that the brains which have developed the South 
African mines, alike with the machinery which 



these brains have employed, have come from the 
United States. South Africa has found its best 
mining and engineering talent, and its machinery as 
well, not in England where its mines are owned, 
but in this country. 

It is impossible to believe that the example of 
South Africa will not be of wide effect. The devel 
opment of the mines there has been accomplished 
with unlimited capital, and the best talent and best 
machinery which that capital could command. And 
despite the wild ** Kafi^ craze " and all the attend- 
ant stock jobbing scandals, these mines have paid 
enormous profits. To-day their output of gold, 
derived from a little area perhaps three miles wide 
and seventeen miles long, almost equals the entire 
product of the whole United States, or of all Aus- 
tralasia. Nor is there anything to indicate that 
this output has reached its limit. On the contrary, 
mining exx)erts of authority predict that the product 
of the whole Transvaal at least will within another 
ten years, perhaps less, reach $100,000,000 annually. 

It wouJd be absurd to attempt a similar prediction 
as to the yield of other portions of the earth ; but 
certain facts remain. A very pregnant one is to be 
found in Colorado. For years the Centennial State 
talked and schemed and dreamed of little else than 
silver. Silver mining was its chief industry. It 
cared little for gold. No one looked for it; it was 
almost impossible to obtain capital to develop a gold 
mine when it was found. This year Colorado turns 
from chiefiy a silver State to chiefly a gold State — 




A3X ORB CBUBHING ItXLU IN A CA^ON NXAB A XHTS. 



172 



THE REyiElV OF REI^/EIVS. 



and to the chief of the p^old States. Its product this 
last year of gold will not be far from 18 millions, 
perhaps more. It will be 8 millions greater than 
that of California, and the latter is 8 millions more 
than it has been in ten years. Colorado's gold prod- 
uct has quadrupled in four years. Of its 18 millions 
last year, $7,000,000 came from the new camp of 
Cripple Creek— from a gold bearing area about three 
miles square. It is out of the question to attempt to 
forecast the future of this new El Dorado; its ore 
veins are thin and puzzling, though of wonderful 
richness. But there is little doubt that it will con- 
tinue to increase its output for several yeara Lead- 
ville. from the silver wonder of the century, is turn- 
ing to a gold camp, one of its mines the ** Little 
Jonny," ranking as one of the richest on the conti- 
nent. That Colorado's output will show a steady 
increase for some time to come is beyond question. 

Almost all of our mining States disclose a similar 
activity, if not with equal results. Alaska this past 
year almost doubled its product over the year before, 
and much promise is said to be there. Utah, Ari- 
zona, Washington, all exhibit gains. So that for all 
the United States last year the yield rose to more 
than $45,000,000, according to the estimates of a 
very reliable authority, the Engineering and Mining 
Journal of New York In a newspaper interview, 
Superintendent Preston of the Mint gave out much 
higher figures — something like $53,000,000, perhaps, 
— adding, however, that this would probably be 
scaled later to $48,000,000 or to $47,000,000. But 
even employing the more conservative, and likely 
more accurate estimate, of $45,000,000, as I have 
done in cornputing the world's yield at $203,000,000, 
the United States was still a greater gold producer 
in 1895 than at any time during a period of seven- 
teen years, and again takes its place as the first gold- 
producing country of the world. All Africa last 
year put out but $44,000,000, and all Australasia 
a like sum. The output in the United States was 
greater by $6,000,000 than in 1894, greater than in 
1892 by more than a third, greater by a half than ten 
years ago, when it had dropped to $30,000,000. If 
this output continues to be enlarged in the same 
ratio as in the last three years, the product for 1900 
will surpass the highest yield in the years when 
California was to timid doctors of finance a night- 
mare of gold. It will exceed even the $.65,000,000 
poured out in 1853. 

A survey of other portions of the earth discloses a 
like increase of product, and a like prospect. Rus- 
sia put forth last year the greatest amount of gold 
in its history — $34,000,000. It was a third more 
than for many years. West Australia and the islands 
of the Pacific show a steady increment, and the out- 
put for Australasia was last year a little less than 
double what it was eight years ago. It was $25,- 
000,000 then and $44,000,000 now. The southern 
end of South America is new ground and promises 
much. British Columbia is exceedingly active. 
British Guiana alone shows a falling off. The vast 
territory of China yet remains a riddle. Geographi- 



cal analogy favors the possibility of gold fields, but 
their extent, even their existence, is still wrapped 
in mystery. 

From a broad view, therefore, there seems every 
condition present to warrant the belief that the vol- 
ume of gold must grow larger and ever larger for 
some time to come. The estimate offered in these 
pages of a 10 per cent, increase each year for the 
next five years at least, is likely to shoot under 
rather than over the mark. The prediction of an im- 
pending outpour of such a quantity of gold as the 
world has never seen— 1,800 millions in the five years 
of the century that remain, with a production of 
more than 800 millions for the year 1900, would 
seem not wholly unreasonable. 

Will it be possible for our monetary systems to 
survive the addition of such an overwhebniiig 
fiood? Our present system was framed to meet 
exactly the opposite conditions which now present 
themselves. Its authors had in view a scarcity, not 
a glut of gold. Could they have foreseen the future 
they would have been frightened. The gold basis 
currency scheme now in vogue among the chief 
commercial nations was devised a^d established in 
England in 1816. The whole world's production of 
gold for that decade, and for thirty years thereafter, 
averaged but 10 millions a year. For the year 
1816 it was but 7 millions. To-day the world's out- 
put is twenty-five times th's, and before, the century 
is closed it will probably be forty times that when 
the cxirrent system was adopted. In the same period 
the world's population has increased but two and a 
half times, and though the expansion of commerce 
and trade has been much greater than this, it has 
limped lamely beside the rising yellow stream. To 
set out the matter in another way: when, after the 
long Napoleonic wars, England adopted her present 
currency system, about 125 millions of gold, it is 
estimated, were required to enable her to resume 
specie payments. Save Portugal, England was then 
the sole nation having a single gold standard, and 
the drain from other lands was so great that, in the 
United States at least, the yellow metal disappeared 
from circulation entirely. To-day England's stock 
of gold is around 540 millions, and that of the 
United States above 600 millions. Germany with 
still another 600 millions, Russia with between four 
and five hundred millions, and France with its 800 
millions, all exhibit the same phenomenon of enor- 
mous piles of gold, amassed within this century. In 
all the world there is now near to four billions of 
gold money. And where gold coinage in the United 
States ranged from a quarter of a million to a mil- 
lion a year, from 1800 to 1820, it now ranges from 
40 to 80 millions a year. 

The mechanism of finance may some day have tQ 
be remodeled or readjusted to meet a situation not 
merely novel to this go^eration but imique in the 
history of trade. And this will come about, not 
through the fiat of a government, but through 
science and invention, grappling with natoro for 
her hidden stores of gold. 



SOME LEADING ERRORS OF THE GOLD STANDARD PARTY.' 



BY OTTO ARENDT, MEMBER OF THE PRUSSIAN HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 
(Translated by Preeident E. Benj. Andrews, of Brown University.) 



BE it understood at the outset that bimetallists 
have never urged or wished Germany, in coin- 
ing silver along with gold, to proceed alone. Inter- 
national free coinage is the only real question. For 
this policy — not to mention the smaller states- 
France. Italy. Spain. Holland, the United States, are 
prepared. If G^ermany takes part. Austria-Hungary 




DR. OTTO ARBNDT. 

win do the same. If England's participation is made 
a conditio sine qua non, as the German Imperial 

Government will probably insist on making it I 

retnm to this again— the victory of the English bi- 
metallists will bring the solution in a very short 
timp. 

Supposing international bimetallism accomplished, 
will it result in placing us upon a single standard of 
sflTCT. as the Silesian Times and other gold standard 
sheets maintain ? Where would the gold in all the 
gold standard countries go to ? If it left Germany, 
it would have to leave England, France, etc., for the 
ame reason. Where would it go ? Who would be 
•ble to get the gold out of the countries of the world 
now strongest in gold? If this is. after all, some- 
bow a possibility, it certainly proves gold too scarce 
fr»r the extension or even the maintenance of the 
fugle gold standard. In that case the gold standard 
n certainly leading in the social world to results 
that win be insufferable. But in face of the present 
yincrease in gold production can any one seriously 

TWk "^^'^-S"^ ftppearjBd in the Deutscher WochenbUitt. 
S3*J.?r*'^'^lJ intended to refute certaii) views put for- 
*»fd a the SiUsian Times, it is of general interest 



consider it possible that gold should desert the great 
nations if banded together to maintain the joint 
standard ? If that is unthinkable, then bimetallism 
does not mean a silver basis, but a gold and silver 
basis, and it therefore also means the complete cessa- 
tion of changes in the value of one metal in terms 
of the other. That this would be the result of it is 
clear from the history of French bimetallism, 1803- 
1873. The famous English Commission of 1888, its 
gold standard members agreeing with the rest, 
tmanimously expressed itself to the effect that the 
international free coinage of gold and silver wotild 
fix the relative value of the two. In England the 
gold party concedes this. In (Germany, too, Profes- 
sor Lexis in his earlier period characterized that 
proposition as scientifically proved. On that funda- 
mental proposition stand to-day all the English and 
a very great majority of the German scientific 
economists^ and it is seriously contested only by the 
Gferman * * Manchester party. ' ' Wholly ignoring the 
peculiar nature of money, the " Manchester '* people, 
as we know, look upon the money metals as com- 
modities just like any other commodities, with 
whose prices the state may not meddle. The state 
does, however, after all, through the demand and 
supply for the precious metal occasioned by its coin- 
age law, more or less determine the value of each of 
the two metals. But whoever can control the gen- 
eral values of two articles can also control their 
value in relation to each other. 

RELATIVE INCREASE IN THE PRODUCTION OP GOLD. 

The value of gold was not annihilated when in a 
few years before and after 1850 gold production rose 
from about 50.000,000 to about 750.000,000 marks 
yearly ($12,500,000 to 1187,500,000), for the reason 
that the demand for it continued imlimited at the 
mints, particularly of England and France. This 
effect of the double standard even Soetbeer con- 
ceded. Within ten years the production of gold, 
which had fallen to half its old figures, has doubled 
again. Had gold been treated, or should it now be 
treated, as silver has been treated since 1873, it would 
inevitably suffer a far greater loss of value than is 
now witnessed in the case of silver. In this discus- 
sion of standards the chief error, with which, of 
course, the gold party stands or falls, consists in con- 
sidering the fall in the gold price of silver as a 
natural result of increased silver production. It is 
a wholly illogical procedure when, to prove this, one 
exhibits the precious metal production since 1850. 
and then argues that as the gold output has re- 
mained stationary and that of silver multiplied, the 
gold price of silver could not but fall. Take into 
consideration the decade 1840-1850, or the whob 



174 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEIVS. 



time 1800-1850, and you see that the production of 
g^ld has been increasing much more rapidly than 
that of silver, that the relative production is to-day 
much more favorable for silver than when the value 
relation was 1 to 15.5, and that if the figures of pro- 
duction were alone to determine, not silver but gold 
must have fallen in value. Now, when gold pro- 
duction is increasing and silver production falling 
off. gold would quite unquestionably be falling in 
value if that sort of reasoning were correct. 

DECREASE IN THE PRODUCTION OP SILVER. 

During the discussion of the Silver Commission I 
presented proof from the figures, and it was not 
refuted, that when the fall in the gold price of silver 
began the production of silver in comparison with 
the demand for it was not too great but much too 
small, that but for the change in coinage laws silver 
would then have become scarce, and that the rapid 
increase in silver production would probably not 
have taken place. The spurt arose to a great extent 
from '' skimming " the mines, and was hurried as 
much as possible by fear of further depreciation. 
This was particularly the case in the United States, 
where, at present, not on account of the low price of 
silver, but on account of the exhaustion of the mines, 
the yield of silver is falling off from 30 to 40 per 
cent, a year. Nevada, whence the entire scare 
about silver proceeded, where the Comstock lode was 
said to contain so much silver that the price of this 
must sink to the price of iron, is completely ex- 
hausted. The Australian silver mine of Broken 
Hill, with its astonishing wealth, once increasing 
the silver product by half a million kilograms a 
year, is given up. Whoever reads the records of the 
Silver Commission relating to silver production will 
no longer be beguiled by the stupendous exaggera- 
tions in men's minds concerning a limitless produc- 
tion of silver. We are in face of a gpreat decrease in 
silver production, and it is not altered at all by any 
rise in the price of silver. Where people can get 
silver they are mining it to day; and in Mexico and 
South America, where alone silver production has a 
future, and where the silver standard now prevails, 
there, as, e.g.. Professor Paasche, certainly an im- 
impeachable witness, has shown, the production of 
silver has not been in the slightest affected by any 
decrease in its value. 

Professor Suess, of Vienna, being put forward in 
the Silver Commission as a bimetallist expert, the 
gold standard party placed on the stand as their 
expert Professor Stelzner, of Freiberg, in Saxony. 
What is Professor Stelzner's opinion, upon which, of 
course, the gold^ party must lay so much weight, 
touching the production of silver? He writes: 
** While on the one side it is to be granted that in 
our days the production of silver increases much 
faster than that of gold, yet we must at the same 
time remember that the majority of silver mines 
have their greatest wealth in the region of their out- 
crop, and that even in case of silver producers like 



Potosi. Chanereille and Caracoles, like the Comstock 
lode in Nevada and Broken Hill in New South 
Wales, periods of astounding yield are wont to be 
succeeded by periods of falling off. or even of entire 
sterility. Looking at such examples, can any one 
actually prophesy a continuing increase in the pro- 
duction of silver f The witness for his part is unable 
to do so.'' 

THE SPECTER OP A "SILVER FLOOD." 

Can the Silesian Times maintain, in opposition to 
this, that ** the technical progress in extracting the 
white metal from the almost imlimited number of 
mines is so immense as more and more to take from 
silver its earlier character as a measurer of values ? " 
Were that so, certainly bimetallism, as well as every 
attempt to elevate the price of silver, would be en- 
tirely hopeless. But if any error has been radically 
refuted by facts, this has been. Moreover, technical 
improvements and the cheapening of production are 
of much greater account in the case of gold than in 
the case of silver, yet no one infers that gold must 
be cheaper because it is more cheaply produced. 
Gold has its mint price. At the mint of any 
state on the gold standard a pound of gold 
must by law be bought at a given fixed price. 
With sUver. on the other hand, this is not the case, 
and consequently the gold price of silver wavers, 
and it will waver until the right which silver used 
to have at the mint, now refused, shall be restored. 
All other plans for silver are useless and evil, as they 
would simply flood trade with depreciated silver 
money. We already have too much 50 to 60 per 
cent, depreciated silver money, with its danger of 
counterfeiting and of losing its valuation at some 
crisis when conditions are unfavorable for its cir- 
culation. First get rid of the depreciation in silver; 
make silver again full money in connection with 
gold. Then, in common with all nations, we shall 
welcome it in the form of coins and as backing for 
notes. Recent years have proved that all the silver 
produced is used. The demand for silver in business, 
hitherto greatly underestimated, is rapidly increas- 
ing. In estimating this increase I myself have not 
ventured to go so far as entirely unprejudiced au- 
thorities have now gone. They state the yearly 
consumption as reaching nearly a million and a half 
of kilograms. Reckon the demand for East Asia, 
for other non- European states using silver as full 
money, and for token coinage in gold lands, and then 
consider that the production is falling off — where 
remains the specter of a " silver flood ? " It is in- 
voked simply to repress a scientific reform whose in- 
troduction forthwith is a matter of public necessity. 

THE PRESENT PRICE OP SILVER NOT ** NATURAL." 

The Silesian Times' fears of bimetallist reform 
would certainly be quite just if this were destined 
to lower the value of gold, and so the value of Ger- 
man money, to the present gold value of silver, or 
to half the present value of gold. But nothing of 



SOME LEADING ERRORS OF THE GOLD STANDARD PARTY. 



176 



the sort can happen. The assomption in qneetion 
proceeds from the error that the present price of 
aflver is **natarftL" What occurred in 1898 must 
bare opened erery one*s eyes to see that it is not so. 
The departure of silver from its old gold price 
doubled in one week because the free coinage of sil- 
ver had ceased in India. There is no room for doubt 
in this matter. And does any one doubt that the 
cloenre to silver of all the European mints since 1873 
has had upon silver that same depreciating effect ? 
The price of silver can rise again as rapidly as it 
feU, GO soon as legislation once more favors silver. 
In 1890 the mere announcement of the Sherman bill 
sufficed to drive silver up to near its old value. Yet 
snch advances in price cannot keep their foothold 
tin a joint standard arrangement re-establishes an 
unchanging and steady value relation between the 
money metals. Let this be done, however; let 
prefparations for it begin, and expectations rise — the 
price of silver will also rise, and even before the 
joint standard has legal validity every reasonable hu- 
man being will give up the thought of selling silver 
at lees than the rate set by the joint standard. The 
joint standard price will thus be the market price 
vA also the *' natural '* price, the change involving 
no artificial elevation in the value of silver but sim- 
ply the removal of an artificially produced deprecia- 
tion therein. 

Bat is the elevation of the value of silver the same 
thing as a lessening in the value of gold ? No one 
can a£Krm this, for if it were true the value of gold 
most have risen 50 per cent, in 1893, which none will 
seriously allege. Also, in 1890, when the price of 
fflver was rapidly advancing, we perceived no signs 
that gold was losing in value. Why should a rise of 
alreri^eliminary to the introduction of bimetallism 
have an effect different from what it had before the 
paflsage of the Sherman bill ? That after the intro- 
dnction of bimetallism silver can have no other price 
than that agreed on by the powers making the 
mtmej treaty is self-evident Whoever sold silver 
bwar than England, Germany, etc., were compelled 
by Uw to buy it, would belong in the insane hos- 
pitals as truly as a man who should let go his gold 
under 1.392 marks, the purchase price legally pre- 
scribed for it in Germany. 

XO GREAT REVOLUTION WOULD FOLLOW INTER- 
NATIONAL BIMETALLISM. 

No great revolution in prices therefore follows 
the restitution of silver to its old rdle. That is the 
second specter with which men seek to horrify pub- 
He opinion. However, suppose it should come, and 
the value of gold should sink by half, exactly as the 
SUenan Times maintains. It does not follow that 
the fanner is no better off. because all prices, includ- 
ing those of his produce, rise. Every farmer will 
ffladly pay for wages and for everything he buys 
twice as much as he now pays, provided all the 
fonnsof his income double. He would gladly see 
the change if only his fixed expenses, like mortgage 
intorest, quittances^ taxes and burdens, were not 



doubled. Besides, in farming, what a man produces 
for his own use counts for much more than in other 
callings. This may be remarked in a purely theo- 
retical way. In practice no such wide-reaching 
effect of bimetallism could be considered. It would 
not alter the value of money to any such extent as 
that. It wotild, mainly by doing away with the differ- 
ent ranges of value in different parts of the world, 
introduce an upward tendency in prices, as the sole 
gold standard brought a downward tendency. In- 
stead of the slow increase in the value of money now 
going on there would be either complete steadfast- 
ness or a slow lessening in the value of money. 
Differences in ranges of prices would disappear, as 
also monetary crises. Commerce and business would 
be quickened and in a short time nothing would seem 
so incomprehensible as that the world trowed itself 
for a quarter century to be halted in its economic 
development by a sorry experiment with the sole 
gold standard. 

BIMETALLISM IN ENGLAND. 

Recognition of this is now making way in the 
whole world, most of all. happily, in England. 
TJpon experiments with silver credit money, as the 
Silesian Times recommends, England, and we hope 
also Germany, will never venture. England must 
be converted to the genuine joint standard if it will 
save India and check its own economic retrogres- 
sion. Balfour, **the coming man,*' has quite re- 
cently expressed this anew and without the slightest 
ambiguity. Also, if any one will read the capital 
pamphlet advocating bimetallism which Archbishop 
Walsh, of Dublin, has written, he will see how easily 
the combination can be established which, the Lib- 
eral ministry having fallen, will thrust the solution 
of the money question to the front in English poli- 
tics. Now that the crisis has gone so far that Eng- 
land cannot much longer play the disturber of the 
peace, it must be the task of German i)olitics, by 
calling a monetary conference, to hasten the victory 
of the English bimetallists. 

The agriculturists of all countries expect relief 
from bimetallism. Can it be that they are all in 
error? The gold party fights bimetallism on the 
ground that it lowers the value of money, i.e., its 
power in purchase; that, in other words, it means 
rising prices of commodities, and that this creates 
distress. The present is showing, however, that 
capital and regular income are not opposed to the 
interests ot the producing classes. Liquidation 
through failures, financial ebb, preventing all in- 
crease in salaries and lessening opportunity for 
work on the part of wage workers, proves that the 
crisis has become general and that every individual 
is interested in overcoming it The Social Demo- 
crats comprehend this perfectly. From their pomt 
of view they are perfectly justified in interposing 
in favor of the gold standard for it is hastening 
social revolution, while the economic boom which 
would follow bimetallism would put an end to all 
discontent and class strife. 



176 



THE REWIEIV OF REWIEIVS. 



A WORD ABOUT RUSSIA. 

A word about Russia. The utterances of the 
SUesian Times on that topic contradict the facts. 
Russia is at present driven from the market because 
the range of prices there is still higher than in 
India, and India because hers is higher than that 
of Argentina. Bimetallism will afford the Russians 
the ];>08sibility of resuming specie payments, cer- 
tainly limiting the premium upon gold there to the 
extent in which gold is cheapened. You cannot 
ask bimetallism to shut out all the evUa in the 
world. If it but helps us against an army of the 
worst ones we ought not to repel it 



Quite lately the bimetallists were accused of not 
knowing what they wanted and of not being agreed 
one with another. Precisely the reverse is true. In 
all principal points they are absolutely agreed, as 
they have just now proved afresh by the declaration 
they put forth in common in the Silver Commission. 
Permit me to conclude in the words of Edward 
Suess: ** Whether silver will again become a f nil - 
valued metal all over the world is no longer a ques 
tion; the question is, What trials has Europe to pass 
through before that end shall be reached t" Ed^ 
ward Suess is no agrarian but a world-famous 
savant and a Liberal member of the Austrian Par- 
liament 



BIMETALLISM: SOME DAMAGING FACTS IN ITS HISTORY. 



BY FRANK IRVING HERRIOTT. 



EVERY economist of prominence, so far as I 
know, who claims that a double standard 
money medium of gold and silver is both workable 
and desirable in national and international trade 
confidently and constantly cites one notable example 
of what he considers an actual achievement of 
bimetallism. This example is the experience of 
France and the industrial world under the operation 
of the famous law of 7-17 Germinal, An. XL (March 
28, 1808), and continuing to March 21, 1876, which 
established the celebrated mint ratio for gold and 
silver coinage of 1 to 15J^, the French government 
thereby taking upon itself the burden of coining in 
that proportion unlimited quantities of the precious 
metals into legal tender money. As part and parcel 
of this experience there is ^ways included the re- 
sults of the Latin Monetary Union, made up of 
France, Italy, Switzerland. Belgium and for a part 
of the time Greece, organized in 1865 and lasting 
formally up to 1878, although the convention was 
practically abandoned in 1876. Bimetallists invari- 
ably, in the storm and stress of argumentation, 
bring forward the French experiment. It proves 
beyond all shadow of question, they firmly believe, 
the practicability of bimetallism. They bank upon 
it, draw upon it and hold it in reserve with endur- 
ing trust. This French example has exerted a 
potent infiuence in keeping up the spirits of bimet- 
allists in the face of world wide desertion and op- 
position and indifference on the part of the prac- 
tical business world, and in gaining converts to the 
cause. All who have read President Walker's 
exceptionally lucid and forceful writings on money 
and monetary problems will recall his spirited 
advocacy of bimetallism and his vigorous insistence 
upon the operation of the French law as an incon- 
trovertible proof of the soundness and desirability 
of the double money standard. President Andrews 



in his "Honest Dollar" and other writings con- 
stantly resorts to this stock illustration for proof 
and comfort 

It requires considerable courage, therefore, to call 
in question this time-honored argument de facto. 
Some writers nevertheless have had the astonishing 
audacity to do this very thing.. Caimes, Bageboi 
and Jevons, pre eminent among political economists 
and authorities on monetary theory and practice, 
while showing great deference to the '' compensa- 
tory *' action of the bimetallic law of France, pro- 
nounced judgment against its adoption and advo- 
cated monometallism. Mr. Robert Giffen, the 
noted English statistician, financier and editor of 
the London Economist, has always been an out-and- 
out opponent of bimetallic money, and in his ** Case 
Against Bimetallism " he scouts the whole French 
experiment. His theoretical objections are weighty 
and his investigations into its actual workings show 
serious defects and resulting evils. But despite all 
attacks and questionings, the confidence of the 
advocates of a double monetary standard in the 
conclusiveness of the French experience has been 
disturbed only to a slight degree. 

TWO RECENT WORKS ON MONETARY SCIENCE. 

Within the past six months, however, there have 
been given students of monetary science two pro- 
found, scholarly works on the history and the means 
and methods of the circulating money medium that 
must needs shake greatly, if they do not shatter 
utterly, this serene faith in the undoubted benefi- 
cence of the French bimetallic law. Mr. W. A 
Shaw of England has lately published " The History 
of Currency, 1252-1894; Being an Account of the 
Gold and Silver Moneys and Monetary Standards of 
Europe and America, together with an Examination 
of the Effects of Ciuxency and Exchange I^e 



BIMETALLISM: SOME DAMAGING FACTS IN ITS HISTORY, 



111 



nomena on Commercial and National Progress and 
Well-being." (New York.) He traces with excep- 
tional care and minuteness the almost infinite 
attempts and infinite failures of European states to 
cany out precisely similar bimetaUic laws and coin- 
age regulations, beginning with the Florentine 
minting laws in 1252 and following the bewildering 
legal and market variations of the gold and silver 
ratios down through the centuries to the closing of 
the Indian mints to the unlimited coinage of silver 
in 18W. He gives us the " natural history '* of the 
French law, and his ea^si dea motifs actuating 
French statesmen and financiers throughout their 
Tiried exx>eriences with bimetallism sets forth facts 
that must cause the most doughty champions of the 
doable standard to pause and re-examine their f^itb 
and their reasons therefor. " The verdict of his- 
tory," 883^8 Mr. Shaw, *' on the great problem of the 
nmeteen^ century— bimetallism— is clear and crush- 
ing and final, and against the evidence of history no 
gainsaying of theory ought for a moment to stand. " 
Mr. Horace White, of the New York Evening Post 
and Nation, a i^ast master in matters of money and 
finance, has rendered an incalculable service to 
teachers and students and the general public in his 
Tohmie, '* Money and Banking Illustrated by Ameri- 
can History *' (Boston), which embodies in remark- 
ably clear, concise English the best fruits of years 
of study of monetary theory and actual money mar- 
kets. As every reader of the Post or Nation would 
tiave anticipated, Mr. White *' goes for " bimetallism 
▼ith hammer and tongs, and he belabors the theory 
most unmercifully. Neither Mr. Shaw nor Mr. 
White bend the knee or make obeisance to the pal- 
hatif e and " equalizing^" effects of the French law. 
They both indict the scheme of France and the 
Latin Union in unqualified terms, and the mass of 
endenoe which they separately bring forward 
against it, and bimetallism in general, makes '* the 
caw against bimetallism " overwhelming. 

In view of the persistent, widespread desire among 
all parties. Republican, Democratic, Populist, Free 
Siher and Labor, " to promote the use of silver," 
and in furtherance of this object their imdimmed 
hofw of some day reaching an international '* agree- 
ment" whereby the leading industrial nations 
covenant to receive at a fixed ratio of 1 to lb% or 
I to 20 unlimited amounts of gold and silver and 
coin them into legal tender, it may be profitable to 
<^ainine briefly the facts and arguments adduced 
A these noteworthy contributions to monetary 
science tiiat warrant a verdict so hostile to interna- 
tional as well as to national bimetallisuL 

pailubib to beauzb a bihetallio monbtary unit. 

The fact continually staring the reader in the face 
at be picks his way through the countless changes 
m coinage laws, owing to the myriad variations in 
money values in the dozen or more European states 
from 1253 to 1894, is the invariable and inevitable 
hreakdown of all schemes to realize a bimetallic 
noDfly udl The great Italian city republics. 



Florence and Venice, the several German states, 
Austria, the Netherlands, France, Spain, England 
and the United States put forth prodigious efforts to 
maintain the concurrent use of gold and silver as 
money. But multitudinous failures make up the 
story of every attempt of governments to regulate 
or control the values of the precious metals. There 
never was, except in transit, a simultaneous circula- 
tion of gold and silver. The legal ratio decreed by 
monarchs or by legislative fiat or by orders in coun- 
cil and the market ratio of the precious metals were 
never one and the same for any length of time, ex- 
cept at the necessary coincidence when the value of 
one metal was passing above or below the legal ratio 
with respect to the other. All that European states 
succeeded in obtaining in their vain strivings after 
a bimetallic or double standard was an '* alternate " 
standard or unit of exchange; now gold, now silver, 
but never both together for any length of tima 

WATEE WILL NOT BUN UP HILL. 

The history of European currencies is a long, 
dreary narrative of endless unsuccessful attempts to 
make water run up hill. States were forever pass- 
ing laws and monarchs and councils decreeing what 
the values of coins should be, the ** ratio " of gold 
and silver in the coin, the rates and tariffs for for- 
eign exchange; and they ware forever repealing and 
changing their regpolations in consequence of the 
ever changing market values of the money metals. 
The legal ratios differed in every state and never 
remained long the same in the same state. Each 
state and monarch tried to overreach the others in 
attracting the precious metals to them and in pre- 
venting their exportation. "The export of gold 
and silver," says Mr. Shaw. " was forbidden on pain 
of death; and it was no mere paper threat, for 
prominent London merchants were drawn and quar- 
tered for the offense." But all the laws, decrees^ 
proclamations, fiats and punishments proved ineffec- 
tual to prevent the infiux and efflux of the metals 
whenever bullionists, arbitragists, merchants, bank- 
ers and all who handled large amounts of coin were 
able to profit the fraction of 1 per cent, or were 
better able to settle foreign balances with this or that 
metal Bulers had constantly to debase or "cry 
down " the coins in order to prevent their exporta- 
tion, making them of lees intrinsic value than their 
face, so that goldsmiths and money changers could 
not realize a profit by throwing them into the melt- 
ing pot. In the struggle of states for the possession 
of the precious metals for war and trade purposes 
" any variation of one metal served as a vantage 
point against the other, as a lever to press upon 
and force it out. One metal would have been safe 
(so long as no partial depreciation was allowed), two 
metals served simply as fulcra to each other's oscil- 
lations, to the tmdoing of both." Men in trade 
transactions always paid in the cheaper, light 
weight coin, the overvalued metal, and sent the 
undervalued metal and good coin abroad to obtain 
the profit Ck>untries were soon denuded of their 



178 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS, 



good coin and had only clipx>ed and light weight 
coin or coin of the cheaper metal; precisely the 
same that has happened in this cotmtry in conse- 
quence of greenback and silver legislation. GK)yem- 
ments were simply powerless to prevent men satis- 
fying their innate, overweening desire for gain 
"When snch excellent opportunities were afforded to 
profit at the people's expense by merely taking ad- 
vantage of the differences between legal and market 
ratios. This confusion worse confounded prevailed 
everywhere throughout Europe down to the estab- 
lishment of a monometallic system by England in 
1816, when it ceased troubling Englishmen, but con- 
tinued for the rest of the world. The losses to 
peoples and governments from the perpetual seesaw 
of mint ratios and market values kept constantly on 
with only varying degrees of monotony and in- 
tensity, the situation being ameliorated immensely, 
but in no wise changed so far as evil practices were 
concerned, by the discovery of America and the 
opening of Mexican and Peruvian mines; and the 
only ones to profit by the universal confusion were 
the money changers, as has ever been their wont 
since time out of mind. 

MR. SHAW'S AUDACIOUS THESIS. 

A matter of transcendent interest and importance 
to all interested in the history of money and our 
present monetary problems should be noted here. 
Mr. Shaw's patient and extensive investigations 
enable us to settle the question beyond all perad- 
ventnre. Bimetallists in citing the example of 
France's law of double tender between 1808 and 
1876 are fond of using Stanley Jevons' gracious fig- 
ure of speech that France served as a '* canal " or 
*' connecting pipe " between silver and gold using 
countries, permitting the ebb and flow of money 
values to be distributed evenly over the whole in- 
dustrial world. This function performed by France, 
they declare, saved the nations from universal crash 
and wreckage during the fifties when the immense 
floods of gold i)oured in on them after the discoveries 
in California, Russia and Australia. Now every 
gingle state and petty principality in Elurope, from 
X\m tliirti-cntji ci-iriuj> iiuwu, ticted as a "canal" 
and ** contiecting pipe " through which gold and sil- 
ver crrald bi^ distributed. Each state played pre- 
cisaly the same fTinctioii that France, after 1803, is 
ivui] Ui havi* done with hucU beneficial results to 
iiiimkind. If France was able to assist industry so 
miirvG lonely by her lone loni self and solitary law 
in tlie cracial days between 1848 and 1860, by a 
jjiihty of rea&onini? the sfcates and principalities of 
Ecirope and their thousand and one bimetallic laws 
l>a««nfl b<2tweea VlTi2 and 18(i;5 likewise worked un- 
told good to industry and tbf^ toiling millions. But 
^w^ know that th«y di<! nut. They simply worked 
f-f^uriL^itm, iiifinit** Insfi and waste, infinite 
wan tnie — and I hardly think any one 
^../tifully and conscientiously read Mr. 
■•tia anil Iny himself up alongside it for 
wv@ the d^ire or courage to doubt 




this ^ and if parity of reasoning holds in the 
reverse, the French bimetallic law worked harm 
and caused loss instead of good and profit to the 
nations of the earth. Such, anyway, is the anda- 
cious thesis of Mr. Shaw. 

He astonishes the reader first by showing that 
Napoleon's famous law of 1803 contains nothing 
new so far as the ratio of gold and silver was con- 
cerned. Calonne, in 1785, had by an edict eetal 
lished the memorable ratio of 1 to 15?.^. But it ha . 
been practically the same since 1726— «n edict of 
that year making it 1 to 14%. Following the ratio 
through the seventeenth century, we learn that in 
1656 it was 14(; in 1640, 1449; in 1636. 15.36, and in 
1615 it was 13. 90. These slight differences warrant the 
statement that for two centuries and a half France 
had practically the same bimetallic law. There was 
no innovation in 1803, and there was no desire to 
establish ** bimetallism " in its later technical sense. 
Indeed the intentions of the framers of the law were 
to establish silver monometallism. " The experience 
of France under this new regime is, therefore, in no 
wise different in kind from such experience as has 
been described for the preceding centuries." Then 
follows in a succeeding paragraph statements of 
such a startling and sweeping nature that I quote it 
entire: 

The second idea which is commonly entertained with 
regard to the action of France during this later period 
[1803-1876], viz., that her action secured for the world a 
large a fixed and steady ratio, is equally— indeed, sti*. 
more — ^fallacious. At no point of time during the present 
century has the actual market ratio, dependent on the 
conmiercial value of silver, corresponded with the 
French ratio of 15>^, and at no point of time has France 
been free from the disastrous* influence of that want of 
correspondence between the leg^ and the commercial 
ratio. The opposite notion which prevails and finds ex- 
pression in the ephemeral bimetallic Uterature of to-day 
is simply due to ignorance. From 1815 England has been 
withdrawn from this action of a bimetaUic law, and the 
modem insular x)amphleteer has before his eyes no sign 
of its working in his own country. He therefore a»- 
Bumes a universality of such experience, and attributes 
it to the French legislative ratio. It is in no x>olemic 
spirit, but simply in the interest of science, that this paiw 
ticular or misapplication of history to the squaring of a 
theory is to be branded. The plainest facts of history 
are thereby absolutely misrepresented, and the assumi)- 
tion of cause and effect is so far from being true that 
the repose of the Enghsh currency history in the nine- 
teenth century is to be attributed to the absence of a 
bimetallic system ; or to its despite rather than its 
presence and influence (pp. 178-179) . 

DIVERGENCE OF MARKET AND LEGAL RATIOS. 

At no time during the present century did the 
market and legal ratios coincide. The divergence 
was now above and now below. By means of 
numerous elaborate tables and a striking '* graphio 
representation of the bimetallic experience of 
France," Mr. Shaw shows us, as Giffen has already 
done, the constant leaps and bounds and endless criss- 
crossing of gold and silver past each other and over 
the legislative line of 1 to ISJ^. The precious metals 



BIMETALLISM: SOME DAMAGING FACTS IN ITS HISTORY. 



179 



were continually on the move, now into France and 
now oat, according as silver and gold were nnder or 
over valued. France's cnrrency in 1803 was chiefly 
gold. In a few years it was wholly silver. The net 
importation or balance of the imports of silver over 
the exports of gold from 1830 to 1852 was the 
enormoDS sum of £92,000,000 sterling, or in our de- 




UK. HORACE WHITE. 

nonunation $460,000,000. This cheap metal sent the 
gold which it displaced out of the country. With 
18S2 there is a change; silver was exported and gold 
imported, and in fourteen years a total net importa- 
tion of £135,000,000 took place, or $885,000,000, over 
md above the silver exportation. France by her 
law simply made a vicarious sacrifice of her mints 
and people to the profit getting propensities of 
money brokers in London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna and 
New York, " and so far from it giving France a 
stable currency, it was the one thing," says Mr. 
Siaw, " which unsettled it and made a stable cur- 
rency impossible. * * 

MR, HORACE WHITE'S INDICTMENT. 

Space does not permit me to review at length the 
mass of damaging evidence and the cogent argu- 
ments presented in Mr. White's indictment of 
national and international bimetallism given us in 
bis masterly exjiosition of the principles of ** Money 
and Banking." The scientific literature of eco- 
nomics contains few works that deal with such an 
intricate subject as this in language so vigorous and 
lucid as to hold the reader to chapter after chapter 
of the narrative with an ever vivid sense of refresh- 
ing delight and enlightenment and astonishment at 
the anther's firm grasp and comprehension of his 
subject, and power to make his readers see with 
liim, like this work before us. In Part I. we have 
BookL given up to the ** Evolution of Money," in 
which the nature, general principles, coinage and 
kgal tender features of the circulating medium are 



set forth and illustrated from American monetary 
experiences. Book U. is devoted to the ** Grold 
Standard " and the reason why the leading indus- 
trial nations have been led to prefer and to adopt it. 
In Part IL, on ** Representative Money," we have 
" Fiat Money " (Book I.) discussed and the conclu- 
sions driven hard home by striking illustrations 
from our own history; and "Banks" (Book IL) 
He disposes forever, it is to be hoped, of the myth 
called "The Crime of '73." "The truth is," he 
says, " that the bill was before Congress two years 
and ten months, that it was printed thirteen times 
by order of Congress, that the debates on it occupy 
sixtynsix columns in the Senate proceedings and 
seventy-eight colimms in the House proceedings, 
and that the discontinuance of the silver dollar was 
specially discussed in the House. " Our silver dollar 
had as a matter of fact disappeared from our circu- 
lating medium after 1834, when Congress under- 
valued it in the law of that year. One of the most 
valuable portions of Mr. "White's work, especially 
just at the present time when our statesmen and 
financiers and business men are worrying themselves 
to distraction over the sad plight into which our 
national finances have fallen, is his presentation of 
the nature and inherent evils of our hybrid currency, 
greenbacks, silver and gold, and our government 
banking operations. 

Mr. White thus declares his belief in the " natural 
evolution " of the single gold standard : 

"If we find a movement of civilized mankind 
going on steadily for a hundred years, working out 
in different countries uniform results which com- 
mend themselves to successive generations, the pre- 
sumptions are all in favor of that movement being 
beneficial. I am so well convinced of the benefits 
of the single gold standard that if all power were 
placed in my hands I would not introduce anything 
different from it. I should consider it presumptu- 
ous to attempt to interfere with an obviously natu 
ral evolution in human affairs. I should know, 
moreover, that such an attempt would bo futile, 
because the first step to be taken would be to alter 
the preferences and likings of individual men. So- 
ciety consists of aggregations of individuals, who 
in their private business prefer one ounce of gold 
to sixteen ounces, of silver, or thirty two ounces, as 
the case may be. Unless I can change this prefer- 
ence and liking I cannot alter the monetary stand- 
ard of Christendom. It is this preference which 
paralyzes all the international monetary confer- 
ences. The secret thought of the delegates in the 
Brussels Conference was something like this: 
* What would happen the day after international 
bimetallism if people should continue to prefer one 
ounce of gold to sixteen ounces of silver ? ' Any 
responsible minister of finance must recoil before 
that query." 



THE RIGHT HON. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN. 

A CHARACTER SKETCH. 



THE new Secretary for the British Colonies is at 
this moment the most interesting political 
Agwre in the British Empire. Mr. Joseph Chamber- 
lain was the hero of the elections. Lord Salisbury 
attaining the Premiership for the third time; 




Chamberlain was to sit for the first time in 

KlSorj Cabinet, and every one was cnrious to see 
m he would manage to hold his own among his 
kriha^aes. The Conservatives feared him, the 
fifeends loathed him. Mr. Chamberlain alone be- 
■^ad in hizn with a perfect faith— a faith that 
Stared not, and that was capable of meeting any 
^hiHnd that may be made upon it by friend or foe. 
JjCracent management of the South African diffi- 
Sttias has done much to bring the appraisement 
■lldi critice np toward his own valuation of him- 

What IB the ke3mote of Mr. Chamberlain's char- 
acter? Ambition, say some; self-suflaciency, say 
othen; while ** the capital I '' would be a very gen- 



eral verdict But that is not Mr. Chamberlain's 
opinion; and ui)on this subject Mr.« Chamberlain 
should surely be recognized as an authority — the 
first authority, indeed, since Mr. Chamberlain alone 
^ can know the inspiring motive, the dominating 
passion, the fixed idea which supplies the clue to all 
his ix>licies and all his programmes. The keynote 
of Mr. Chamberlain's career is self -forgetfulness— a 
readiness to efface himself in serving the cause to 
which he has dedicated his life. And that cause ? 
That cause is not the making of a. private fortune, 
or the achievement of a political reputation. He 
cares for none of these things in comparison with 
the great aim and end of all his work and all his 
thought The supreme passion of Mr. Chamber- 
lain's life, the motor which drove him into munici- 
pal xK)litics in Birmingham, which compelled him to 
serve the country as a Radical Cabinet Minister 
nnder Mr. Gladstone, and is now compelling him 
to serve the Empire as Colonial Secretary in a Tory 
administration, has always been the same. 

THE KEY TO HIS CAREER. 

From his boyhood up, Joseph Chamberlain ha^ 
been consumed by a passionate longing to benefit 
the lot of the common people. To outward appear- 
ance short-sighted jieople might imagine that in his 
screw-making business days he was intent upon 
the interest of the capitalist, and in his late political 
developments, when he was basking in the smiles 
of duchesses, and being lionized in the stately palaces 
of England's '* splendid paupers," that he was some- 
what more sympathetic with the classes than with 
the masses. But to draw such conclusions would 
be to do Mr. Chamberlain wrong. Not John Bums, 
nor Keir Hardie, nor Louise Michel, is more con- 
stantly preoccupied by the necessity for doing 
something to make the cottage of the laboring man 
less of a hovel and more of a home. It is true that 
his devotion to the disinherited of the world has 
not seemed to him to demand the sacrifices which 
were in vain suggested to the young man of many 
possessions in the GK)spel. But Mr. Chamberlain 
denied himself this showy form of self abnegatioTi 
only in order that he might strengthen himself for 
the purpose of befriending the friendless i)oor. 

>THE TRIBUNE-TRUSTEE FOR THE PEOPLE. 

When unkind controversialists charge Mr. Cham- 
berlain with inconsistency, their accusations only 
provoke a smile on the lips of that statesman. He 
has steered by the pole star of this fundamental 
conviction. He has been a steward for the people, 
and his one thought is always whether he has been 
f aithfirt in his stewardship. Whether it is his for- 
tune—a considerable one, due chie^y to the success 
with which his firm crushed out the competition of 



182 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



all smaller firms in the screw business — ^his mnnici* 
pal influence, or his political i)06ition, Mr. Cham- 
l)erlain recognizes that he holds everything in trust 
for the x>eople. To such a length does he carry this 
that he can never bring himself to consider that he 
has any right to more than one-half of his own pri- 
vate fortune. The other half is not his. it is theirs— 
a kind of trust fund of which he is merely the ad- 
ministrator. It is this conception which gives unity 
to his career, that redeems it from all charge of self- 
seeking^ and vindicates his unswerving consistency. 

HIS SOLE AIM m POLITIOS. 

To promote the welfare of the common man, to 
make the miserable less wretched, and to make a 
little more comfort attainable by the disinherited of 
this world's gooda— that has been, in good report 
and in ill, the supreme object of his life. Others 
who did not know the secret purpose of his heart 
misjudged him. But Mr. Chamberlain never mis- 
judged himself. He knew whither he was steering. 
He might tack to catch what wind he could in his 
sails. If he deviated from the straight course it 
was but that he might the more speedily urge his 
onward way to his destined goal. His career to 
those who have not that clue may seem a somewhat 
tangled mass of inconsistencies. To those who can 
see the end from the beginning in Mr. Chamberlain's 
•' case everything is clear. Nor can there be any 
mistake as to the one increasing purpose which runs 
through the busy years. 

HIS RELATION TO PARTIES. 

Mr. Chamberlain, say his detractors, has been every- 
thing by turns. In his salad days a Tory, in his 
early manhood a Republican, then a Radical and 
Home Buler, after that a Radical Unionist, now a 
member of a Tory Cabinet.* What changes are 
left for him to accomplish ? To which Mr. Cham- 
berlain would reply: '' Parties are as means to an 
end. If I would reach my destination, what matters 
it whether I go by rail, travel by steamboat, or use 
the stage coach, so long as I always use the means 
that will most directly and sx>eedily carry me to my 
goal ? Who would be fool enough to flout a traveler 
for not consistently sticking to a railway train 
when the sea had to be crossed, or for taking a car- 
riage from the railway terminus to a country seat ? 
The only consistency that counts is the consistency 

* See, for instance, the Westminster Gazette of July 11, 1805. 
Writing on this favorite theme it says:—" The truth is that 
Mr. Chamberlain is the supreme special pleader in politics. 
There never was any one to equal him in that resiiect, and 
as he grrows older he seems to surpass himself. He has sup- 
plied a complete set of arguments for almost every point of 
view in politics— for Home Rule and against Home Rule; for 
ending the House of Lords and for leaving it in ix>8se88ion; 
for disestablishing churches and for thwarting those who 
attempt to disestablish them. He has described Toryism 
from a Radical point of view and Radicalism from a Tory 

Soint of view; he has taken every prominent statesman in 
etail— Mr. Qladstone, Lord Salisbury, the Duke of Devon- 
shire, Mr. Goschen and a dozen others— and shown us first 
their Satanic and then their angelic side, or vice versa. The 
great measures which were ten years ago to inspire the dem- 
ocracy and lead them into their promised land are now, 
according to the same authority, the turbulent ravings or 
diseased minde/' 



that is color blind as to the means as long as they 
help you to your end." 

HAS NOT THE MOUNTAIN COME TO MAHOMET ? 

There is a good deal in that. But Mr. Chamber- 
lain would say still further, *' When you taunt me 
with changing parties you forget that it is at least 
possible that the change is in the parties and not 
in Joseph of Birmingham. The Tories have come 
to me; I have not gone toward them. And who is 
there who would be so hide-bound in party pedantry 
as to refuse the use of a political opi)onent when 
that opponent has come over to your side. Turn- 
coat you call me, and why ? Because I have con- 
verted the Tories to the principles of Birmingham 
Radicalism. You doubt it, do you ? What, then, 
do you think of free education? How long is it 
since this was regarded, even by Liberals of the 
Gladstonian stripe, as a socialist heresy ? But who 
carried it ? The Tory Government. And why did 
they carry it ? Because they had been permeaterl 
by the influence of the Birmingham school As it 
was with free education, so it is with county coun- 
cils, with allotments, and all the rest of their social 




IN 1880. 

legislation. The proof of the pudding is in the 
eating of it, and the best way of testing whether the 
change is in the party or the person is to compare 
their respective programmes, say, in 1880 and in 
1895, and see wnether it is the party that has ap- 
proxmiated to the person or the person to the party. " 

PROGRAMME-MAKER IN ORDINARY. 

** Programmes, forsooth I " sneers the Gladston- 
ian. *'Mr. Chamberlain is always making pro- 
grammes. ' * " Certainly, ' ' replies Mr. Chamberlain ; 



THE RIGHT HON. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 183 



" it is my destiny to mark out the tasks which the 
political parties have to accomplish. No one au- 
thorizes my programmes. They are my very, yery 
own, all bom from one brain mider the fertilizing 
influence of one great thought But although no 
one will authorize them, both parties make haste to 
execute them. And whether is it nobler to be the 
' ramer of the plan of campaign, or merely to be one 
»f the rank and file who march and countermarch 
in obedionce to the orders drawn up long before in 
the tent of the commander-in-chief ? '' 

To the law and to the testimony! What are the 
facta ? Mr. Chamberlain drew up before 1880 the 
Radical programme, with its manifold F's— Free 
Church, Free Land, Free Labor and Free Schools. 
In 1885 he published the unauthorized programme 
of the Liberal party, which converted the defeat 
begun in the towns into a brilliant victory in the 
country districts. As Mr. Labouchere put it: '* His 
three acres and a cow romped in." Now again he 
has launched a progranmie, this time for the 
Unionist party. What else is there left him to do ? 
Excepting the Home Bule party, he has fitted all 
the parties with programmes. And who can deny 
that they are not good programmes, all stamx>ed with 
"J. C, his mark?" And in every programme is 
not the same dominant motive visible ?— to improve 
the common lot of the common jieople. That is the 
key to all that is mysterious, the clue to all that is 
labyrinthine in the working of Mr. Chamberlain's 
apparently tortuous career. 

TO-DAT, AS YESTERDAY, THE SAME. 

^'But," objects the scandalized Radical, "what 
about Home Rule, about the Peers, about the 
CSiurch?" But Mr. Chamberlain, placid and un- 
perturbed, smiles benignly upon his questioner. 
** Home Rule ? — yes, of course I was, and am all for 
Home Rule, properly understood. Why, I am the 
original patentee of Home Rule. Did I not sit at the 
Bound Table Conference which almost agreed to 
recommend my scheme? I am for the Union, of 
course, always was and always will be. My Home 
Bule is not antagonistic to the Union. And, mark 
my words, my Hom^ Rule will settle the Lnsh ques- 
tion yet No doubt about that. What are its 
distinctive characteristics? First, it must not be 
called Home Rule— a rose by any other name would 
smell as sweet Therefore it must be an Lish local 
i^vemment bilL Secondly, it must be framed and 
•carried by a Conservative administration, because 
no other can get Home Bule through the House of 
Lords. All other details are immaterial" 

THE PAUL. OF 1895 AND THE SAUL OF 1885. 

Then, as to the House of Lords, Mr. Chamberlain 
has smnmed up handsomely the shortcomings of the 
old reactionary Chamber. Liberals hungry for a 
good phrase and a mouth filling sentence, quote 
eagerly his invective of 1885. Mr. Chamberlain has 
not a word to alter or erase. The old House of Peers 
was aU that he said it was; but a House of Peers 



that prostrates itself before the chariot of Social 
Reconstruction; a House of Peers that is an inviol- 
able bulwark against his Liberal enemies; a House 
of Peers that is no longer reactionary, but regener- 
ate; a House of Peers that has found salvation, and 
a House of Peers that only waits to register the con- 
clusions Mr. Chamberlain may arrive at as to the 
reform which its own constitution should undergo — 
how can such a House be confounded with the 




IN 1888. 

House against which Mr. Chamberlain hurled his 
mighty anathemas? Why, you might as well de- 
nounce the Apostle Paul for hostility to Christianity, 
because one Saul held the clothes of those who stoned 
Stephen ! Paul changed his name as well as his 
nature; unfortunately the Peers, although regener- 
ate, have not found a new name to show that they 
have a new heart. But Mr. Chamberlain knows, 
and Mr. Chamberlain is content. 

THE NONCONPORMIBT SAVIOR OF STATE CHURCHES. 

Finally, there is the question of the Church. Here 
Mr. Chamberlain is quite frank with himself. No 
man is less of a churchman than he; he is secular 
to the finger- tips. His religious connections, such 
as they are, are Unitarian; that is to say, he is by 
birth and temperament a member of the most non- 
conforming of all the Nonconformist bodies. In 
principle, in creed, in everything, he is an antago- 
nist of the Anglican State Establishment In his 



184 



THE REyiEU^ OF REI^IEIVS. 



yotinger days Mr. Chamberlain nsed to go down to 
Wales and elsewhere, and make such fervent 
speeches on anti-state chnrch lines as wonld have 
done credit to any fervent gospeller among them alL 
'* Why, it is even as if he were altogether such a 
man as Henry Richard or Samnel Morley/' was the 
amazed remark of an incrednlons listener. '* Bnt I 
am altogether snch a man as Henry Richard," was 
Mr. Chamberlain's reply. How then comes it that 
he is a mainstay and pilhsur of strength for a cabinet 
whose mandate is to rescue the State chnrches of 
Wales and of Scotland from disestablishment and 
disendowment ? 

IB THIS PARIS NOT WORTH THIS MASS ? 

It is not difficult to see how he can reconcile his 
present action with his unchanged and unchanging 
devotion to Nonconformist anti-state church prin- 
ciples. Prom an abstract point of view no doubt he 
agrees with the Welsh Nonconformists in thinking 
that the Establishment of the Anglican Church, 
with its miserable minority of adherents, is bad for 
the Church, unjust to the Nonconformists, and 
utterly indefensible. But as Henri Quatre said long 
ago, ** Paris is well worth a mass;'' so our Henri 
Quatre of Birmingham, with his mind full of the 
need for the pullet in every poor man's i>ot, deliber- 
ately decides that social reconstruction is worth a 
temi)orary postponement of Welsh disestablishment., 
After all, nothing that he could do or say would 
briag disestablishment one whit nearer. To parade 
abstract principles about Establishment to which it 
is absolutely impossible to give any effect may min- 
ister to a harmless vanity; it is not an act worthy of. 
a statesman. And a statesman, nay, rather a school-' 
master of statesmen, is Mr. Chamberlain. To place 
a pious opinion ui)on the shelf, that is the price for 
the immediate effective alliance with a party that in 
return is willing to put all its other cherished prin- 
ciples on the shelf and to set to work to place on the 
statute book the measures defined in the Birming^ 
ham programme. There are times and seasons for 
all thing& Disestablishment can wait There is 
no inconsistency in rearrang^ing the order of prece- 
dence according to the altered circumstances of an 
altered time. 

BRITAIN'S ONLY ABDIEL. 

So Mr. Chamberlain with gayety of heart laughs 
away the vehement invective of his quondam allies. 
He is wiser than they, wiser and more far-seeing, 
that is alL He can appreciate the relative value of 
competing reforms — as indeed it is his nature to. 
Toward his assailants he can but have one sentiment 
— profound pity and a constantly renewed wonder. 
For how comes it that Englishmen can actually be 
so slow of heart and blind of eye as not to see the 
transparent integrity of his every action and the 
fidelity as of an Abdiel with which he has abided by 
his convictions ? 

This may not appear quite historical. But it is 
more historical in one respect thao xauch that passes 



for history. For it is in this fashion and in no other 
that recent history mirrors itself in the mind of one 
of those who have done most to make it. 

Some of our readers will be inclined to think that 
the foregoing pages have been *' wrote sarcastic." 
Therein they will make a mistake. They represent 
a well-meant and painstaking effort to indicate in 
outline how Mr. Chamberlain appears in the eyes of 
Mr. Chamberlain. If I had the tongues of men and 
of angels. I might be able to do adequate justice to 
that theme; but having only one tongue, and that 
of a man and not of an angel, I feel unequal to the 
task. But after all, there is more in Mr. Chamber 
Iain's own estimate of himself than most of our 
Liberal friends were at one time willing to admit 

A BUTTRESS, NOT A PILLAR. 

One of the interesting things in the present i>oliti- 
cal combination is the fact that Mr. Chamberlain, a 
Unitarian, should be sitting cheek by jowl with 
Lord Salisbury, the elect of the High Anglicans, to 
whom Dissenters are an abomination, and Unitarians 
little better than blank infidels. At this moment 
there are doubtless many searchings of heart in 
country rectories when they reflect upon the text 
* *Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers ;" f or what 
fellowship have the true-blue Tories and the high- 
flying Anglicans with the Nonconformist who is not 
'even a Trinitarian ? They will probably take con 
solation to their souls from the thought that no 
doubt it is well to have even a Unitarian as a bul- 
wark for a state church. 

Lord Eldon used to declare, with frequent pro- 
fanity, that he was a buttress, not a pillar of the 
Church, as he supported from the outside a building 
which he never entered. Mr. Chamberlain, who, 
although not so profane, is much more heterodox, 
may be a valuable buttress to the somewhat shaky 
edifice of the Church establishment. Samson was a 
very terrible fellow when his hair was long and his 
strength intact, but none of the wholesale massacres 
which he had wrought among the sons of Philistia 
prevented them finding him a very handy man to 
grind com when he was tneir captive. The com- 
parison is, however, not exactly reassuring for the 
Tories, for Samson when his Yisir had grown again 
proved nimself capable of pulling down the whole 
of the Temple about their ears. Ahiit omen ! 

HIS NONCONFORMIST ANCESTORS. \ 

Allusion has already been made to Mr. Chamber- 
lain's pride in his Nonconformity. On one famous 
occasion he descended upon Wales clad in all the 
glories of hereditary Nonconformity, and made a 
speech which he declared exactly expressed his in- 
most convictions. The passage in his Denbigh 
speech was not trotted out much at the recent elec- 
tion. This is a pity, for it is a very good passage, 
and brings into clear relief the contrast between 
Mr. Joseph Chamberlain of 1884 and 1895. This is 
how it was reported in the morning pai>er3: 

I have no spite against the House of Lords ; but as a 



THE RIGHT HON. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 185 



D ia M P te r — (load and prolonged cheering)— as a Dissenter 
—(renewed cheering)— I haye an account to settle with 
them, and I promise you I wiU not forget the reckoning. 
(Loud cheers.) I boast a descent of which I am as prond 
as any baron may be of the title which he owes to the 
smile of a king or to the fayor of a king's mistress, for I 
ean daim descent from one of the 2,000 ejected minis- 
ten who, in the time of the Stnarts> left home and work 
and profit rather than accept the State-made creed 
^Hiich it was sought to force ux>on them, and for that 
reason, if no other, I share your hopes and your aspira- 
tions, and I resent the insults, the injuries, and the in- 
justice from which you haye suffered so long at the 
hands of a priyileged assembly. (Cheers.) But the cup 
is nearly full (Renewed cheers.) The career of high- 
handed wrong is coming to an end. (Prolonged cheers.) 
The House of Lords haye alienated Ireland, they haye 
oppressed the Dissenters, and they now oppose the en- 
franchisement of the people. We haye been too long a 
peer-ridden nation— (loud cheers)— and I hope you will 
say to them if they will not bow to the mandate of the 
people, that they shall lose f oreyer the authority which 
they haye so long abused. (Loud and prolonged cheers.) 

THB SAINT OP THE FAMOLY. 

This allnsioii to his haying been bom in the Puri- 
tan pnrple shows how strong the sentiment of 
£unil J is with Mr. Chamberlain. It extends back- 
ward and forward, and all ronnd. To be related to 
Mr. Chamberlain is a great and f earfol priyilege, 
sod profitable withal, as seyeral members of the 
Chamberlain ^ens haye found ont in the recent dis- 
tribution of mimsterial offices. The ancestor to 
wboan, he referred in his Denbigh speech was the 
Bat. Richard Sergeant Mr. Sergeant was a fellow 
labarer with Richard Baxter at Kidderminster. The 
•nthcn' of "The Saint's Eyerlasting Best/' in his 
autobiography, pays emphatic tribute to the mani- 
fold worth, the remarkable self-deyotion, and the 
singular sanctity of this admirable ancestor who, 
on his decease, seems to have left all his yirtues in 
direct descent to the present Secretary for the Colo- 
nies. Mr. Sergeant b^^an his ministry at Kidder- 
minster two years after the Battle of Naseby, and 
from 1656 to 1662 he held the liying of Stoke, near 
Kidderminster. But in that black year he was 
ejected by the act of uniformity. He contriyed, 
how e v e r, to survive the dynasty which had deprived 
him of his living, for he did not die until eight years 
after the glorious revolution of 1688. The Whigs 
sent the Stuarts packing, but unfortunately they 
did not repeal the act of uniformity, which con- 
tinues to this day as a stone of stumbling and a rock 
of offense to all those who wish to see the English 
Orarch really national, and not a mere Anglican 
sect. 

FB0FBB80B TYNDALL'S CRITIOISMS. 

This reference by Mr. Chamberlain to his Puritan 
anoeetor was made use of in a curious way ten years 
ago hy Professor Tyndall, who at that moment was 
c ar r yin g on a furious controversy with Mr. Cham- 
berlain concerning lighthouse illuminants: 

*' Mr. Chamberlain,*' said Professor TyndaD, " has re- 
fxnlly indulged in scnne ancestral references. Permit 



me to f oUow his example. It is said that I am distantly 
connected with one William Tjmdale, who was rash 
enough to boast and make good his boast that he would 
place an open Bible within the reach of every ploughboy 
in England. His first reward was exile, and then a 
subterranean cell in the Castle of Vilorden. It was a 
cold cell, and he humbly but vainly prayed for his coat 
to coyer him and for his books to occupy him. In due 
time he was taken from his cell and set upright against 
a poet. Roxmd neck and post was placed a chain, which 
being cunningly twisted, the life was squeezed out of 
him. A bonfire was made of his body afterward. Thus, 
as regards suffering for righteousness' sake, my reputed 
ancestral relation is at least on a par with Mr. Chamber- 
lain's." 

He then went on to point out that William Tyn- 
dale's descendant was suffering evil things at the 
hands of Richard Sergeant's heir; the suggestion 
being that Mr. Chamberlain, who was then Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, was treating Professor 
Tyndall almost as badly as William Tyndale had 
been treated in the days of old. There is no need 
to go into the details of that discussion, further than 
to glean from the newspaper files of the day one 
delicious sentence in which Professor Tyndall de- 
scribes Mr. Chamberlain's method of dealing with 
the truth. After criticising Mr. Chamberlain's 
statement as flimsy and unveracious, he said: *' Be- 
tween truth and untruth there lies a penumbral 
zone which belongs equally to both, and I have often 
admired the adroitness with which Mr. Chamberlain 
sails within the half shadow, but sometimes I fear 
crosses the boundary on the wrong side. ' ' 

HIS PARTNERS IN SCREW MONOPOLY. 

A good deal used to be heard twenty years ago of 
the action by Messrs. Nettlef old, the screw makers 
with whom Mr. Chamberlain is associated in busi- 
ness, in securing a monoi)oly of the screw trade in 
the country. The fact is, that Messrs. Nettlefold 
secured the patents of certain screw-making ma- 
chines. They were able to produce screws better 
and cheaper than any of their competitors, and 
they are said to have used their advantage with a 
much greater regard for the iron laws of political 
economy than for the neighborly consideration of 
live and let live. The story went that they did 
exactly what the American trusts of to-day do. It 
is only fair to Mr. Chamberlain to quote what Rev. 
R. M Grier of Rugeley wrote on the subject when 
Mr. H. R. Grenf ell had attacked Mr. Chamberlain. 
Mr. Grier wrote: 

Up to a recent period I believed the story so industri- 
ously circulated, about the way in which Mr. Chamber- 
lain realized his wealth, and when a friend of his chal- 
lenged the truth of it I had no doubt that it could easily 
be verified. I was quickly, and I need hardly say agree- 
ably, undeceived. Having made careful inquiries both 
of his friends and opponents in Birmingham, I could find 
no foundation whatever for the attacks which haye been 
made upon him as a man of business. I had been giyen 
to understand tliat copies of a threatening circular to 
the small screw manufacturers, whom he is supposed to 
have deliberately ruined, were extant and could be pro- 



186 



THE REyiElV OF REI^!EIVS, 



•duced. I cotild not disooyer one. His firm, I learned^ 
had always stood high among the people, and more e» 
I>ecially the working men of Birmingham, fot honesty 
and straightforward dealing, and all that could be truly 
said against it was that other firms had suffered indi- 
rectly through its success. This, I think can hardly be 
imputed as blame to Mr. Chamberlain. For him, how- 
ever, I hold no brief. His method of carrying on political 
controversy is not always to my taste, and I am the 
servant of a church to which he is not thought to bear 
any good will. I write in the interests of truth. 

The best answer to these accusations is the fact 
1;hat, in Birmingham and in the districts where Mr. 
<Dhamberlain*8 business is carried on, he seems to be 
most liked and best trusted. As a manufacturer 
.and as an employer of labor his conduct cannot have 
been open to much reproach, otherwise there would 
be far more local and personal opposition to him in 
the Midlands than any one can pretend to discover 
to-day. 

HIS AIM AND OBJECT IN LIFE. 

What is Mr. Chamberlain's objective ? What is 
the one dominating principle of his life ? Mr. Cham- 
btrlain has left us in no doubt on this subject, for 
be has himself defined it. His one great crecio was 
thus stated by him ten years ago: 

I am confident in the capacity of a wise government 
resting upon the representation of the whole people, to 
do something to add to the sum of human happiness, to 
Hmooth the way for misfortune and iwverty. We are 
told that this country is the paradise of the rich. It 
should be our duty to see that it does not become the 
purgatory of the poor. .... What I say is that the 
<x)mmunity as a whole co-oi)erating for the benefit of all 
may do something to add to the sum of human happiness 
—do something to make the life of all its citizens, espe- 
cially the poorest of them, somewhat better, somewhat 
nobler, somewhat greater, and somewhat happier. 

HENRY GBOBQE'S DICTUM. 

It is little more than ten years ago since Mr. 
Henry George, the well-known author of " Progress 
and Poverty," was lecturing at Liverpool. He made 
an allusion to the name of Mr. Chamberlain, which 
was loudly cheered; thereupon, interrupting Ms ad- 
dress, he uttered the following words: " Aye, cheer 
him and follow him; the man to raise the standard 
of the natural rights of men — he is* the man to fol 
low." Mr. Q^orge at that time was an embarrassing 
admirer of Mr. Chamberlain. It was said that he 
regarded Citizen Chamberlain as the future Presi- 
dent of the British Republic, and was indeed so 
effusive in his devotion that Mr. Chamberlain got 
his secretary to write to a correspondent to say : ** In 
reply to your inquiry, Mr. Chamberlain desires me 
to say that he has no influence with Mr. Henry 
George, with many of whose opinions he entirely 
disagrees." 

A MAN MADE BT HIS ENEMIES. 

Henry Ward Beecher used to say that we all had 
far more reason to thank Qod for our enemies than 
for our friends. If ever there was a man who had 
cause to remember this somewhat paradoxical say- 



ing, Joseph Chamberlain is that man. No donbt he 
has owed a good deal to his faithful bodyguards; so 
doubt his i>olitical allies have given him more than 
one helping hand. But the people who have made 
him, the men who have built the pedestal from 
which his familiar figure looms high over his fellow- 
men, are first the Tories, who denounced him as 
Jack Cade, and secondly the Radicals, who assailed 
him as Judas. It is upon Judas and Jack Cade, as 
ni)on the two pillars of the arch of the pediment of 
his statae, that Joseph Chamberlain has been raised 
so near the skies. Abuse is, after all, an inverted 
compliment. Richard Chamberlain, for instance, 
has all the family faults, and his political opinions 
are quite as execrable from the good Radical point 
of view as those of his brother Joseph. But who is 
there who thinks Richard worth a single corse, 
while over Joseph they empty the famous reservoir 
of malediction contained in the imprecatory psalms, 
and still are not satisfied ? And when titie Tories 
went black in the face when Mr. Chamberlain's 
name was mentioned, when Lord Salisbury sug- 
gested that his future colleague and dear friend 
should have his head broken as a corrective of his 
opinion about the House of Lords, the general pub- 
lic began to believe that there must be something in 
him. A man must be worth something if he is worth 
swearing at; and as Mr. Chamberlain has never 
wanted a goodly company of objurgators, he has 
found little difficulty in making his way to the tap 
and keeping there. 

THE BOOIE MAN OF 1885. 

There was no doubt considerable cause for the 
anathemas rained upon him like hailstones from the 
Tory press and Tory platforms. Joseph Chamber- 
lain in 1885, with his scornful denunciation of the 
peers, who toiled not, neither did they spin; his 
declaration in favor of the natural rights of man; 
his eloquent pleading for the disinherited x>oor, and 
above all, his sturdy demand for ransom, naturally 
sent a shudder of horror through Torydom. When 
he made these speeches he was Mr. Gladstone's heir 
presumptive. Every one expected that he would be 
the first Radical Prime Minister of England, and 
affrighted Tories predicted that when that evil day 
arrived we snould see a predatory socialism estab- 
lished as the guiding principle of the British Consti- 
tution, and the end of all things would be at hand. 
No wonder that they foamed at the month and 
stormed. Mr. Chamberlain was in those days an 
out-and-out Radical He was for downing the 
House of Lords, disestablishing all churches, and 
carrying out the Birmingham League's policy of 
secular education, and death to the denominational 
schools. As for the landlord and the squire, Mr. 
Chamberlain was as agrarian in his proclivities as 
any Land Leaguer of them all He was a Home 
Ruler of the Home Rulers, a man who had col- 
leagued and conspired with the leading Nationalists. 
In short, it would be difficult to construct out of all 
the political and social programmes of ten years a 



THE RIGHT HON. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN: A CHARACTER SKETCH 187 



comporite so ntterly detestable to the average Tory 
as that which finds expression in ** the Radical pro- 
gramme ** and in Mr. Chamberlain's speeches. 

THE JUDAS OF 1887. 

So it came to pass that all the Tories swore at Joe; 
all or nearly all the Radicals came to swear by him. 
He was their man. He was pledged to them up to 
the hilt He had given hostages to fortune in every 
direction. Radical he was. Radical it seemed he 
mnst remain. Hence it is easy to understand the 
feeling of dismay and of anger which filled the 
Radical ranks when Mr. Chamberlain lifted np his 
heel against the party which had confidently counted 
upon his aid to lead it to victory. ** Judas/' the 
epithet hurled at him on one memorable occasion in 
the House by Mr. T. P. O'Connor, was too mild to 
express the bitterness with which they regarded the 
great apostate. Mr. Labouchere expressed a very 
general feeling among the Liberals when comment- 
ing on the cry of Judas, he declared that it was 
mo6t unjust to the apostle. 

Judas, said Mr. Labouchere, was a most respect- 
able character compared with Mr. Chamberlain. 
When Judas had betrayed his friend, he brought 
back the money and then went and hanged himself. 
To justify any comparison between him and Mr. 
Chamberlain, Judas instead of hanging himself 
should have gone on a starring tour through Judaea, 
«3 the guest and champion of the scribes and Phari- 
sees, declaring that he was the original and only 
apostle, and that all the rest of the twelve were 
disKntients and separatists. 

Notwithstanding Mr. Labouchere's objections, 
Judas continued to be the favorite nickname of Mr. 
Chamberlain with those whose usual method of in- 
timating their disagreement with the views of a 
iTtatfiminn is to call him names. This controversial 
method has its advantages, no doubt, but it hardly 
tends to the amenity of political discussion. Even 
down to this very last election, hatred of Mr. Cham- 
berlain was regarded by many Liberals as one of the 
most potent factors upon which they could count 
fcnrsaocees. 

THB UTILITY OF ABUSE. 

Mr. Chamberlain is not much of a philosopher, 
azkd be is apt to wince under attacks at which a 
wiser man would smile. It is true he is toughness 
itself compared with Lord Rosebery, who is all eye- 
ball; or Mr. Morley, who is so thin-skinned that he 
feels a pin prick more than Mr. Gladstone felt the 
thrust of a bayonet But he is touchy and resentful, 
and like most of us, he lets '*his blessings get 
mcMy, and then calls them curses." So far from 
resenting the denunciation of his Radical enemies, 
he owed to them his one chance of success. Noth- 
ing but the storm of execration which assailed him 
wbenerer his name was mentioned in Radical meet* 
ingt ooold have induced the Tories to tolerate him as 
an allj. To this day there are Tories who distrust 
their new pobtical associate. But the mass of the 



Tories accept him chiefly because the Radicals de- 
nounce him. A man as comprehensively cursed as 
the Jackdaw of Rheims by the whole Radical claque 
must after all be a politician with whom the highest 
of high Tories may rub shoulders. It is true that the 
other shoulder had in time past rubbed up against 
Mr. Pamell and the prisoners of Kilmainham. But 
that is forgotten. Mr. Chamberlain has found sal- 
vation, and these new associates accepted the denun- 
ciations of his former allies as the best credential of 
the reality of his conversion. 

HIS SOLTTABT OHANOE OF OPINION. 

As a matter of fact Mr. Chamberlain is sublimely 
unconscious of any change of opinion. ' '' It is not I 
who change," he said on one famous occasion, '* but 
circumstances." He has even declared that he has 
changed in nothing save his views on female suf- 
frage. Speaking in Birmingham two or three 
years since, he said: 

Mr. M'Keown has referred to what he calls my early 
Radicalism. I hope I shall not alarm him if I say it is 
my late Radicalism also, because I am not conscioas of 
having altered in any degree any of the opinions ^vvhicli 
I have expressed on social and political questions ; at all 
events upon those of permanent importance. I ought to 
make an exception in orde# to be strictly accurate ; I 
said something of the sort the other day at a public meet- 
ing in Birmingham, whereupon I was reminded by Mr. 
Osier that I had changed my opinions on the subject of 
women's franchise. I plead guilty to that accusation ; 
I can only say that I have admitted it before in public, 
and that I am perfectly ready to admit it whenever I am 
challenged. But having made that full and frank con^ 
feseion., I do not think there is any other qnestion of 
public policy upon which I have changed my opinions. 
I do not put that forward as being to my credit neces- 
sarily, because it \& quite i>oesible that new lights may 
come, and men may see reason to change opinions they 
have formed in their youth ; but if ever I do I will 
frankly admit it and give the reasons which have led to 
that alteration. 

As Mr. Chamberlain has never admitted any 
change in his views since then, we may take it that 
he is still of the same opinion as he was in the hey- 
day of his hot youth. 

THE NEED FOB DATING HIS OPINION& 

A critic who has studied Mr. Chamberlain closely 
would be justly scornful at the looseness of my ref- 
erence to the date when the above speech was de- 
livered. Mr. Chamberlain's utterances should be 
dated, like vintages. He may not have changed. In 
his inner conviction I do not believe he has changed. 
But circumstances have changed, the perspective 
has altered. Friends have become foes and foes 
have proffered their friendship. Hence the opinions 
of to-day need to be adjusted to the circumstances 
of to-day ; it is the inevitable result of the influence 
of environment. In the Natural History Museum 
there is a most interesting series of groups of stuffed 
birds and beasts, showing the differences between 
their appearance in summer and winter. The ptar- 



188 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



migans and the Arctic hares, which are brown in 
summer and white in winter, are no doubt x>erf ectly 
consistent ptarmigans and hares. It is only their 
coat which is readjusted to altered circimistances. 
So it is with Mr. Chamberlain. He is the same Mr. 
Chamberlain. But he wears another coat Mr. 
Chamberlain does not see this, but that is probably 
due to his lack of a keen sense of the continuity of 
existence. Mr. Chamberlain lives for the day in the 
day, and so intensely does he live from day to day 
that he seems sometimes to forget his prior exist- 
ence ahnoet as completely as we forget what we did 
in our previous incarnations. This is a commoner 
habit than is generally believed. 

THE MUNICIPAL CLUE TO HIS CARKKR. 

Mr. Chamberlain's public career falls naturally 
into three parts : first, municipal ; secondly, national ; 
thirdly, imperial The last section is but beginning. 
The first, that of the municipal reformer, contains 
the secret of all that follows. I have not the space, 
nor is it necessary, to enter into minute details con- 
cerning his career in Birmingham.* He was not 
bom there; he was bom in CamberwelL His an- 
cestors were London shoemakers for at least three 
generations. He told the Jewelers and Silver- 
smiths' Association in 1894 that he did not enter the 
town till 1854. He said : 

I myself, not having been conBnlted previonsly on the 
subject, first saw the light in London, but I am thank- 
ful for my fate which brought me very quickly after- 
wards to Birmingham. And I am very glad that in Bir- 
mingham there never has been any protest against alien 
immigration, and if there had been I cannot help thinking 
the town would have been deprived of a very large 
number of its public men. But, on the contrary, we 
have been received by Birmingham as children by their 
mother, and accordingly we have felt the curious attrac- 
tion which the town exercises over all its citizens, we 
have felt grateful to her— many of us are more " Brum- 
magem" than "Brummagem" itself— and all of us 
would feel that there was nothing that we could do 
that would be too much to show our gratitude to the 
town which has shielded us, and helped us, and wel- 
comed us, and which is now the cherished city of our 
adoption. 

Having been adopted by Birmingham, he soon 
threw himself energetically into the work of im- 
proving the city of his choice. There was great 
need for improvement. 

BIRMINOHAM AS IT WAS. 

Speaking in Birmingham in 1891, Mr. Chamberlain 
thus described the shortcomings of the Midland 
capital: 

I find that fifty years ago the population of the town 
was 180,000, or about 40 per cent, of what it is at present. 
The ratable value was rather less than one-third of 
what it is at present. In those days there were, with 
the exception of the town hall and of the market hall, 

• See Mr. Albert Shaw's chapter entitled " Birmingham : its 
Civic Life and Expansion/' in his " Municipal Government in 
Oreat Britain " (Centurv Co., New York), for an account 
of Mr. Chamberlain's achievements as a municipal statesman. 



no public edifices of any magnitude or importance. 
There were no parks, there were no free libraries, there 
were no baths, there was no art gallery or art museum, 
there were no board schools, there was no schocd of 
art, no Midland Institute, no Mason CoUege ; there was 
no Corporation street. The great area which is covered 
by that thoroughfare and the streets depending upon it 
was one of the worst districts in the town, both socially 
and considered from a sanitary point of view. In fact, 
at the period of which I am speaking, the era of street 
improvements had not begun. The streets themselves 
were badly paved ; they were imperfectly lighted, they 
were only partially drained. The footwalks were worse 
than the streets. Ton had to proceed either in several 
inches of mud, or in favored localities you might go upon 
cobble stones on which it was a x>enance to walk. The 
gas and the water belonged to private monopolies. Gas 
was supplied at an average rate bf about 5s. per 1,000 
cubic feet. The water was supplied by the company on 
three days in the week. On other days you must either go 
without, or you must take advantage of the perambulat- 
ing carts which went round the town, and which sup- 
plied water from polluted wells at 10s. the thousand gal- 
lons You win not be surprised, under these circum- 
stances, to know that in 1848 the annual mortaUty of 
Birmingham was thirty in the thousand. Now it is 
twenty in the thousand. The only wonder is that it 
was not much greater, because we read of whole streets 
from which typhus and scarlet fever, and diphtheria and 
diarrhoea in its worst forms, were never absent. We 
read of thousands of courts which were not paved, which 
were not drained, which were covered with pools of 
stagnant filth, and in which the ashpits and the middens 
were in a state of indescribable nastiness. The sewei^ 
age of the town was very partial, and, in fact, to sum up 
this description it may truly be said that when this so- 
ciety was bom, Birmingham, although it was no worse 
than any of the other great cities of the United King- 
dom, was a town in which scarcely anything had been 
done either for the instruction, or for the health, or for 
the recreation, or for the comfort or the convenience of 
the artisan population. 

BIRMINQHAM AS IT IS. 

Mr. Chamberlain set to work to mend all this. 
.Many older men had begnn it before he entered 
municipal life, bnt he entered into their labors. 
The result of the work accomplished Mr. Chamber- 
lain summarizes thns: 

Birmingham in fact was an overgrown village with 
the i>opulation of a g^reat town« But now, great pubUc 
edifices not unworthy of the importance of a Midland 
metropolis have risen on every side. Wide arteries of 
communication have been opened up. Rookeries and 
squalid courts have given way to fine streets and op^.* 
places. The roads are well paved, well kept, well lighted, 
and well cleansed. The whole sewerage of the town has 
been remodeled, and the health of the people is cared 
for by efficient sanitary inspectors. Baths and waflh 
houses are provided at a nominal cost to the users. Free 
libraries and museums of art are open to all the inhab- 
itants ; free schools and a school of art, together with 
facilities for technical instruction, are provided for their 
education. Recreation is not forgotten and not less than 
ten parks and recreation grounds are now maintained 
by the coiporation. New Assize courts and courts of 
justice have been built. The police force and fire bri- 
gade are kept in the highest state of efficiency; while 



THE RIGHT HON. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 189 



the great monopoliee of gas and water have itassed into 
the handB of the representatives of the whole community, 
who have also acquired the tramways, and have thus 
retained full control over the roads of the city. 

Mr. Chamberlain did not take any active part in 
municipal work mitil 1871. It was not till 1874 that 
he became mayor. 

THE KKYNOTE OP HIS POLICY. 

It was in that year that he first sounded the note 
of all his sabseqnent policy. He said: 

All monopolies which are sustained in any way by the 
state on^t to be in the hands of representatives of the 
people, by whom they should be admimstered, and to 
whom their profit should go. He was, too, inclined to 
increase the duties and responsibilities of the local au- 
tbority, in whom he had so great a confidence, and 
would do everjrthing in his power to constitute these 
local authorities real local parliaments, supreme in their 
special jurisdiction. 

HIS FOUB GBEAT REFORMS. 

By way of giving effect to his words, Mr. Cham- 
berlain carried through four schemes. 1. The town 
bought np the gas works, which now represent a 
capital account of £2,280,000, reducing the price of 
gas from 8b. and 8b. 6d. to 2s. Id. and 2s. 5d., and 
making an annual profit of £80,000. 2. The town 
bought up the water works, paying over £54,491 per 
annum to the shareholders. The result was the 
creation of a property valued at £2,200,000, the im- 
provement of the supply, ana the reduction of water 
rents by £25,884 per annum. 8. The town bought 
iq> the central slums, borrowing £1,600,000 for the 
purpose, and constructed Corporation street through 
the improved area. The area was rebuilt on leases 
of seventy-five years. When they fall in Birming- 
ham wUl be the richest borough in the world. 4. 
Birmingham formed a drainage union with sur- 
rounding towns and established a model sewage farm 
<A twelve hundred acres in the Tame valley. It 
cost £400,000 to lay out the farm, and it costs £55,- 
000 to work it The crops produce £25,000 per an- 



THS FINANCIAL RB3ULT. 

The immediate effect of Mr. Chamberlain's re- 
forms was to raise the debt of the town from one 
million to nearly ten. But this is covered by solid 
assetb, and the financial results have been good. 
Mr. Chamberlain says: 

The rates of Birmingham (if the charge due to the 
acfaool rate and required to provide for a new service in 
the shape of elementary education be deducted) are less 
than they were thirty years ago, and the growth of the 
town and the increase in its wealth and ratable value 
have sufficed to meet these new developments of muni- 
cipal functions. The present cost of all local work in the 
city, including poor relief, education, and all the corpor- 
atkn expenditure, is about six shillings and sixpence in 
the pound on the assessed annual value of real property, 
wbxdi is probably 25 per cent, less thao the actual value. 
Putting it in another way, the total charge is rather 
) than twenty shiUings per head of the population, 



or about one-fifth of the charge of local administration in 
the city of Boston. 

There we have Mr. Chamberlain at his best^ He 
comes in from the outside, he is adopted as one of 
the citizens, he obtains control of the government 
for the purpose of carrsring out great social ends. 
Having obtained control, he uses his power without 
hesitation, he pledges the credit of the town to raise 
money to carry out schemes of improvement, he 
converts one monopoly after another into sources of 
revenue, he creates a vast reversionary estate into 
whioh the city will enter fifty or sixty years hence, 
and he has done all this without raising the rates. 
That is what he did in Birmingham, and in doing it 
he had the advantage of many helpers whom his 
more oonspicuous i>ersonality has completely ob- 
scured, but without whose aid he could have done 
nothing. 

GOVERNMENT AS OO-OPERATION. 

When Mr. Chamberlain entered Parliament his 
one dominant idea was to do for the United King- 
dom what he had done for Birmingham. He was an 
outsider at the first There was much to be done, 
and it was to be done on Brummagem lines. 

First of all, it was necessary Joseph Chamberlain 
should place his firm hand upon the reins; and sec- 
ondly, it was necessary that the whole power and 
authority of the state should be used to carry out 
social changes which would make less miserable the 
lot of the poor. He thus formulated his aim and 
object It was— 

that the Government, which no longer represents a 
clique or a privileged class, but which is the organized 
expression of the wants and wishes of the whole nation, 
should rise to a true conception of its duties, and should 
use the resources, the experience and the talent at its 
disposal to promote the greater happiness of the masses 
of the people. 

He expressed it in slightly different terms when 
he said: 

The leading idea of the English eystem may be said to 
be that of a Joint-stock or co-operative enterprise, in 
which every citizen is a shareholder, and of which the 
dividends are receivable in the improved health and the 
increase in the comfort and happiness of the community. 

That is Mr. Chamberlain's idea of what a govern- 
ment should be. It is a co-operative association for the 
improvement of the condition of the people. It is his 
consistent loyalty to this dominant principle which 
has made him appear so inoonsistent When he 
thought he could earn most dividends for the people 
out of the Radical €K)vemment, he was a member of 
the Radical Government When that Radical Gov- 
ernment did not put him in a place sufficiently im- 
portant to enable him to control the business of the 
association and direct it on co-operative lines he 
resigned, and, after a period of indecision, threw in 
his lot with the Tories. They could earn dividends. 
The others could not So he left his old friends and 
clave unto his new partners. He is now going to see 



190 



THE REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



what he can get oat of them in the way of oo oper- 
ative enterprises. 

HOW HE HAS ENDED THE HOUSE OF LORDS. 

Mr. Chamberlain has at least one justification for 
his adhesion to the Oonservatiye €K)vemment. For 
by this act he has succeeded in abolishing the House 
of Lords as a restraint ui)on his legislative authority. 
If Lord Bosebery's resolution against the peers had 
been carried unanimously, it would have been less 
efficacious— so far as Mr. Chamberlain's programme 
is concerned— than the remedy which he contrived 
by the simple process of joining the Tory cabinet. 
The House of Lords as a revising chamber, or as a 
brake on precipitate reforms, simply ceases to exist 
when there is a Tory majority in the House of Com- 
mons. England will be virtually governed by a sin- 
gle chamber for the next five years. Mr. Chamber- 
lain sees this, and to carry out his schemes he has 
certainly taken the shortest road to his goal If he 
had joined the Liberals, he would have found other 
people's programmes blocking the way. As he 
wittily said at Edinburgh, speaking of Lord Bose- 
bery'siwlicy: 

They have only got to disestablish two Churches, es- 
tablish three new Parliaments, abolish one Hoose of 
Legislature, and then they will be ready for business. 

Whereas Mr. Chamberlain wanted his business 
attended to at once. 

HIS OONSTRUCnVE LEGISLATION. 

If Mr. Chamberlain's legislative and administra- 
tive activity be examined it will be found that he 
has always been aiming in the same direction. He 
has sought by the use of the state credit to enable 
poor men to do what they could not have done for 
themselves. Whether it is Irish peasants or Scottish 
crofters or English agricultural laborers, it is the 
same. He advocated the extension of the franchise 
in order that all the co-operators might be repre- 
sented at the central board, and he appealed to the 
newly enfranchised to use their ix)wer to improve 
their lot. Mr. George Wyndham recently declared 
that: 

Nearly all the practical measures of constructive 
statesmanship passed during the last ten years were or- 
iginally mooted by Mr. Chamberlain, and nearly all the 
suggestions for similar legislation in the future, of any 
interest to practical poUticians, may be traced to the 
same author. 

That is rather a large order, but no doubt free 
education and allotments owed much to his advo- 
cacy. 

HIS PRESENT PEOGRAMME. 

The same idea looms large in the eight-headed 
programme which he published three years ago in 
the Nineteenth Century : 

1. Legislative enforcement of proposals for shortening 
the hours of work for miners and others engaged in 
dangerous and specially laborious employments. 

2. Local enforcement of trade regulations for the 
earlier closing of shops. 



3. Establishment of tribunals of arbitration in trade 
disputes. 

4. Compensation for injuries received in the course of 
employment, and to widows and children in case of death, 
whenever such injuries or death are not caused by the 
fault of the person killed or injured. 

6. Old-age i)ensions for the deserving poor. 

6. Limitation and control of i>auper immigration. 

7. Increased powers and facilities to local authoritieft 
to make town improvements and prepare for the better 
housing of the working classes. 

8. Power to local authorities to advance money and to 
afford faciUties to the working classes to become the 
owners of their own dwellings. 

Of these measures the eighth is the most distinctly 
the child of Mr. Chamberlain's municipal experi- 
ence. Half of these measures would have been 
thrown out by the peers if sent up by Mr. Cham- 
berlain with a Radical majority at his back. When 
they go up as the mandate of the Tory cabinet they' 
will pass through the Lords ** slick as greased light- 
ning." 

HOME RULE FOR IRELAND. 

Of the other items in Mr. Chamberlain's national 
policy it is not necessary to speak at length. He is 
or was a Home Ruler — and he tells us he has never 
changed his convictions. He boasted after the Home^ 
Rule split as lately as 1887 that he had been a Home 
Ruler before Mr. Gladstone. He has never departed 
from the declaration that '* it is a national question 
as well as a parochial question, and that the pacifi- 
cation of Ireland at this moment depends.''— now 
mark these words—** I believe, on the concession to 
Ireland of the right to govern itself in the matter of 
its purely domestic businesa" Mr. Chamberlain's 
scheme, when he made that speech in 1885, was for 
the establishment of a National Council, which was 
to have been an Irish board of control, giving Ire- 
land a local government more complete, more popu- 
lar, more thoroughly representative and more far- 
reachinif than anything which up to that time had 
been suggested. In a letter which he addressed to 
Mr. Duignan in December, 1884. he declared that 
the ** education question and the land question 
should be transferred entirely to the Irish board, 
altogether independent of the English Government's 
influence. Such a board might also deal with rail- 
ways and other communications, and would of 
course be invested with powers of taxation in Ireland 
for these strictly Irish purposes. If this were car- 
ried out the Irish people would have entire independ- 
ence as regards all local work and local expendi- 
ture." Mr. Chamberlain abandoned this scheme 
because Mr. Pamell declared that he could no longer 
accept it as satisfactory. But these opinions are 
unchanged and unchimgeable. Writing to Mr. 
Gavan Duffy on May 24, 18»3. Mr. Chamberlain's 
secretary wrote as follows: **Mr. Chamberlain's 
opinions of persons has changed in the past and may 
change again, but he has never altered his opinion 
in the slightest degree on questions of principles or 



THE RIGHT HON. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN: A CHARACTER SKETCH 19t 



in regard to the legislation which should give effect 
to them.'* 

One of Mr. Chamberlain's latest utterances on the 
subject of Home Rnle is to be f onnd in the observa- 
tion which he made when he was leaving for 
America in 1887. He said, and his words deserve 
attention, as they probably indicate what is the per- 
manent back-thonght in relation to these questions : 
" I am inclined to think that if a great and generous 
scheme of local government were granted to Ire- 
land the feeling in favor of a sei>arate Parliament 
win gradually die away." We may rely upon it, 
therefore, that, now that Mr. Chamberlain is in 
office, he will see to it that the local self-government 
idiich is to be introduced for the pacification of Ire- 
land shall be " a great and generous scheme. '* That 
is to say. it must be a very different project from 
that introduced by Mr. Balfour under the last Salis- 
bury f<^^Mfi€.* 

WKLfiH DISBBTABUSHMENT. 

In relation to another burning question— that of 
Welsh Disestablishment ^ Mr. Chamberlain has 
opinions which are well known. In relation to 
Welsh Disestablishment he has always been a stout 
liberationist Even as lately as 1895 he declared 
that Disestablishment must come, and the only 
question was whether it should be accompanied with 
t JQst treatment of the Church. With regard to this 
point he thought that the Welsh Church was en- 
titted to liberal and even generous terms, but it 
would do well to agree with its adversary quickly, 
otherwise it would find its opportunity gone. It is 
nther amusing to remember that Mr. Chamberlain 
strongly urged the Welsh to get rid of Home Rule, 
in order to secure consideration for their question of 
Disestablishment That was their best chance, he 
add. Home Bule has been disposed of, but the 
Welsh are not likely to see much done about Discs- 
tabUshment by the present Parliament. 

DENOMINATIONAL. SCHOOLS. 

In relation to voluntary schools Mr. Chamberlain 
bss swallowed the leek. He was at one time a 

*Kr. Chftmberlain's efforts to assert his absolute consist- 
toej create a smile when read in juxtaposition with the 
dedantion which he made at different times about Mr. 
Bstt's Home Rule. In 1886 writinir to a corresi>ondent , he 
mid: 

*" I expressed my riews very clearly on Home Bole at the 
time when I was a candidate for Sheffield in 1874. I then said 
I vas in favor of the principle of Home Rule as defined by 
Kr. Batt, but that I would do nothing to weaken in any way 
tbe imperial unity, and that I did not agree with all the de- 
tails of his plan. Mr. Butt's proposals were in the nature of 
■ federal scheme and differed entirely from Mr. Gladstone's, 
vbich are on the lines of colonial independence. Mr. Butt 
<iKi not propose to give up the Irish representation at West- 
Bdiister, and I believe that if he had been alive now he would 
bare absolutely refused to have anjrthing to do with Mr. 
Olsdntoae's bUL'* 

Thus in 1874 and 1886 Mr. Chamberlain approved of Mr. 
Bott^tbOL But in 1884 we find him writing to Mr. Duignan 
ssfoUowB: 

"I object to the Home Rule proposed by the late Mr. Butt, 
beeaoae I believe it would not work and would lead to a de* 
asad for entire separation.*' 



stent advocate for the gradual elimination of yolnn- 
tary schools. Instead of being eliminated, they 
mnltipUed and increased. They are very dear to 
the hearts of his new allies, and therefore Mr. 
Chamberlain has reconsidered his opinion. In 1894 
he warned the friends of the Chnrch that they were 
very ill advised if they took any steps toward inter- 
fering with the educational compromise of 1870. If 
they succeeded in obtaining a share of the rates for 
their support, it would undoubtedly lead to an irre- 
sistible demand for a share in local management 
Speaking in 1891, he said that his opinion was, that 
in the interest of the denominational schools them- 
selves it would be a very good thing if they would 
agree to accept some kind of representative manage- 
ment That is to say, they should be willing to add 
to their committees of management a representative 
of the parents of the children who went to their 
schools. If he were a friend of the denominational 
schools, which he did not claim to be — at one time 
he was definitely the opponent of denominational 
schools, and even now he preferred the Board 
schools— but if he were a friend of denominational 
schools, and speaking from that point of view, he 
would strongly advise them to take this course in 
order to strengfthen and popularize their schools. 

LOCAL TAXATION. 

Mr. Chamberlain was in favor at one time of alter- 
ing the incidence of local taxation so as to make the 
landlord pay more of the local rates. He appears 
now still to be consistently in favor of altering the 
incidence of local taxation; but circumstances hav- 
ing chang^, it is to be altered in favor of the land* 
lords instead of against theuL 

EARLY OLOSINa. 

Mr. Chamberlain's projects for dealing with old 
age pensions are not yet matured He has brought 
forward several, but none of them quite meet the 
necessities of the situation, and he is still on the 
lookout for fresh light on this subject It is differ- 
ent with early closing; he has a definite scheme in 
his head by which he hopes to secure for shopmen 
and all retail traders the great boon of leisure. This 
is his scheme: 

My view is that, taking the majority of any trade— I do 
not care which, the grocers, the bakers, lie butchers, 
the drapera— I should be perfectly satisfied that if those 
gentlemen met, and, by a majority of two-thirds, decided 
that it was mmecessary to keep their shops open longer 
than, say, ten hours a day— I only take the figure as an 
example — I should be i)ei^ectly satisfied in that case that 
their decision should be submitted to the city council — 
which would represent, mind yon, not the shopkeepers 
alone, but the whole of the community— and that if they 
were prepared to 9^VQ their opinion also that the arrange- 
ment was a reasonable one, I should be prepared to give 
them force and authority to give it the power of the law. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

The only subject upon which Mr. Chamberlain 
ever admits he has changed his mind is the question 
of woman suffrage, and even upon this there is 



192 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



some hope that he may change his mind again. No 
one can say how the new House will vote upon the 
question. It is known that Mr. Balfour is a strong 
advocate of the enfranchisement of women, and Mr. 
Chamberlain, although stoutly opposed to woman 
suffrage, is not altogether impervious to the claims 
which women make to full citizenship. Addressing 
the Liberal Unionist women in Birmingham some 
^ime ago, he made the following significant remarks : 

I understand that you have occasionally meetings for 
the purpose of discussing political and social subjects. 
I think that is most desirable ; but what I would press 
upon you is that you should take the occasion of these 
meetings to consider among yourselves the wants, the 
special wants and requirements, of women in the matter 
of legislation. There are a great number of instances in 
which, as women, you have a deep and a special interest. 
There are, for instance, such matters as the restrictions 
upon the employment of women^ and there is the ques- 
tion of the laws of divorce and judicial separaton. There 
is the question of the custody of children. There is the 
question of brutal assaults upon women, and there is the 
great question of temperance. Now, these are all mat- 
ter which, in my opinion, require to be considered in the 
light of women's experience ; and if a greaX association 
like this would do something to fix your opinions and to 
bring your experience to bear, I have no doubt what- 
ever that it would have powerful and very proper in- 
fluence. 

Here we have it recognized that women have an 
interest in matters of legislation, and that there are 
a great number of instances where they have a 
special interest. Half a dozen most important meas- 
ures, in his opinion, need to be settled in the light 
of woman's experience, and he absolutely invites 
women by means of association to exercise a ix>wer- 
ful and very proper influence upon the legislatura 
He will find here a bridge ready for his retreat when 
Mr. Balfour gives the signal for the enfranchise- 
ment of women. 

THE REFOBM OF PROCEDURE. 

It is probable, however, that none of these things 
which have been mentioned will compare in impor- 
tance with the question of the procedure of the 
House of Commons. IJi)on this subject Mr. Cham- 
berlain has very clear and definite notions, and, as 
not unfrequently happens with him, his ideas are 
characterized by much shrewd sense. In the Nine- 
teenth Century for December, 1890, Mr. Chamberlain 
wrote an article upon " Procedure,'* in which will 
be found a good deal of matter very useful at the 
present moment when we are going to see for the 
first time what eighty Irish members can do when 
they are banded together for obstructive purposes. 
There have never been so many in Parliament be- 
fore definitely pledged to a policy of obstruction. 
Mr. Chamberlain proposes, in place of the present 
brutal guillotine by which measures are thrust 
through after the first few clauses have been dis- 
cussed, without any discussion whatever on the 
subsequent clauses, a scheme which has also the 
approval of Mr. Stansfeld. He would appoint a 
Conmiittee of Bules on the lines of the Committee 



of Selection, whose province it would be to fix a 
time limit for the consideration of any particular 
bilL I presume that Mr. Chamberlain would have 
no objection to fixing a time limit for the discussion 
of each of the clauses contained in the bilL In his 
article Mr. Chamberlain mentions two ways in 
which obstruction in Supply can be dealt with. 
These are: 

(1.) That the votes should be sent to one or more com- 
mittees, and that the consideration of these committees 
should be substituted for a committee of the whole. 

(2. ) That the House fix beforehand on entering on con- 
sideration of Supply the number of days that shall be 
given to each class of the estimates, and order the com- 
mittee to report each class at the expiry of the time 
named. 

As Mr. Chamberlain will lead the House in the 
absence of Mr. Balfour, it is probable that the first 
task to be adopted by thB new majority and its 
leaders will be the furbishing up of the rules of 
procedure; and a very good thing too. The real 
obstruction is not so much in the House of Lords as 
in the House of Commons. That body has hope- 
lessly broken down; its wheels are clogged with 
business which it cannot transact, and the method 
by which it discusses most important measures 
could not have been more idiotic had it been in- 
vented by a March hare in its maddest moments. 
Mr. Qiamberlain looks at this difficulty from the 
point of view of the man of business who is one of 
the directors of a co-operative concern who wishes 
to get his board reduced to working order, and 
being, as was said by a diplomatist long ago, '' that 
dangerous man— an autoritaire Radical." he will 
have no scruple in breaking a good deal of crockery 
in the shape of traditional usage and custom in this 
matter of procedure in order to free his board from 
obstruction, both willful and tmdesigned. 

WHAT IS HE OOINO TO DO ? 

We have now seen the clue to Mr. Chamberlain's 
policy both as a municipal administrator and as a 
statesman in the House of Commons. We are now 
to see what he will do on a wider field. Mr. Cham- 
berlain has not become Colonial Secretary for noth- 
ing. It is his opinion that in the Colonial Empire 
there is to be found the widest sphere for the ap- 
plication of those principles which have produced 
such excellent results in Birmingham, and which 
he has already applied to a certain extent, and is 
prepared to apply still further, in our national affairs. 

MAKE WAR ON FRANCE ? 

There were some persons at the headquarters of 
the Liberal x>arty who declared that Mr. Chamber- 
lain had gone to the Colonial Office with the benevo- 
lent desire of going to war with France. He could 
have done it better, of course, if he had been For- 
eign Secretary, but that post being pre-empted by 
Lord Salisbury, he took the Colonial Secretaryship 
as the next best position from which he could em- 
broil this country in war with France. That belief. 



THE RIGHT HON, JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN: A CHARACTER SKETCH 193 



liowever, probably sprang from the somewhat nn- 
gnarded fashion with which Mr. Chamberlain is in 
the habit of speaking of foreign affairs. Bat in all 
matters relating to oar foreign relations Mr. Cham- 
berlain is a schoolboy. ** A hoity-toity fellow, that 
Chamberlain/* said Cardinal Manning one day. '* I 
have been studying him for a long time and never 
ooold see that he had anything in him." That on- 
«ppreciatiye criticism probably meant that the 
Cardinal was irate with some of Joseph's anti-Irish 
performances; bat hoity-toity fellow he is indeed in 
relation to foreign affairs. He has, op had at least, 
most extravagant ideas as to the possibility of im- 
provising navies. 

A SPOT ON mS RECORD. 

One of the worst things which he ever did in his 
Hfe, considering the i>olicy which he has nnif ormly 
advocated, was the action which he took in the year 
1884 in cntting down the special vote of credit which 
Lord Northbrook had been induced with great diffi- 
culty to demand in the Cabinet. Fortunately the 
mischief was speedily remedied by the incident of 
Poijdeh in the following year; but had it not been 
tor the assistance of the late Czar, Mr. Chamberlain 
trcmld have crippled for some years the development 
of England*s naval strength. This probably he did 
from sheer ignorance. He knew that the great ship- 
bmldiiig yards could turn out ships more rapidly 
tium those of any other nation; he drew the erro- 
neous oonciusion that these yards would be able to 
build shipe quickly enough so as to affect the result 
of a naval war. The fact that no war of our time 
has lasted twelve months, and that it takes eighteen 
months or two years to build and equip a first class 
ironclad, had not entered into his calculations. Po&- 
sifaly he knows better now. for he has traveled some- 
what, and knows more of the conditions under 
which navies can be built 

mS WORK m THE PAST. 

It was largely owing to him that the Bechuana- 
land ejq>edition was dispatched which saved the 
whole of the Hinterland to the Cape Colony; other- 
wise the Dutch would have joined hands with the 
Qermans years ago, and the northward development 
of the British Empire would have been definitely 
blocked. But it must be admitted that in Mr. Glad- 
stone's Cabinet he had small opportunity of exhibit 
ing any distinctive bent in the direction of Imperial 
or Ccdonial policy. In 1887 he was sent out at the 
hesd of a commission to settle, if he could, the 
Fishery difficulty between the United States and 
Grest Britain. He did his part well, but, as was 
expected, the Senate rejected his treaty. Although 
the treaty has not been ratified, it has formed the 
basis of the moduB vivendi which has been in force 
ever since. Mr. Chamberlain has a considerable 
stmke in ihe colonies, having purchased one of the 
iskmrflft of the Bahamas for the purpose of cultivat- 
ing a new fibre, in which he believes there lie great 
eonunerdal poesibilities. 



TTTR AIM IN THE 'TTTURE. 

It is no doubt quite true, as he told the Agents- 
General, that he had long entertained strong opin- 
ions as to the imiK>rtanc9 of drawing the United 
Kingdom and the colonies, if possible, more closely 
together. He felt very strongly the great imiwr- 
tance of the colonies, and assured them that they 
could rely upon his hearty co-operation for every- 
thing that was calculated to advance their position 
and increase their influence. All this, however, 
might be mere generality, which does not throw 
much light upon the course which he intended to 
follow. We are fortunately, however, not left in 
the dark, for he has from time to time delivered 
himself of sentiments which show cleariy enough 
what is in his mind. To him the colonial question 
is vitally bound up with that of the unemployed, 
and Mr. Chamberlain has sufficient appreciation of 
the facts of the social position to see that the unem- 
ployed difficulty is one of the greatest, if not the 
greatest, which concerns the new administration. 
In his speeches we find very strongly accentuated 
the note of the municipal statesman who insists 
uiK>n regarding the municipal government as a co- 
operative concern, which enabled the community as 
a whole to use its wisdom and its wealth in order to 
develop its more backward members. 

AN IMPERIAL APPLICATION OP HIS OLD IDEA. 

What Mr. Chamberlain proposes to do is to apply 
the same principle to the colonies. Addressing the 
Birmingham Jewelers' and Silversmiths' Associa- 
tion in 1898, he foreshadowed in advance the policy 
which he intends to adopt at the Colonial Office : 

The duty of the country was to take every oppor- 
tunity of extending and developing the foreign trade 
and especially of securing new markets, which were also 
free markets, for the introduction of our goods. We 
were landlords of a great estate ; it was the duty of a 
landlord to develop his estate. What was the use of have 
ing a country, for instance, hke Uganda, which would 
grow almost anything, which was, as regarded a con- 
siderable portion of it. capable of receiving European in- 
habitants—what was the use of our taking a country of 
that kind if we neither give to that country nor to those 
who would colonize it the opportunities which were neces- 
sary for the purpose ? All this trade depended on the ex- 
istence of Satisfactory methods of communication. With- 
out that what was the good ? How could they expect 
that trade would be created, that production would take 
place, if it cost £800, £400 or £500 a ton to bring down 
the productions of Uganda to the coast, or to carry our 
goods from this country to Uganda ? In his opinion it 
would be the wisest course for the Government of this 
country to use British capital and British credit in order 
to create an instnunent of trade in all those new and im- 
portant countriQs, and he firmly believed, not only would 
they in so doing give an immediate impetus to British 
trade and industry in the manufacture of the machinery 
that was necessary for the purpose, but that in the long 
run, although they might lay out their money for a few 
years— which in tiie history of a nation was nothing— 
they would sooner or later earn a large reward, either 
directly or indirectly. 



19G 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



Mr. Escott's estimate is much the same: 
If the imagination, the hnmor, the cai>acity for emotion 
and sympathy poeeeesed by the Birmingham statesman 
were proportionate to his clearness of yision and his 
strength of will, Mr. Chamberlain would scarcely be in- 
ferior to Mr. DJBraeli himself, with whom he has more 
points in common than many persons may think. In his 
capacity of Honse of Commons debater, so far as readi- 
ness to discern his opportunity and to retort his oppo- 
nent's arguments go, Mr. Chamberlain is not far behind 
the man who created the Conservative party as we know 
it to-day. As a rhetorical epigrammatist Mr. Chamber- 
lain, in these, his later days, often displays a faculty 
which reminds the experienced i>alate of Mr. Disraeli 
himself. 

Mr. Escott, in likening Mr. Chamberlain to Lord 
Beaconsfield, did not do Mr. Chamberlain a benefit. 
It used to be said by his critics that he was a Radi- 
cal Disraeli, a theory which he indignantly repudi- 
ated. His ambition was to be a Radical Apostle 
Paul, and Liberalism was to him in those days the 
religion of humanity— a famous declaration which 
he has probably forgotten long ago. 

HIS OOMMEBCLAUSM. 

Mr. Massingham spoke of Mr. Chamberlain the 
other day as the sublime commia-voyageur. There 
is no doubt much in conmion between our new 
Colonial Secretary and the busy, pushing, energetic 
commercial traveler who always makes a point of 
talking down to the level of his audience, and who 
regards it as his duty not to miss any chance of 
pushing the business of his firm so as to gain an ad- 
vantage over the shop on the other side of the street 
But Mr. Chamberlain is more than the conmierdal 
traveler, and if he could be a little more urbane and 
show occasional flashes of magnanimity, his present 
position, great as it is, would be only a stepping^ 
stone to that which would still be to come. 

HIS LIMITATIONS. 

On some sides of his character Mr. Chamberlain 
is very defective In one respect he resembles Mr. 
Morley in being entirely cutoff from any personal 
symiMithy with any of the sports which bulk so 
largely in the lives of our countrymen. Give Mr. 
Morley a book and a garden and he is perfectly con- 
tent. But Mr. Morley likes walking, the only form 
of physical exercise for which he has any taste. Mr. 
Chamberlain has not even that; as he said recently: 

I do not cycle ; I do not ride ; I do not walk when I 
can help it ; I do not play cricket ; I do not play football ; 
I do not play tennis ; and I do not even play golf, which 
I have been assured is an indispensable condition of 
statesmanship. The fact is, I do not take any exercise 
ataU. 

Under the circumstances it is quite extraordinary 
that Mr. Chamberlain should enjoy such good 
health. To be perpetually smoking cigars and 
never to use your limbs excepting to get in or out of 
a carriage or hansom would be for most men equiv- 
alent to permanent dyspepsia and an early grave. 
Somehow or other Mr. Chamberlain seems to thrive 
upon what would be certain death to other men. 



HIS ORCHIDS. 

Almost the only interest in his life which is not 
either commercial or political is his love for flowers. 
That is a good trait in his character, and one which 
redeems a multitude of sina He has fifteen or six- 
teen men constantly employed at Highbury on his 
pleasure gardens of some forty acres, and his orchid 
houses. The English Illustrated Magazine for Sei>- 
tember, 1893, had a copiously illustrated paper, by 
Mr. Dolman, on Mr. Chamberlain's orchids. The 
writer says: 

Mr. Chamberlain began the culture and collection of 
orchids some sixteen years ago, about the time when he 
built for himself at Moor Green, amidst the prettiest 
scenery on the outskirts of Birmingham, the honse 
(named in allusion to the family's London connections) 
which is now known to all newspaper readers as " High- 
bury." Mr. Chamberlain now has about five thousand 
plants of all kinds, and from all parts of the orchid-pro- 
ducing world, and of course the number is being con- 
tinuaUy added to. They fill thirteen of the eighteen 
glasshouses ranged along the side of Mr. Chamberlain's 
handsome yet tmpretentious residence. The greater 
part of the Parliamentary vacation every year is spent 
by the Liberal Unionist leader at Highbury, and during 
the session he frequently passes Saturday to Monday 
there ; when at Highbury almost every minute of his 
leisure is spent in the orchid-houses. Mr. Chamberlain 
has a fine library of orchid literature, and there can be 
little doubt but what the flower appeals to him as mach 
from its scientific as its aesthetic aspect. When Mr. 
and Mrs. Chamberlain are In London a box of the most 
beautiful blooms is sent every week for the decoration 
of their house in Princes' Gate. In addition, two fiowers 
of the kinds beet adapted to the buttonhole are sent 
every day, and it is with one of these that the Liberal 
Unionist leader generally makes his appearance in the 
House of Commona Mr. Chamberlain has taken every 
means, on the other hand, of obtaining the full enjoy- 
ment of the orchids when he is at home. One can go in 
and out all the houses without once encountering the 
open air. The drawing-room opens on to a lofty con- 
servatory, filled with the scent of many 8weet-«melling 
fiowers. 

THE FUTURE ? 

It is indeed not too much to say that he may find 
his new place as purgatorial as Lord Rosebery 
found the Prime Ministership, and for much the 
same reason. Lord Rosebery represented a minority 
in his own Cabinet, and he succeeded in imposing 
with difficulty his imperial ideas upon ^e bulk of 
his own party. Mr. Chamberlain is in this position, 
with this difference: he is not only in a minority, 
he is not even Prime Minister. He has succeeded, 
better than any one anticipated, in reinforcing his 
own personal followers in the House, but he is still 
in the minority, and the leader of a Radical rem- 
nant in a cabinet of Tories is not likely to find his 
path altogether smooth. The more Home Rule 
fades into the distance and becomes to the Unionists 
a mere nightmare of the past rather than an alarm- 
ing menace for the future, so much more difficult 
will it be for Mr. Chamberlain to maintain his posi- 
tion and keep up his own end of the stick in the ad- 
ministration which he has done so much to create. 



THE MASSACRES IN TURKEY. 



FROM OCTOBER i, 1895, TO JANUARY i, 1896. 



CIIBTAIN persons in Enrope and America, mis- 
led by statements of the Tnrkish Gtovemment, 
haye ascribed the dreadful massacres which have 
taken place in Asia Minor to sudden and spontaneous 
outbreaks of Moslem fanaticism caused by a revolu- 
tionary attitude among the Armenians themselves. 
The truth is that these massacres, while sudden, 
have taken place according to a deliberate and pre- 
concerted plan. According to the statement of many 
persons. French, English, Canadian, American, 
Turk, Kurd and Armenian— persons trustworthy 
and intelligent, who were in the places where the 
maasacres occurred, and who were eye-witnesses of 
the horrible scenes — the outbreaks were under care- 
ful direction in regard to place, time, nationality of 
the victims and of the i>erpetrators, were prompted 
by a common motive and their true character has 
been systematically concealed by Turkish official 
reports. The following paper is based upon full 
accounts of the massacres, written on the ground 
by the parties above referred to. Their names for 
obvious reasons cannot be made public. 

L IN REGARD TO PLACE. 

With only four exceptions of consequence, the 
massacres have been confined to the territory of the 
six provinces where reforms were to be instituted. 
When a band of two thousand Kurdish and Cir- 
cassian raiders approached the boundary between 
the provinces of Sivas and Angora, they were turned 
back by the officials, who told them that they had 
no authority to pass beyond the province of Sivas. 
The only large places where outrages occurred out- 
side of the six provinces are Trebizond, Marash, 
Aintab and Cesarea, in aU of which the Moslems 
were excited by the nearness of the scenes of massa- 
cre, and by the reports of the plunder which other 
Moslems were securing. 

n. IN REGARD TO TIME. 

The massacre in Trebizond occurred just as the 
Sultan, after six months of refusal, was about to 
consent to the scheme of reforms, as if to warn the 
powers that, in case they persisted, the mine was 
already laid for the destruction of the Armenians. 
In fact the massacre of the Armenians is Turkey*s 
real reply to the demands of Euroi)e that she re- 
form. From Trebizond the wave of murder and 
robbery swept on through almost every city and 
town and village in the six provinces where relief 
was xiromiaed to the Armenians. When the neMrs 
of the first massacre reached Constantinople a high 
Turkish official remarked to one of the ambassadors 
that massacre was like the small pox ; they must all 
have it, but they wouldn't need it the second time. 

m. THE NATIONALITY OP THE VICTIMS. 

They were exclusively Armenians. In Trebizond 
there is a large G^reek population, but neither there 



nor elsewhere have the Greeks been molested. 
Special care has also been taken to avoid injury to 
the subjects of foreign nations, with the idea of es- 
caping foreign complications and the payment of 
indemnities. The only marked exceptions were in 
Marash, where three school buildings belonging to 
the American Mission were looted and one building 
was burned, and in Harpoot, where the school build- 
ings and houses belonging to the American Mission 
were plundered and eight buildings were burned, 
the total losses exceeding $100,000, for which no in- 
demnity has yet been paid. 

IV. THE METHOD OP KILLING AND PILLAGING. 

The method in the cities has been to kill within a 
limited period the largest number of Armenians— 
especially men of business, capacity and intelligence 
—and to beggar their families by robbing them as 
far as possible of their property. Hence in ahnoet 
every place the massacres have been i>erpetrated 
during the business hours, when the Armenians, 
could be caught in their shops. In almost every 
place the Moslems made a sudden and simultaneous 
attack just after their noonday prayer. The sur- 
prised and unarmed Armenians made little or no 
resistance, and where, as at Diarbekir and Gurun, 
they undertook to defend themselves, they suffered 
the more. The killing was done with guns, revol- 
vers, swords, clubs, pickaxes, and every conceivable 
weapon, and many of the dead were ^orribly man- 
gled. The shops and houses were absolutely gutted. 

Upon hundreds of villages the Turks and Kurds 
came down like the hordes of Tamerlane, robbed 
the helpless peasants of their flocks and herds, 
stripped them of their very clothing, and carried 
away their bedding, cooking utensils, and even the 
little stores of provisions which they had with infi- 
nite care and toil laid up for the severities of a 
rigorous winter. Worst of all is the bitter cry that 
comes from every quarter that the Moslems carried 
off hundreds of Christian women and children. 

The number killed in the massacres thus far is 
estimated at fifty thousand, which includes the ma- 
jority of the well-to-do, capable, intelligent Arme- 
nians in the six provinces that were to have been 
reformed. The property plundered or destroyed is 
estimated at $40,000,000. Not less than three hun- 
dred and fifty thousand wretched survivors, most 
of whom are women and children, are in danger of 
I)eri8hing by starvation and exposure unless foreign 
aid is promptly sent and allowed to reach them. 

v. THE PERPETRATORS. 

They were the resident Moslem population, rein- 
forced by Kurds, Circassians and in several cases 
by the Sultan's soldiers and officers, who began the 
dreadful work at the sound of a bugle, and desisted 
when the bugle signaled to them to stop. This 



198 



THE REyiElV OF REyiElVS. 



was notoriously true in Erzeronm. In Harpoot, 
also, the soldiers took a prominent part, firing on 
the btiildings of the American Mission with Martini- 
Henry rifles and Kmpp cannon. A shell from one 
of the cannon burst in the honse of the American 
Missionary, Dr. Bamnm. In most places the kill- 
ing was by the Turks, while the Kurds and Circas- 
sians were intent on plunder, and generally killed 
only to strike terror or when they met with resist- 
ance. 

It is an utter mistake to suppose, as some have, 
that the local authorities could not have suppressed 
the ** fanatical '* Moslem mobs and restrained the 
Kurds. The fact is that the authorities, after look- 
ing on while the massacres were in progress, did 
generally intervene and stop the slaughter as soon 
as the limited period during which the Moslems 
were allowed to kill and rob had expired. At Mar- 
sovan the limit of time was four hours. In several 
places the slaughter and pillage continued from 
noon till sundown or later. At Sivas they con- 
tinued for a whole day. In every place the car. 
nage stopped as soon as the authorities made an 
earnest effort, and had it not been for their inter- 
vention after the set time of one, two or three days, 
the entire Armenian population might have been 
exterminated. 

VL THB MOnVB OF THE- TURKS. 

This is apparent to the superficial observer. The 
scheme of reforms devolved civil offices, judge- 
ships and police participation on Mohammedans 
and non-Mohammedans in the six provinces propor- 
tionately. This, while simple justice, was a bitter 
pill to the Mohammedans, who had ruled the Chris- 
tians with a rod of iron for live hundred years. 
All that was needed to make the scheme of reforms 
inoi)erative was to alter the proportion of Christians 
to Mohammedans. This policy was at once relent- 
lessly and thoroughly executed. The number of the 
Armenians has been diminished, first, by killing at 
a single blow those most capable of taking a part in 
any scheme of reconstruction, and, secondly, by 
compelling the survivors to die of starvation, ex- 
posure and sickness or to become Moslem. 

It is the very essence of Mohammedanism that 
the ghiaaur has no right to live save in subjection. 
The abortive schemes of Europe insisting on the 
rights of Armenians as men has enraged the Mos- 
lems against them. The arrogant and non- progres- 
sive Turks know that in a fair and equal race the 
Christians will outstrip them in every department 
of business and industry, and they see in amy fair 
scheme of reforms the handwriting on the wall for 
themselves. If the scheme of reforms had applied 
to regions where Greeks predominate, the latter 
would have been killed and robbed as readily as the 
Armenians have been. Are the Greek massacres 
of 1822 forgotten, when 50,000 were killed, or the 
slaughter of 12,000 Maronites and Syrians in 1860. 
and of 15,000 Bulgarians in 1876 ? 



Vn. TURKISH OFFICIAL RBF0RT8. 

The refinement of cruelty appears in this, that 
the Turkish Government has attempted to cover up 
its hideous policy by the most collossal lying and 
hypocrisy. It is true that on September 30, 18d5, 
some hot-headed young Armenians, contrary to the 
entreaties of the Armenian patriarch and the orders 
of the police, attempted to take a well worded x>6ti- 
tion to the Grand Vizier, according to a time hon- 
ored custom. It is also true that the oppressed 
mountaineers of Zeitoun drove out a small garrison 
of Turkish soldiers, whom, however, they treated 
with humanity ; it is likewise true that in various 
places individual Armenians, . in despair, have 
advocated violent methods. But the universal tes- 
timony of impartial foreign eye-witnesses is that, 
with the above exceptions, the Armenians have 
given no provocation, and that almost, if not quite, 
all the telegrams purporting to come from the pro- 
vincial authorities accusing the Armenians of pro- 
voking the massacres are sheer fabrications of 
names and dates. If the Armenians made attacks, 
where are the Turkish dead ? 

And the dreadful alternative of Islam or death 
was oftered by those who have dazzled and deceived 
Europe with Hatti Shereefs and Hatti Humayouns, 
promulgating civil equality and religious liberty for 
their Christian subjects. 

Strangest of aU, he who is the head of all au- 
thority in Turkey, and responsible above any and 
all others for the cold-blooded massacres and plun- 
dering of the past two months, wrote a letter to 
Lord Salisbury, and pledged his word of honor that 
the scheme of reforms should be carried out to the 
letter, at the very moment when he was directing 
the massacres. And the six great Christian powers 
of Europe, as well as the United States, still treat 
this man with infinite courtesy and deference ; their 
representatives still dine at his table, and some of 
them still receive his decorations. 

VIIL THB SOLUTION. 

If the Armenians are to be left as they are, it is a 
pity that Europe ever mentioned them in the treaty 
of Berlin or subsequently ; and to intrust reforms 
in behalf of the Armenians to those who have de- 
voted two months' time to killing and robbing them 
is simply to abandon the Armenians to destruction 
and to put the seal of Europe to the bloody work. 
The only way to reform Eastern Turkey is by forci 
ble foreign intervention — not the threat of it, but 
the intervention itself. 

The position and power of Russia give her a 
unique call to this work. Should she enter on it at 
once the whole civilized world would approve her 
course. Russia should have as free a hand in Kur- 
distan as England has insisted on having in Egypt. 
By frankly admitting this, England would gain 
in the respect and sympathy of the world and 
strengthen her own position. 



THE NEW POET LAUREATE. 



OF an the lauieateB, Mr. Alfred AtiBtia is the 
moet nnfortrmate in the period of his steward- 
ship. Had his predecessor been Nicholas Rowe, Law- 
rence Ensden, Nahnm Tate or William Whitehead, 
Mr. Austin's acceptance by the English-speaking 
world wonld have been far more cordial. In that case 
Americans, for instance, would not have forgotten 
that the poet lanreateship is really a household office 
in the mhiage of the British sovereign. The wear- 
ing of the bays has never signified that the greatest 
philosopher, seer and poet of the generation was the 




ALFRED AUSTIN. 

r. The long period of Tennyson's incumbency 
gave to a vast majority of English-epeaking people an 
entirely erroneous conception of the lanreateship. 
Tennyson was certainly, so far as popular estimation 
went, the greatest English poet of his time, and this 
&ct l)ecame inseparably associated with the fact 
that he was i>oet laureate. 

Therefore Mr. Austin's appointment to this great 
office has been judged by a false standard. He is 
not by any means the inspired and impassioned seer 
of his generation, and does not pretend to be. But 
when one casts an eye over the record of his achieve- 
ments in verse, in journalism, in society and in poli- 
tics, the vronder is rather that he shotQd so exactly 
fill the historic requirements of the laureate. Mr. 
Austin was bom near Leeds in 1885, the son of 
Gatbolic parents. His college was the University 
of Liondon and his profession the law. From his 
earliest manhood, however, he has vastly preferred 
the p*<A<T>g of verses to the making of legal instru- 
ments. His first poem, " Bandolph," was published 
anouymously at eighteen, and seven years later, in 
1861, came to light his first acknowledged volimie 



of poems, '' The Seasons," a satire. His most im- 
portant prose work, outside of the daily journalistic 
tasks on the Standard, was his essays on " Poetry 
of the Period," which fearlessly and trenchantly 
called to account his lyrical contemporaries, Tenny- 
son, Browning, Swinburne and Morris, for their lack 
of passion, virility and originality. Curiously 
enough, his own poetical work is most finally and 
essentially lacking in these very great qualities 
which he calls for with such strength and sarcasm. 
He has selected such subjects as would induce fer- 
vor and dramatic power, if ever tnese were to be 
displayed by a writer; and yet one can never be 
sure that Austin is vnriting the thing itself ; only 
that he is writing, often prettily and sometimes 
effeminately, about it; whether it is a field of Eng- 
lish daisies, the modest, pretty flowers imder an 
English hedge, or whether it be the moral frenzy of 
Savarola, the sad lack of strong red blood is always 
there. The phrases are fine, graceful, sometimes 
scholarly, but never highly convincing or dramatic- 
ally thrilling. 

Besides his readiness, his facility and his constant, 
though mediocre quality, Mr. Aostin is recom- 
mended by the very nature of the subjects which 
he has chosen in his very large output of verse, for 
the office he has now been called to fill. His poems 
have celebrated the great achievements of English- 
men and the nations of Europe, and have described, 
on the other hand, the simple beauties of English 
country life. His evident yearning after an under- 
standing of the modest delights of rural nature 
prejudices one in his favor, and it is hard to have 
to admit to one's self that he does not describe h^ 
nightingales, his sunrises, his wild fiowers and 
hedgerows at first hand. Perhaps he has studied 
them at first hand, but it does not appear in his 
verse, which is fatal If the situation were reversed, 
as it is in the greatest bards.— and his knowledge of 
nature had come rather from an infinity of poetic 
insight than from contact and studious observa- 
tion, it would be no business of the world's. The 
opposite fault is irretrievable. But whatever the 
quality of these verses, they are, as we have said, 
about England's lanes, and England's trees, and 
England's thom-bushes, and England's birds, and 
he beyond a doubt sincerely loves such themes. 

The ''topical" strain, so necessary for a poet 
laureate, is everywhere apparent in Mr. Austin's 
work. They are the English poets that he arraigns for 
their lack of vigor ; it is Lord Byron whom he vindi 
cates before Mrs. Stowe; it is the follies and absurd- 
ities of London fashionable folk that he satirizes in 
such volumes as " The Season, "—which, by the way, 
has far more vigor and bite than one would expect 
from a perusal of the average lyrical productions of 
Mr. Austin. " The GK)lden Age," another satire, re. 



200 



THE REyiEU^ OF REI/IEIVS, 



minds one in ite subject matter, and, as a faint 
reflection at any rate, in its style, of Pope's 
"Dnnciad." 

As for the rest, Mr. Alfred Austin is an English 
gentleman of culture and refinement, with strong 
Tory affiliations in politics and journalism, and of 
the most unimpeachable social standing. It is char- 
acteristic of Mr. William Morris, and not too unfair 
to Mr. Austin, that the former should sum up the 
new laureate in a sentence which declares him to be 
"a respectable sort of literary person." A court 
poet ought to be respectable, prominently so ; ought 
to be literary, and ought to choose for the sul^ects 
of literary endeavor the themes which Mr. Austin 
has chosen. He ought to have Tory leanings, at 
least, in this year of our Lord, and he ought to have 
that facility and prolific quality, of which evidence 
has been given by Mr. Austin, that will allow him 
to quicldy celebrate in verse an English victory, the 
birth of an English heir, or the marriage of an Eng- 
lis^h prince. Mr. Austin ought in these capacities 
to **g^ve good satisfaction " as Dr. Holmes would 
say. He may not ride on the whirlwind and direct 
the storm in his tragedies, or inmiediateiy melt the 
hearts of several hundred millions of people with 
his tender lyrics ; but it would be rather inappropri- 
ate, we think, to have a poet of the first order pre- 
sented with just the tasks that are to be presented 
to the new laureata 

Mr. Austin's verses are so very little known in 
America that we quote from several different classes 
of them, in order to give the readers of the Review 
OF Reviews, perhaps for the first time, an idea of 
his style and subject matter. Of course these meagre 
selections cannot pretend to give the least critical 
task of his whole lifetime of work. The British 
Mtweum library contains no less than forty-four 
entries under his name. 

THE FIRST VERSES WRITTEN AS LAUREATE. 

Perhaps the lines of Mr. Austin's most anxiously 
looked for by the English- speaking world are the 
first verses which he produced under the inspiration 
of the bays, which lines have an ulterior interest as 
well in their timeliness. We refer to those verses 
apropos of the Jameson episode in South Africa, 
which have been so widely printed, and so much 
disapproved of. 

Wrong I Is it wrong ? Well may be; 

But I'm going, boys, all the same. 
Do they think me a burgher's baby 

To be scared by a scolding name ? 
They may argae and prate and order; 

Gk) tell tbem to save their breath. 
Then over the Transvaal border, 

And gallop for life or death. 

Right sweet is the marksman^s rattle, 

And sweeter the cannon's roar. 
But 'tis bitterly hard to battle 

Beleaguered, and one to four. 
I can tell you it wasn't a trifle 

To swarm over Krugersdorp glen. 



As they plied us with round and rifle, 
And ploughed us again and again. 

1 suppose we were wrong—were madmen; 

Still I think at the judgment day, 
When God sifts the good from the bad men, 

There'll be something more to say. 
We were wrong, but we aren't half sorry, 

And as one of the baffled band 
I would rather have had that foray 

Than the crushings of all the Band. 

**THB HUMAN TRAGEDY." 

Perhaps the most ambitious of all Mr. Austm's 
volumes of poems has been ** The Human Tragedy," 
which has 10,000 lines in G^rgian measures, and 
recoimts the story of two lovers who are deterred 
from marriage by strong religious convictions. 
They take on the Red Cross, and after a vast 
variety and extent of adventures, come to a violent 
end without exciting a great deal of sympathy on 
the part of the reader. We print below some 
stanzas from *' Madonna's Child,*' one of the first 
sections of ** The Human Tragedy." It gives a fair 
idea of Mr. Austin's capabilities for a dramatic situ- 
ation : 

The glamour that in silent beauty dwells 
Chased for a while the want his heart was tearin^^ 

But soon he felt, despite its gracious spells, 
The minutes lone were somewhat sadly wearing ; 

Till from the sacristy, with snow white bells, 
Olympia came, lilies bearing, 

And having laid them at Madonna^s feet 

Gazed on him salutation sad but sweet. 

On her young cheeks no more that rose did blow 
Such as in hedgerows in lush June you pull. 

And all her poor pale face was washed with woe, 
But of that sort which maketh beautiful ; 

Her large orbs, swart and satin as the sloe, 
Whose lustrous light no sorrow could annul 

Yet wore a strangely grave and settled look, 

Like a dark pool and not the laughing brook. 

*< Tell me my fate I ** he cried, seizing her hand. 
*^ Thy fate I ** she answered, *' tell me rather mine ! 
Kneel kneel and pray ; no longer grace withstand. 

And I will be forever, ever thine. 
If not, then Heaven has this dear bounty banned, 

And my poor heart must your rich heart resign. 
I am Bfadonna^s child, come woe, come weal, 
Come life, come death i O Qodfrid, can't you kneel I " 

There was a moment's hush, brief but intense, 
Long as perhaps a billow waits to break. 

Then, with a heaving of the heart from whence. 
More than the lips, the answer came, he spake, 

And said, ^' I cannot ; " frightening thus suspense. 
Which flea, and left a more enduring ache. 

But yet he clutched her hand, as in the wave 

Men bent on death still strive themselves to save. 

In the preface to this first part of '* The Human 
Tragedy " Mr. Austin has a sentence or two which 
goes to show that he was not ignored in his native isle, 
and also that his satirical writings had not missed 
their mark. For mstance. in describing the efforts 
of his friends to prevent the signing of his name to 



THE NEIV POET LAUREATE. 



201 



the Taraes, he repreaents them as saying: "No poem 
osn at present hope for fair critical treatment to 
which his name is attached ; " and Mr. Austin as- 
•ontB to this rather bitter view. 

MB. AUSTIN ON THB IDEA OF PEAOE. 

A good deal of newspaper comment was aroused 
by the fact that Mr. Austin refused to sign the ad- 
dress of the British authors to the American authors 
tskixig them to work for x>eace in the late war talk. 
This was of course to be attributed entirely to the 
proprieties of the situation, ^which could scarcely 
sOow a court officer to join in such demonstration. 
But it adds some interest to a set of verses in the 
?«ry latest volume of poems, *' In Veronica's Gkur- 
deD,*'^some verses entitled ** Peace on Earth." 

Bat not alone for those who still 

Within the Mother-Land abide, 
We deck the porch, we dress the sill, 

And fling the portals open wide. 

But unto all of British blood— 
Whether they ding to Egbert's Throne 

Or, far beyond the Western flood, 
Have reared a Sceptre of their own, 

And, half-regretful, yeam to win 
Their way back home, and fondly claim 

The rightful share of kith and kin 
In Alfred's glory, Shakespeare's fame— 

We pile the logs, we troll the stave, 
We waft the tidings wide and far. 

And speed the wish, on wind and wave, 
To Southern Cross and Northern Star. 

Tes I Peace on earth, Atlantic strand t 
Peace and good-will. Pacific shore t 

Across the waters stretch your hand. 
And be onr brothers more and more t 

Blood of oar blood, in every clime t 
Baoe of oar race, by every sea I 

To yoa we sing the Christmas rhyme, 
For you we light the Christmas-tree 

HIS LOYB OF NATURE. 

In this same volume, ''In Veronica's Gku^en," 
Mr. Austin assures us that if he were a poet: 
I would not sing of sceptred Kings, 

The Tyrant and his thrall, 
But everyday pathetic things 

That happen to us all ; 
The love that lasts through joy, through grief, 

The faith that never wanes. 
And every wilding bird and leaf 

That gladdens English lanes. 

There is no lack throughout his writings of evi- 
dence that the everyday garb and moods of nature 
•ttnust hun poweifully. He has rarely come so 
Bsar embodying this sincere affection in real poetry 
is in the following verses, descriptive of the seasons. 
I. 
The Spring-time, O the Spring-time ! 

Who dees not know it well ? 
When the Uttle birds begin to build. 
And the bods begin to swell 



When the sun with the clouds plays hide-and-seek, 
And the lambs are bucking and bleating. 

And the color mounts to the maiden's cheek, 
And the cuckoo scatters greeting ; 

In the Spring-time, joyous Spring-time t 



The Summer, O the Summer ! 

Who does not know it well ? 
When the ringdoves coo the long day through, 

And the bee refills his cell. 
When the swish of the mower is heard at mom, 

And we all in the woods go roaming, 
And waiting is over and love is bom. 

And shy lipe meet in the gloaming ; 
In the Summer, ripening Summer I 

ni. 

The Autumn, O the Autumn t 

Who does not know it well f 
When the leaf turns brown, and the mast drops down. 

And the chestnut iq;>lits its sheU. 
When we muse o'er the days that have gone before, 

And the days that will follow after, 
When the grain lies deep on the winnowing-fioor, 

And the plump gourd hangs from the rafter ; 
In the Autumn, thoughtful Autumn I 



The Winter, O the Winter I 

Who does not know it well f 
When, day after day, the fields stretch gray, 

And the peewit wails on the fell. 
When we close up the crannies and shut out the cold. 

And the wind sounds hoarse and hollow. 
And our dead loves sleep in the churchyard mold. 

And we feel that we soon shall follow ; 
In the Winter, mournful Winter t 

Considered then as an incumbent of Queen Vic- 
toria's court office, and not as Tennyson's successor, 
Mr. Austin is surely worthy of the attention sug- 
gested by the traditions of his position, and the 
sympathy which his excessively difficult tasks 
should excite in the breast of every one who has the 
faintest glimmer of appreciation of opportunist 
versifying. It is far easier to conceive of him in the 
laureateship than of Swinburne or William Morris, 
who have been most frequently mentioned by out- 
siders and critics in connection with the post, and 
who have undoubtedly received a larger share of 
the fire from Heaven than Mr. Alfred Austin. The 
greatest obstacle in Mr. Austin's path as a laureate 
is his lack of a sense of humor, which leads him to 
sing of "contiguous nightingales," and such pain- 
fully unusual phenomena of natural history. The 
naif unconsciousness with which he stalks into the 
loftiest, the tenderest or most tremendous situations, 
has already put him at the mercy of the newspaper 
paragrapher, and will subject him to the stings of 
those whose business it is to ridicule more and more 
when his poems are hatched in the unpoetic fervor 
of commonly discussed political events and are 
pitched half fledged before the public eye. 

Charles D. Lanier. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



THE WINNING OF AFRICA. 

ONE of the moBt important articles of the month 
is Mr. Henry M. Stanley's '* Story of the De 
velopment of Africa," in the Febmary Century, 
which becomes particularly significant by reason of 
the stirring South African events of the past few 
weeks. Mr. Stanley calls to mind that in 1870 there 
were only two white men in equatorial Africa, Dr. 
Livingstone and Sir Samuel Baker. The first for 
years had been absent from men's knowledge in the 
far interior, and no man knew what had become of 
him ; the second had but just arrived in the White 
Nile regions to suppress the slave trade. Mr. Stanley 
sketches the earlier history of European knowledge 
of Africa from the time that Da Gama outlined the 
Southern half of the continent in 1484 The humane 
Europeans were so horrified at the wretched state of 
the African blacks that they benevolently made slaves 
of them, and worked them to the great advantage of 
their masters until the slave traffic became recognized 
as a crime, and, a little before the middle of this 
century, ceased. With the ending of this slave trade 
Africa seemed to be commercially lost to Euroi>eans, 
except for some trifling matters of ivory, palm oil, 
gold dust and ebony. Some bold travelers ventured 
inland, but were so promptly killed and eaten that 
the example was not encouraging. 

It was the missionary enterprise which bog^an the 
serious work of developing Central Africa. David 
Livingstone was a son-in-law of Dr. Moffatt, whose 
missionary enterprises in the dark continent were so 
successful Livingstone disagreed with the Boers, 
even as Dr. Jameson is disagreeing in these days, and 
they made things so uncomfortable for him in the 
South of Africa that he was driven to explore into 
the North, where he could carry on his missionary 
pursuits in peace. It was this motive that led him to 
make the first of his wonderfully important discov- 
eries—Lake Ngami, the head waters of the Zam- 
besi and his journey to the mouth of that river 
which terminated sixteen years of African travel 

STANLEY'S OWN PABT. 

The marvelous results of these travels were so 
impressed upon the European mind that the mis- 
sionary traveler was sent on a second expedition of 
six years, costing $400,000, and in 1866 he set out on 
his third and last journey to the interior. It was re- 
ported a few months afterward that he had been mur- 
dered. It was this which led to Mr. Stanley's share in 
the exploration of Central Africa Mr. James Gtordon 
Bennett sent him to find Livingstone, as all the 
world remembers, and he promptly found him. Also 
when Dr. Livingstone died about a year afterward 
the London Telegraph and the New York Herald 
joined in defraying the cost of an expedition in 
which Mr. Stanley might continue the work of 



Livingstone. The great feature of this enterprise, de- 
scribed in the book '* Througn the Dark Continent,'' 
was the descent of the Congo River 1800 miles to 
the Atlantic Ocean. The vast possibilities of this 
country through which Stanley traveled impressed 
him so powerfully that he made great efforts to 
obtain governmental aid from the English Gk>vem 
ment to develop this part of Africa, but only suc- 
ceeded in interesting the geographers. Finally, 
however, he was induced by the King of Belgium 
to begin the work of civilizing the Congo and under- 
take the task of making wagon roads past the cata- 
racts and militarizing the country, with an annual 
expenditure of $60,000, which soon grew to $200,000. 
Steamers, tools and barges were conveyed by the 
Congo into the interior of Africa. 

One of the significant discoveries of these succeed- 
ing expeditions was the devastation which the Arabs 
had made in the wake of the first descent of the 
Congo. No less than 118 villages below Stanley 
Falls alone had been destroyed by these wholesale 
robbers for the sake of slaves and ivory. Stanley's 
forces were compelled to temporize with these 
rascals, although the line of garrison stations in the 
Congo was 1,400 miles in length. He had 150 Eu- 
ropean officers and 1,200 colored men in his employ. 
There were seven steamers and a dozen steel rowing 
barges on the huge river. 

THE OONGO FBEB STATE. 

Naturally the attention of Europe was by this 
time powerfully attracted to the millions of square 
miles of new country to which these developments 
had given access. Great Britain, France, Portugal, 
Germany and Belgium all had their claims. In 1885 
the Berlin Conference settled the methods of future 
territorial acquisitions in Africa and established the 
Congo Free State, with King Leopold of Belgium 
as sovereign. *' The Free State " has now an extent 
of 900,000 square miles, and a population of between 
15,000,000 and 18,000,000, of which only 1,400 were 
whites. There is an armed police force numbering 
8,600, officered by 289 Europeans. The revenue of 
the State amounts to nearly $1,000,000, part of which 
is subsidy from King Leopold of BelgiunL The 
imports and exports amount to nearly $4,000,000 
value, and the country produces coffee, ivory, rub- 
ber, gum, palm oil, kernels and ground nuts. 

But the lust for territory awakened by the Berlin 
Conference brought a rush on the African continent 
by the European states, which led to a sub-division 
of land in the last ten years alone which is repre- 
sented by the enormous figures of the following 
table: 

SQoare miles. 
The Congo State (by consent of the powers). . 900,000 

France annexed 1,900,000 

Germany annexed. 940,000 

Italy annexed 547,000 

Portugal annexed , . . . 710,000 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



203 



Great Britain : Sooth African Go 750,000 

British Central African Ck>. . . 500,000 
British East African Co.. . . . 700,000 

Total 6,947,000 

At present there are in Mr. Stanley's estimate 
3,500 Enropeans between the Zambesi and the Nile. 
There are 180 miles of railroad in equatorial Africa, 
but at the end of ten years there will be more than 
ten times this mileage. 

CIVILIZATION BEFORE COLONIZATION. 

Mr. Stanley concludes his pai>er with a rather in- 
dignant rebuttal of the statements made at the 
Geographical Congress on July 81 last, where Mr. 
Sihra White and Mr. Bavenstein, the famous map 
maker, asserted that there was no practical promise 
for European colonization in Africa, and where the 
first named gentleman maintained that it would be 
necessary to introduce coolie labor to develop the 
equatorial regiona This last point particularly 
irntates Mr. Stanley, and he calls it. in so many 
words, unmitigated nonsense. He says, too, that 
it has never been assumed by those who had the 
experience to speak with authority, that colonization 
was immediately possible for equatorial Africa, 
bat that the term civilization rather expressed the 
hope which African explorers had for this dark 
region. Mr. Stanley reiterates his descriptions of 
the wretched and vicious condition of the Central 
African tribes, and is of the opinion that almost any 
European suzerainty would be a vast improvement 
over leaving the miserable blacks to themselves. 

In the matter of the climate Mr. Stanley also 
takes issue with the pessimistic geographera He 
thinks there are plenty of healthy localities on the 
hi^ plateaus and lofty mountains. He says the un- 
healthy coast belt on both sides of the continent is 
very narrow, and that when railways are introduced 
these fever laden regions can be crossed in four 
hoars. In two hours more a rolling plain is reached 
which gradually rises to 3,500 to 8,500 feet above 
the sea. White men can live and work here, though 
not with Immunity from fever. In ten or twelve 
boors more by rail one finds himself 8,000 feet above 
the aea on the great central plateau of the country, 
6,000 nules long and 1,000 miles wide. Here there 
are odd nights and a hot sun. Here the white col- 
ooists will find their homes if Africa can offer them 
such. Mr. Stanley explains that it is not safe to 
judge the hygienic qualities of the country from 
the experiences of the daring explorers, because 
these have only reached the higher regions after 
tremendous labor and hardships. 

** However, no amount of preaching against the 
dimate will retard the development of Africa 
Civilization has grasped the idea that it must enter 
and take possession, and now that it thoroughly 
realizes the fact that the sine qua non for securing 
that possession is the railway, I can conceive of 
nothing that will prevent the children of Europe 
from finding out for themselves whether they can 
permanently reside there or not.*' 



THE NICARAGUA CANAL 

THREE very timely and important papers on 
different phases of the Nicaragua Canal ques- 
tion appear in the Annals of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science. The most elaborate 
of these studies is by Prof. Lindley M. Keasbey, of 
Bryn Mawr College, on the relations of the canal to 
the Monroe doctrine. We lack space for the pre- 
sentation of Professor Eeasbey*s interesting outline 
of the issue between England and the United States 
in this matter, but his account of the manner in 
which Great Britain established herself in the Mos- 
quito country should not be overlooked. British 
settlers in Honduras, by negotiations with the Mos- 
quito Indians, managed to set up an English regency 
of the Mosquito Shore, but the government of Nic- 
aragua very obstinately and perversely refused to 
recognize this regency. 

" Just at this juncture the United States acquired 
the Calif omian seaboard through its successful war 
with Mexico, and our territory thus formed one 
broad belt stretching from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, through the very heart of the northern con- 
tinent Lord Palmerston now deemed it high time 
for his government to act officially; for Great Britain 
and the United States seemed destined henceforth to 
be rivals on the Pacific as well, and the only ade- 
quate route to this western ocean lay across the 
American Isthmus. The claim of the Belize settlers 
was accordingly taken up by the British home gov- 
ernment and Nicaragua was officially given to un- 
derstand that the territorial right of the Mosquito 
king extended to the mouth of the San Juan. Nic- 
aragua again refused to recognize the claim and 
appealed once more to the United States for aid. 
We had no knowledge to act upon, however, and 
before any steps could be taken an English naval 
force had seized upon the port of the San Juan itself 
and compelled Nicaragua, at the point of the bayo- 
net, to abandon forever all right over the mouth of 
the stream. The Nicaraguan officials were thus 
forced to give place to an Anglo- Mosquito adminis- 
tration, and the port was now called * Greytown,' in 
honor of Gtovemor Grey, of Jamaica, who had so 
successfully planned the campaign.'* 

Professor Keasbey*s concluding suggestion is, that 
no effort be made to obtain a modification of the terms 
of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, but that the United 
States proceed at once, either as a people or as a gov- 
ernment, to construct the canal with our own money. 
It is not probable that we shall then have difficulty 
in maintaining control of what we shall own. 

Bearings on Our Own Economic 
Development. 

Dr. Emory R. Johnson considers the effect which 
the completion of the canal would have on the eco- 
nomic development of the United States, predicting 
a marked influence on domestic industry and trade, 
but calling more particular attention to the prob 
able effect on our foreign conmierce. 

" The amount of foreign conmierce which will be 



204 



THE REyiElV OF REI^/EIVS. 



affected by the opening of the Nicarag^ia Canal is 
estimated to be larger than that now served by the 
Suez Canal, the most important ocean-ship water- 
way ever constructed. The actual amount of ton- 
nage that would have been entirely tributary to the 
canal, had it been in existence in 1890, was 4,183,- 
470 tons. The total traffic which the canal would 
obtain, basing the estimates upon the statistics of 
conmierce for the years 1889 and 1890. amounts to 
8,296,625 tons. If to this estimate be added the nor- 
mal increase which conmierce may be expected to 
have before the canal is opened, it is estimated that 
about 9,000,000 tons will make use of the waterway 
as soon as it is opened. The present traffic of the 
Suez Canal is a little over 8,000,000 tons. 

DISTANCES TO BE SAVED. 

" The distances which the opening of the Nicara- 
gua Canal will save to the commerce making use of 
it, are much greater than those saved by the Suez 
CanaL The greatest gain in distance made by com- 
merce in using the Suez Canal is 4,481 miles, the 
amount by which the route between Liverpool and 
Bombay is shortened. The Nicaragua Canal, on 
the other hand, will shorten the distance between 
New York and San Francisco by 10,000 miles." 

Dr. Johnson presents a table of distances between 
important ports, showing the saving caused by the 
Nicaragua CanaL 



Via Cape 
From Horn 

New York to- Miles. 

San Francisco 14,840 

Bering Strait 16,100 

Alaska 15,800 

Acapolco 13,071 

Mazatlan 13,631 

Hong-Kong 18,180 

Yokohama ) .17,679 

Melbourne 18,502 

NewZeaUnd 12.550 

Sandwich Islands 14,230 

CaUao..... 10,689 

GKiayaqnil 11,471 

Valparaiso 9,750 

New Orleans to— 

San Francisco.... 15,052 

Acapulco 13,283 

Mazatlan 13,843 

Onayaquil 11,683 

Callao 10.901 

Valparaiso 9,962 

Liverpool to— 

San Francisco 14,690 

Acapolco 11,921 

Mazatlan 13,481 

Melbonme 13,3'>2 

New Zealand 12,400 

Hong-Kong 18,030 

Yokohama 17,529 

Gnayaquil 11,321 

Callao 10,539 

Valparaiso 9,600 

Sandwich Islands 14,080 

Spain to Manilla 16,900 

France to Touquiu 17,750 



Via Cape 


Via Nic- 


Di». 


of Good 


aragua 


tanoe 


Hope. 


CanaL 


saved. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 




4,760 


10,080 




7,882 


8,218 




6,682 


8,618 




8,122 


9,949 





8.682 


9,949 


15,201 


11,088 


4,173 


16,190 


9,363 


6,827 


13,290 


10,000 


8,290 


14,125 


8,680 


3,870 




6,388 


7,842 




3,713 


6,976 




8,063 


8,418 




4,700 


5.050 




4,047 


11,006 




2,409 


10,874 




2,969 


10,874 




2,340 


9,343 




8,000 


7,901 




8,987 


5,975 




7,608 


7,182 




5.870 


7,061 


«... 


6,430 


7,061 


13,140 


12,748 


392 


13,975 


11,349 


1,051 


15,051 


13,786 


1,265 


16,040 


12,111 


8,929 




5,890 


5,431 




6,461 


4,078 




7,448 


2,152 




9,136 


4,9U 


13,951 


13,520 


431 


15,201 


13,887 


1,314 



In conclusion Dr. Johnson says that the benefits 
suggested '* can be secured without doing injury to 
existing means of transportation : indeed, it is as- 
serted tiiat they will share in the benefits conferred 
by the canal. Industrially and commercially our 
future development is lan^ely conditioned upon the 
early construction of the Nicaragua Canal." 



WHO IS RESPONSIBLE? 
A Question from Armenia. 

THE stories of massacre, outrage, torture which 
came in dismal monotony all last year, imply 
that some one is running up a very big bill for 
Nemesis to settle. The responsibility for this bill, 
although primarily due from the Turk, lies at the 
doors of many other x>eople. 

According to Mr. Dillon, who for months past has 
been acting as the special correspondent of the 
Daily Telegraph in the desolated region. Great 
Britain comes in for a large share of the responsi- 
bility. In the Contemporary Review he says: " The 
time has come for every reasoning inhabitant of 
these islands deliberately to accept or repudiate his 
share of the joint indirect responsibility of the 
British nation for a series of the hugest and foulest 
crimes that have ever stained the images of human 
history. The Armenian people in Anatolia are 
being exterminated, root and branch, by Turks and 
Kurds— systematically and painfully exterminated 
by such abominable methods and with such fiendish 
accompaniments as may well cause the most slug- 
gish blood to boil and seethe with shame and indig- 
nation. Yet we, and we more than any other peo- 
ple, are responsible for the misery of the Armenians. ' * 

HOW IT ARISBS. 

There is no necessity for arguing this point here. 
The facts are beyond dispute. England's jealousy 
of Russia led her under Lord Beaconsfield*s Gk>vem- 
ment to insist upon re-establishing the authority of 
the Turk in districts from which it had been driven 
by the Russian Czar. She publicly and solenmly 
declared that she would not sanction misgovemment 
in those regions. From that time to this she has 
done nothing practically to prevent it, and at this 
moment her jealousy of Russia stands in the way of 
the adoption of the only method by which any re- 
dress may be gained— namely, the occupation of the 
troubled district by the Russian army, acting in the 
name and with the authority of Europe. 

WHAT IS OOINO ON. 

The reports which reached us from Armenia, 
many of which were contained in Dr. Dillon's paper, 
render it by no means difficult to understand how 
it was that '* a wretched, heartbroken mother, 
wrung to frenzy by her soul-searing anguish, ac- 
counted to her neighbors for the horrors that were 
spread over her people and her country by the 
startling theory that Gk>d Himself had gone mad, 
and that maniacs and demons incarnate were stalk- 
ing about the world 1 " 

What people would not think the same if they 
were to be treated as the Armenians have been for 
the last twenty years : '* Kurdish brigands lifted 
the last cows and goats of the peasants, carried 
away their carpets and their valuables, raped their 
daughters, and dishonored their wives. Turkish 
taxgatherers followed these, gleaning what tha 
brigands had left, and, lest anything should escape 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH: 



206 



their avarice, bound the men, flogged them till 
their bodies were a bloody, mangled mass, cicatrized 
the womids with red hot ramrods, plucked out their 
beards hair by hair, tore the flesh from their limbs 
with pincers, and often, even then, dissatisfied with 
the financial results of their exertions, hnng the men 
mham they had thns beggared and maltreated from 
the rafters of the room and kept them there to wit- , 
nenwith burning shame, impotent rage, and incipi- 
ent madness, the dishonoring of their wives and the 
deflowering of their daughters, some of whom died 
miserably during the hellish outrage/* 

A POLICY OP EXTERMINATION. 

Bad as these things may appear to us to be, they 
were but the normal unpleasantness of Turkish 
rale in the Christian district Of late things have 
become mach worse, for the result of European in- 
tervention, when it is not effectual, aggravates 
instead of alleviates the mischief: "Tet while the 
OnmrnisHJop of Inquiry was still sitting at Moush 
the deeds of atrocious cruelty which it was assem- 
bled to investigate were outdone under the eyes of 
tiie delegates. Threats were openly uttered that on 
their withdrawal massacres would be organized all 
orer the country— massacres, it was said, in com- 
ptriaoQ with which the Sassoon butchery would 
compare but as dust in the balance. And elaborate 
prqMurations were made— ay, openly made, in the 
preseoce of consuls and delegates— for the perpetra- 
tion of these wholesale murders; and in spite of the 
wirnings and appeals published in England nothing 
vae done to prevent them. 

" In due time they began. Over 60,000 Armenians 
hsTB been butchered, and the massacres are not 
quite ended yet In Trebizond, Erzeroum, Erzing- 
ban, Haasankaleh. and numberless other places the 
Christians were crushed like grapes during the vint- 
age. The frantic mob, seething and surging in the 
etreets of the cities, swept down upon the def ense- 
Imb Armenians, plundered their shops, gutted their 
houses, then joked and jested with the terrified 
nctims, as cats play with mice.'' 

A DESPAIRING APPEAL. 

The Armenians, as Dr. Dillon reminds us, have a 
right to expect sympathy from the Christian world: 
^ Identity of ideals, aspirations, and religious faith 
give this unfortunate but heroic people strong 
claims on the sympathy of the English people, 
whose ancestors, whatever their religious creed, 
never hesitated to die for it, and when the breath of 
God ewept over them, breasted the hurricane of 
persecution." 

Dr. Dillon thus concludes this appeal to the con- 
•denceof Christendom: *'If there still be a spark 
of divinity in our souls, or a trace of healthy human 
sentiment in our hearts, we shall not hesitate to 
record onr vehement protest against these hell-bom 
^mes, that pollute one of the fairest ];>ortions of 
*^i*s earth, and our strong condemnation of any 
f every line of policy that may tend directly or 
• rectly to perpetuate or condone them. ' ' 



THE SULTAN OF TURKEY. 
By One Who Knows Him. 

THE most noteworthy contribution to the first 
December number of the Revue de Paris is an 
anonymous article dealing with the Eastern, or, 
more properly speaking, the Armenian question. 
Tbe writer, who is evidently well acquainted with 
Turkey, and, what is more important, vidth the Sul- 
tan, devotes a great deal of space to the "Sick 
Man." He seems to believe Abdul Hamid is by no 
means as weak and incapable a personage as he is 
often supposed to be: 

" Most people v^ill admit that the profession of 
being Sultan of Turkey is not— at any rate, at the 
present time— an agreeable one. The man who has 
now occupied the Turkish throne for nearly twenty 
years has certainly owed the length of his reign to 
the very real qualities displayed by him in the gov- 
ernment of his iieoples. 

" The Sultan is a small dark man, with a sallow 
skin, roving and uneasy eyes, and a slight, feminine 
hand. Yet in this same frail hand he holds aU the 
threads binding together the Mussulman world, the 
keys of the Holy Sepulchre and of the Dardanelles, 
the Koran and the Bible, the sabre and the lance— 
a good handful truly. 

IN NO SENSE A EUROPEAN. 

" The present Sultan is is no sense a European, 
and when dealing with any of the questions affecting 
him this fact should not be shirked. Europe is not 
dealing with a Mehemet Ali; the Sultan is a true 
Turk— an ' old ' Turk, and a pious Mahommedan. 
Tou have only to enter his palace at Tildiz to see 
that this is so. In the ante-chambers, leaning up 
against the walls, sitting cross legged on the sofas, 
is an endless procession which might have come out 
of the Arabian Nights. Men vidth gray beards and 
white, their turbaned heads bent over their beads, 
all waiting for an audience, which, if slow in com- 
ing, is always sure to be granted. A glance at all 
these people, hailing from every comer of the East- 
em world, is a proof of how truly the Sultan can 
boast of being religious head and chief of his race. 

*' By inclination, or because he thinks it wiser to 
do so, the Sultan has always followed Aristotle's 
advice, namely, ' Enfeebled governments in order 
to regain vigor should return to the principles upon 
which they were originally founded; ' and the Sul- 
tan, Commander of the Faithful, has never slack- 
ened in his attempt to carry out this maxim. 

*' Apart from this principle the Sultan has shown 
to his other subjects gentleness, impartiality and 
generosity. Foreigners have always been welcomed 
by him and treated with every courtesy. As a ruler 
and chief of state he has shown himself laborious, 
intelligent and dowered with a truly extraordinary 
instinct for avoiding and scenting out coming 
danger. 

*' Taking one thing with another, he has succeeded 
during the last eighteen years in prolonging, not 
only his own, but the existence of his dynasty, and 



206 



THE REVIEW OF REI/IEIVS. 



of his Empire; and when the circmnstanceB of his 
snccession to the throne are considered, it must be 
admitted that in these matters he has donewelL 
Whatever be the value of the councilors and ad- 
visers with whom he is surrounded, his past has 
been owing to himself, and it is he, and he alone, 
who can resolve the problem brought about by the 
excesses which have lately occurred in Armenia." 

The writer discusses the subject with modeitition 
and considerable impartiality. He regrets European 
intervention, and especially deplores the naval dem- 
onstration, which is likely, he considers, to lead 
either to too small or too great a result 



REPRESENTATIVE BRITISH VIEWS ON THE 
VENEZUEUN QUESTION. 

MR. H. M. STANLEY, M.P., the African ex- 
plorer, who recently returned to England 
from a tour in the United States, contributes 
to the Nineteenth Century an article on the issue 
between Great Britain and America. He says 
that during his trip he discovered the Amer- 
icans were working themselves into an extremely 
angry temper over the Venezuelan boundary ques- 
tion. He landed in New York in the middle 
of September* and found that there smoldered in 
certain sections an intense fire of hatred toward the 
English. On his return, he warned every one that 
a storm was brewing, and he was not unprepared 
for the vehemence of the outburst when it came. 
The following paragraph contains the gist of his 
article. 

▲ EX7B0PBAN COMMISSION. 

'* Now, the Aipericans believe that we have been 
steadily encroaching upon the territory of the Vene- 
zuelan Bepublic, and because for seventy-two years 
the United States has claimed a right to interfere in 
all affairs relating to the New World, they have 
undertaken to speak authoritatively in the pending 
dispute about the territory which they consider to 
have been wrested from Venezuela. It is the chal- 
lenge of this right of interference that is the real 
cause of the present strained relations between Eng- 
land and the United States. The boundary dispute 
is of trivial importance, except as it is the cause of 
the greater issue, viz., the right of the American 
people to speak with authority xr^n all questions 
affecting the territorial integrity of American States. 
We believe our Premier to be right in his contention 
that, after fifty-five years of possession of the terri- 
tory, we ought not to be molested in our occupation 
of it; and we think it a high-handed measure on 
the part of our kinsmen to venture u];>on deciding 
whether the frontier which we have been consist- 
ently maintaining for over half a century is the 
right one or not. Nevertheless when the conse- 
quences of our refusal to submit the territory in 
dispute to arbitration are going to be so tremendous, 
every prudent, religious, moral and intellectual 
feeling of a large number of our x>eople will be 
broused against the necessity of such wholesale frat- 



ricide, and I suggest, in order to satisfy their tender 
consciences, that we appoint a European Commission 
of our own to examine our claims, and report to 
our Foreign Office. Every European i)ower— nay, 
all the world^is interested in averting such a war, 
which will be the deadliest stroke to civilization 
that it could receive; and if our government re- 
quested Russia, G^ermany, France, It&ly, Switzerland 
and Belgium to appoint their respective commis- 
sioners for the purpose just si>ecified, I feel sure that 
the entire British race, from these islands to the 
Antii)odes, would be unanimous for the defense of 
British dignity, honor and rights, if we were discov- 
ered not to be willful aggressors on the territory of 
our neighbor. If, on the other hand, we have un- 
knowingly overstepi>ed our just frontier, it will be 
found that we are willing and ready to do that 
which is right*' 

A Suggestion of Compromise. 

Mr. Edward Dicey, in the same magazine, also 
takes a serious view of the dispute, and strongly 
counsels a compromise if a compromise be possible: 
** I can quite understand and appreciate the motives 
which induced Lord Salisbury, as they had induced 
his predecessor, to reject the idea of arbitration as 
inadmissible. Still I cannot but think that if our 
Foreign Office authorities had realized the possi- 
bility of the American Republic considering herself 
—with or without reason— as entitled to have a voice 
in the settlement of the Venezuela frontier question, 
they would not have closed the door against the idea 
of arbitration. As things are. I see great objections 
to our retracting this refusal, as such a retraction 
would under the circumstances be tantamount to 
an acceptance of the American contention that the 
Monroe doctrine confers on the United States a sort of 
protectorate over the republics of North and South 
America, and would also expose us to the reproach 
that we had yielded to threats what we had refused 
to argument Moreover, even if we were disposed 
to admit the principle of arbitration, it would be 
difficult, if not impossible, after what has occurred, 
to find an arbiter whose judgment would, on the 
one hand, command confidence in England, and 
whose award, on the other hand, would be accepted 
as final across the Atlantic. Still, considering we 
are aU agreed as to the possibility of a war with 
America being a calamity to be averted by ev^y 
means not involving disgrace, common sense ix>ints 
out that it would be wise not to treat our contro- 
versy with Venezuela as a res judicata, but to dis- 
play a readiness to modify our opinion if any reason- 
able ground can be adduced for so doing. 

** But my own idea is that the mode in which we 
can best show that we have an open mind in respect 
of the Venezuela difficulty can safely be settled by 
the government All I contend is that in vie^^ of 
the ' consequential damages * which a war' ^ir 
America might entail upon us. common sens^ h 
us not to i>er8i8t in a non poasumus attitude. ^ ) 
stretch a ];>oint to enable the Americans to 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



207 



whhoat discredit from an untenable position, if 
we forego the enforcement of onr fnll legal rights, 
and if by 80 doing we preserve peace between the 
two ^reat Anglo-Saxon nations of the world, we 
shall not only have done what is right, bnt we shall 
have done what is best for the fortunes, the inter- 
ests, and the honor of England.*' 

British Imperialism. 

In the number of the Jni^es^ors' Review (London) 
which appeared just before President Cleveland's 
Venesuelan message was sent to Congress, the editor, 
Mr. S. J. Wilson, had this to say regarding British 
imperialism: 

** The modem style of cheap conquest is a curse to 
us, and a hindrance to our advancement as the 
leading mercantile and civilizing power of the 
world. A false spirit dictates this line of conduct, 
and has come to govern our attitude toward the 
settlements our race has effected in Australia and 
Kew Zealand, in North America and South America. 
We bluster about ' drawing the bonds of brother- 
hood closer together ' between the far apart sections 
of this 'Empire,' and in doing so run right in 
fhe teeth of thdr interests and ours. Our glory 
oa^t to be to allow our people wherever they settle 
and find homes to develop into free and independ- 
ent nations; not to drag them at the tail of vulgar 
* Imperial' triumphal processions, calling on all 
the world to behold our grandeur. And we do 
practically let them alone, for the plain reason that 
we cannot do otherwise; therefore is the brawling 
fire-eater class of patriot all the more a creature 
imclean. The united wisdom of our Parliament is 
barely sufficient to guide our own home affairs; to 
mle states or conmiittees at the other end of the 
world is wholly outside its capacity. We cannot 
even throw an intelligent supervision over India, 
which requires it more than all our other depend- 
encies put together, and the colonial possessions 
*■ fnlflll their destinies ' much as an overruling fate 
may determine, without other help from us than a 
bad example; and they would have to take care 
of themselves altogether were we to be involved 
again in any great struggle on the continent of 



laration of non-extension of monarchial institutions. 
It is protecting the opportunity for the normal and 
unmolested development of Democratic institutions 
throughout this hemisphere. " This is the gist of his 
article, which is presented under the heading, V Phi- 
losophy of the Monroe Doctrine." 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE. 

MB. QEOBGE GUNTON, who has his own views 
on every conceivable subject relating to poli- 
tics and economics, declares in the opening article of 
his magazine (which we have to note has been 
chan^^ from Social Economist to Ounton's Maga- 
zime) that the Monroe Doctrine is the application of 
the principle of protection to the evolution of Demo- 
cxatic institutions on the American continents. He 
ooDBiden it an entire misconception of this doctrine 
to Hiwuinin that it involves or remotely implies a dicta- 
torial attitude on the part of this republic toward 
other ooontries. '* It is like the early free-soil de- 
Bk^jid for the non-extension of slavery. It is a dec- 



INSIDE THE INSURGENTS' LINES. 

IN the Contemporary Review Mr. Herbert Howard 
describes his experiences among the Cuban in- 
surgents. He had some difficulty in getting through 
the Spanish lines, but he seems to have had a fair 
measure of success in interviewing the rebels and 
their leadens. 

As one would infer from the contradictory dis- 
patches appearing in the daily press, much of the 
news sent out from Cuba is not to be relied upon. 
Mr. Howard says : *' Little is known to the outside 
world of the actual state of affairs in Cuba during^ 
the present war. The greater part of the news jmb- 
lished abroad is derived from Spanish official notices 
or from some Spanish source, and is always im- 
trustworthy, and, if unfavorable to Spain, is de- 
liberately falsified. Other reports are made by the 
agents appointed by the various newspapers in the 
principal seaport towns of Cuba, and their dis- 
patches necessarily consist for the most part of a 
risumi of the rumors which are incessantly being 
circulated from mouth to mouth, and which, 
whether favorable to Spain or no, are usually either 
so distorted as to be beyond recognition or entirely 
without foundation.*' 

** It is seldom that the insurgents in the field can 
send dispatches giving their version of affairs. 
Every day the difficulty of forwarding reports 
through the Spanish lines is increasing, and the 
undertaking becomes more hazardous. Every one 
passing through the lines is suspected and is liable 
to search, whether provided with a pass or no. 
Conmiunication is kept up with the towns ; but the 
news, when it arrives at all, is usually very much 
behind the time, and has been already discredited 
by previous reporta" 

Mr. Howard goes on to say that "Inland the 
island is in the hands of the insurgents ; but the 
towns are Spanish, and in the hands of tiie Span- 
iards are the means of reporting the progress of a 
campaign of what would appear to be almost un- 
broken success for themselve& Spanish troops have 
been poured into the island in thousands uxKm thou- 
sands, and there lost sight of. The general impres- 
sion is that the insurrection is being sustained by 
bands of savage, undisciplined, and half -armed guer- 
rillas, outcasts of Cuban society, and negroes who, 
hunted from place to place by the Spanish regulars, 
and condemned by the better class of Cubans, main- 
tain themselves in the woods and mountains and 
carry on a marauding warfare of rapine and mur- 
der, avoiding the Spanish forces, save when they 
are in vastly superior numbers. 



208 



THE REk'IElV OF REl^IEWS. 



SPAIN ON THE DEFENSIVE. 

"The statements of the victoriotis progress of the 
Spaniards are false, and the reports are absolutely 
tmreliabla ... At the end of October the 
Spaniards were everywhere practically standing on 
the defensive ; they held the towns, certain posi- 
tions along the coast, and after a fashion the rail- 
roads, which usually run a very short distance in- 
land. The rest of the island is * Free Cuba,' and is 
in the hands of the insurgents. The Spaniards sel- 
dom venture inland in any direction away from 
their base and never with a force of less than two 
tiiousand or three thousand men. and even then the 
disorganization of their commissariat and the hos- 
tility of the country are such as to prevent them 
from keeping the field for more than a very few 
days at a time. 

** Almost every Cuban on the island is in sym- 
pathy with the insurrection ; nothing is more false 
than to suppose that only those who have nothing 
to lose favor the revolt Rich and poor, educated 
and uneducated, even the children bom in the 
island of Spanish parents *all are against Spain. 

" In the whole island there are some 25,000 insur- 
gents under arms, all, both infantry and cavalry, 
carrying the machete as a side arm, and a rifle of 
one kind or another, usually a Remington. 

" (General Antonio Maceo is the moving spirit of 
the whole revolt He is a tall, broad shouldered 
mulatto, with a reputation for reckless bravery and 
a good knowledge of Cuban warfare, gained during 
the last insurrection. He is the hero of the Cubans 
and the terror of the Spanish soldiery. The Presi- 
dent of the Republic, the Marquis of Santa Lucia, 
is a man very nearly eighty years old, a stately and 
courteous old gentleman. The rest of the govern- 
ment is almost entirely composed of young men, 
who are almost all under forty ; shrewd, pleasant 
fellows they seemed, full of zeal and hope in the 
future, and apparently by no means oversanguine. 



THE CRISIS IN THE TRANSVAAL 

MAJOR F. D. RICARDE-SEAVER contributes 
to the Fortnightly Review for January the 
second part of his article on "The Boer, Briton, 
and Africander in the Transvaal,'* which is very 
timely just now in view of the agitation of the 
Uitlanders. His forecast of the future i)olitical des- 
tinies of the Transvaal is in line with the generally 
accepted belief as to Great Britain's intentions in 
South Africa: 

*' 1. Suppression of the present Dopper Boer domi- 
nation as exemplified by President Kruger and his 
Hollander allies. 

" 2. Installation of a ' buffer ' government with 
an executive composed of advanced Progressive 
Boers. This to be transitory and created expressly 
with the object of establishing liberal reforms and 
the granting of the franchise to aU duly qualified 
Uitlanders. 

''8. The advent of a more enlightened class of 



legislators composed largely of the Anglo-Saxon and 
Anglo-Dutch elements, whose mission it would be 
to bring the Transvaal within the orbit of the Cds 
toms Union, as now existing between the Cai>e Col- 
ony, Natal and the Orange Free State. This wonld 
be the first step towards local federation. 

" 4 And lastly, while retaining its local independ- 
ence and form of government, the political, com- 
mercial and social xmion of the Transvaal with aU 
the states comprised within that vast area from 
Tanganyika on the north to Cape Town on the south, 
and from Delagoa Bay on the east to Damaraland on 
the west, the whole constituting that united South 
Africa of Mr. Rhodes* early dreams, beneath the 
sBgis of Imperial British suzerainty and under one 
flag.'' 

WHAT OP CECIL BHODES ? 

Mr. Seaver recognizes in Mr. Cecil Rhodes the man 
of the situation. He says : 

'* In all this great work of reconstruction and re- 
form, it may naturally be asked: * And the great 
South African statesman, Cecil Rhodes, what of 
him ? Where is his place, and what r6le is he likely 
to play in this great political drama?' To those 
who have had the privilege of close fellowship, and 
the advantage of studying his character and work- 
ing with him during the last eight years, the answer 
is not far to seek. I have had occasion in other dr- 
oumstances to qualify him as a man who knowt 
what he toants and goes straight to his goal (Alasl 
how few of our statesmen can aspire to this defini- 
tion 1). When the history of a ' United South 
Africa ' comes to be written, an impartial historian 
cannot fail to do justice to Mr. Rhodes. To his per- 
sistent efforts and untiring energy will be due in 
great measure the consunmiation of this magnum 
opus of his life. Those who accuse him of money- 
grubbing and financial scheming with the sole ob- 
ject of amassing wealth, know little of the man (Mr 
his attributes. If he seems to covet wealth it is 
more for the power its x>06session gives to enable 
him to carry out his vast schemes of empire to the 
glory and advantage of the Anglo-Saxon race, than 
to the satisfaction of any selfish or sensual enjoy- 
ment 

"• He has built up for himself an idol on the vast 
Elaroo conceived in early youthful dreams and 
matured in manhood, shaped and fashioned from 
the stem material of firm resolve immutable as 
adamant, and before which he has worshiped for 
years, and still worships. This idol, as his detrao- 
tors and enemies would have it, is not Manmum, 
but the far nobler and more lasting monument of 
human ambition, the banding totrether under one 
fiag of many peoples and many races, and the group- 
ing of many states beneath the segis of Anglo-Saxcm 
supremacy. Witness his conquest from barbarism 
of that vast territory stretching from the Limpopo 
on the south, away across the Zambesi to Lake 
Tanganyika on the north, covering an area of over 
a million square miles. All this he has saved in the 
'scramble for Africa,' and his bitterest enemies 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



209 



fc admit fhat bnt for him it would have been lost 
fanror to the Britiah Empira" 



M' 



THE ALASKA BOUNDARY QUESTION. 
TB. B. E. GK>SN£LL, Proyincial Librarian, 
Victoria, R C, writing In the Canadian 
Magazine, declares that the United States gained 
great advantage oyer England when, in 1867, our 
gOToniment became the owner of that stretch of 
ooontry, 1,100 miles in its greatest length and 800 
mileB in its greatest width, known as Alaska. The 
som paid was $7,200,000 and, says Mr. Gk)snell, the 
tnnsaction tamed oat to be a gilt-edged real estate 
investment, notwithstanding that at the time there 
was stecmg opposition to it in the United States. 

A GILT- EDGED REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT. 

Little was known of the resoarces of Alaska then, 
and the folly of baying a field of ice and a sea of 
mountains was forcibly commented npon. For 
political, if for no other reasons, says Mr. GkNsnell, 
Great Britain should have prevented sach an ac- 
complishment '* If her statesmen had made them- 
lelves familiar with the conditions of the coast from 
narratives of the distingaished navigators of their 
own coontry, or the history of the Hadson*s Bay 
and Bossian Far companies, they most have known 
tiiat the wealth of fars and fish alone woald have 
jnstified its porchase, to say nothing of roanding off 
tittir North American possessions." Becaase Ras- 
flii wanted to sell, it was thoaght Bossian adven- 
tarers had extracted the meat and wished to dispose 
of the worthless shell for a consideration ; John 
Bon was not to be taken in. Alaska had never 
been of great importance to Bossia— certainly of 
DO political importance. It was far from the seat 
of government, and was separated from Asia by a 
tea and all bat inaccessible overland. Bossia had 
given ap her designs of extending settlements on the 
American coast after the experiment on the Ameri- 
can coast and at the mouth of the Colambia, and 
was content with Alaska as a far preserve, to be- 
stow as a concession to a company of fur tradera 
As a field for population or extending political in- 
flnenoe it was out of the question ; besides, Russia 
had too much to do in carrying out her traditional 
policy of encroachment nearer home. Bussia acted 
Wttely in relieving herself of a responsibility that 
brooght little or nothing in return. Great Britain 
lort an immrnse opportunity thereby, and inherited 
as a consequence the Behring Sea dispute and the 
Alaska Boundary question, the costs of whic^h com- 
bined, it is safe to say, would have paid for the ter- 
ritory. Since that time Alaska has developed rich 
gdd mines, a great fur trade, and a salmon c^mning 
indnstry that have rendered it extremely valuable, 
^th possibilities of much greater things. 

The rest of Mr. Qosnell's article is taken np with 
an attempt to establish the true boundary line be- 
tween Alaska and British Columbia, and is too tech- 
s' to be presented hera 



THE BOND OPERATION OF 1895. 

IN the Political Science Quarterly Mr. Alexander 
D. Noyes, the well-known writer on finance, 
subjects to a thorough and severe examination last 
year's bond operation, leading up to this remark- 
able financial episode with an investigation of the 
situation which made it seem necessary for our gov- 
ernment to issue bonds in time of x>eace. He reviews 
the experiment in detail, pointing out that the 
methods of the syndicate involved theoretically 
unsound economics ; that in at least one way its 
operations in exchange indirectly aggravated the 
evil whose consequences they were intended to avert, 
and that while for several months the syndicate was 
able to prevent export of gold withdrawn from the 
Treasury, their undertaking broke down completely 
before the expiration of the contract 

The substance of his review of the bond operation 
is as follows: The syndicate began with the mar- 
ket under complete controL Gk>ld exports ceased 
practically at once, stock market prices rose and 
confidence returned. Through February, Mkrch 
and April no gold was withdrawn from the Treas- 
ury. The domestic gold due under the contract was 
paid within three weeks; five millions monthly 
came to the govenmient by the European steamers, 
and by June 25 the $100,000,000 reserve was again 
intact Up to this time the syndicate seemed to 
have achieved complete success. As a matter of 
fact, its real perplexities were still before it For- 
eign buying ceased almost as suddenly as it had 
begun, and by the time the syndicate had covered 
its '* short " exchange, sterling rates had advanced 
again to their former high level Most serious of 
all, the economic law of a disordered currency, the 
penalty of which the syndicate for the time had 
averted, began again to operate. 

In July something happened which occurs invari- 
ably at one stage of a market comer: '* Every New 
York banker commanding large local and foreign 
capital had been identified with the syndicate; the 
motive for such union being undoubtedly as much 
the wish to help the government as the hope of gain. 
Indeed, most of the bankers lost eventually through 
their abandonment of the open market But with 
the syndicate houses selling no exchange below 
1490, and with a trade profit in specie shipments to 
cover sales at $4.89, a New York firm previously 
concerned in the coffee import trade, but with 
powerful European connections, entered the mar- 
ket, offered exchange one cent below the syndicate, 
and, shipping gold to make good its sterling drafts, 
withdrew the specie from the Treasury. The firm's 
first shipments of gold were apparently undertaken 
to discharge its own trade debts abroad. But it very 
soon extended its operations to the drawing of for- 
eign exchange for the benefit of other trade remit- 
ters. When this happened, of course the house 
instantly had the market in its hands. The syndi- 
cate held to its former non- competitive exchange 



210 



THE REI^IEIV OF REI^IEIVS, 



rates, and before three months had passed, 184,000,- 
000 of the government gold reserve had gone abroad. 

C50NCLUSION OP THE EXPERIMENT. 

'* This was in actual fact the end of the syndicate 
experiment. Thronghont August and September, it 
is true, gold from the reserves of local institutions 
was x>aid into the Treasury for notes. The syndi 
cate thus paid over some $16,000,000; other banks 
contributed 14,000,000 more. But this was purely a 
voluntary matter; it was the old and patriotic, but 
utterly illogical, ' reimbursement ' of 1894, of 1893 
and of 1895. Even this makeshift failed to keep 
pace with the demand for ezx>ort gold. It was only 
when the reserve had fallen to $98,000,000 that the 
autumn movement of interior trade drew off the 
idle currency surplus at New York, and thus gave 
local employment to idle foreign capital Then 
rates of exchange declined and the specie outflow 
came to a normal end. Thus the situation stands at 
this writing." 

Although the reaction proved so disastrous, Mr. 
Noyes does not regard the experiment of 1895 as a 
total failure. However faulty the theory of the 
undertaking may ha^e been, it was no small achieve- 
ment to have saved the Treasury from imminent 
insolvency, and to have restored health and activity 
to private trade and credit, though but temporarily. 
" The truth of the matter is." concludes Mr. Noyes, 
*' that ];>olitical economy resembles all other sciences, 
in that its principles cannot be applied in practice 
with perfect rigidity. In every case of obvious dis- 
order, science must discover first the actual cause of 
trouble, then the proper method of removing it But 
because so much is discovered, it does not follow 
that it can instantly be applied. In 1895 the disease 
and the remedy were plain to the majority of edu- 
cated minds; but it was equally plain that the 
remedy could not immediately be used, and yet the 
patient could not wait. A quick and powerful i)al- 
liative was applied with a double hope; that partial 
return of economic health would enable the nation 
better to endure another strain, and that, with lapse 
of time, returning sanity in legislation would make 
possible the final cure." 



THE REMEDIES FOR RAILWAY RATE WARS. 

MR. JOHN W. MIDGLEY, Chairman of the 
Western Freight Association, writes in the 
Forum on '* Railroad Rate Wars." In conclusion 
he gives as follows the remedies for these rate wars, 
which at the same time suggest the causes: 

'* 1. Create a board of financiers which shall mark 
for disapproval properties that are unwisely admin- 
istered. 

'* 2. Appoint a standing conmiittee, consisting of 
one director from each prominent railroad system 
in a given territory, which shall promptly inquire 
into and locate the responsibility for any rate war 
that may occur. 



'* 8. Concentrate the rate-making authority on all 
comi>etitive traffic in the hands of one man upon 
each system or railroad, and provide for its exclu- 
sive exercise by such officer. 

''4 Form comprehensive associations in each 
well-defined group, for the proper consideration of 
questions of common interest, the several members 
to be adequately represented in the deliberations. 

" 5. Provide for the prompt arbitration of all dis- 
agreements, as they arise, between any two or more 
parties to a traffic association. " 

Mr. Midgley believes that agreements drawn 
upon the lines indicated, and approved by the di- 
rectors of the several assenting companies, will be 
certain to usher in much better conditions between 
rival carriers than have yet been known. 



FROM PRINTER'S DEVIL TO PREMIER. 
A Sketch of Sir Mackenzie Bowell. 

IN the Canadian Magazine appears a sketch by J. 
Lambert Payne, of Sir Mackenzie Bowell, the^ 
present Premier of Canada, whose tenure of office 
during the month has been threatened bydissen- 
tions in his Cabinet. Sir Mackenzie began life in 
humble and unpromising circumstances. His ca- 
reer seems to his biographer to be more like that of 
Abraham Lincoln than that of any other man in the 
modem political life of this continent. Lincoln 
spent his boyhood on a backwoods farm, knowing 
little of school advantages and giving his youthful 
strength to a rough avocation that pointed in any 
direction but to the Presidential chair. In muck 
the same way, Sir Mackenzie Bowell began and 
shaped his life, giving himself up to the toils of & 
mechanic, shut off in childhood from educational 
privileges, and yet following a course that has mad& 
him First Minister of the Dominion. 

EARLY LIFE. 

He was bom in Suffolk, England, on December 
27, 1828. His father was a builder, and in 1883> 
emigrated to this country. When eleven years old, 
the boy Mackenzie Bowell was apprenticed to Mr. 
G^rge Benjamin of Belleville, Canada, to learn 
the trade and handicraft of a printer. Mr. Benja- 
min was the publisher of the Intelligencer, and his- 
printing office had all the inconveniences and primi- 
tive makeshifts of a country weekly in a practically 
pioneer settlement. The new boy started off as 
"printer's devil,'* and from confessions of mis- 
chievous pranks in those early days, it may fairly 
be assumed that the api)elIation in his case was not 
misplaced. His apprenticeship took him from his 
home and brought him wholly under the care of his- 
employer, as was the custom in those times. Mr. 
Benjamin was a gentleman of education and public- 
spirit, and it is certain that he exercised a great in- 
fluence in molding the character and aspirations of 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



2U 



his young apprentice. At eighteen years of age, 
haying saved a little money, and desiring to equip 
himself with a better education, he went to the 
school of Mr. Thomas Agar, of Sydney, in the 
County of Hastings, where he spent six months in 
hard and earnest work with his books. He was 
then induced to return to the Intelligencer office as 
foreman, at the munificent salary of |10 a month. 
Six years later he was given a full partnership in 
the business, and in 1848, in partnership with a Mr. 
Moore, took the printing property off of Mr. Benja- 
min*s hands, three years later becoming sole pro- 
prietor of the Intelligencer. 

HIS POLITICAL CAREER. 

The story of his life from this time on, as the dif- 
ficulties in his way grew fewer and fewer, becomes 
less interesting. He first became a candidate for 
political office in 1868, but was defeated. In 1867 
he was elected to the first Dominion Parliament, 
and here he was continued for 25 years. His restless 
eauTgy took him quickly into the active business of 
the House, and his natural fondness for details, and 
fearless methods of analysis, soon made him a con- 
i^cuous figure in the shaping of Parliamentary 
measnre& " Later on, when his party had passed 
into opposition, and it was numerically weak in the 
House, he became a veritable thorn in the side of 
the government. Early and late, on the floor of 
the House and in the committee rooms, in the press 
and on the hustings, he carried on a vigorous and 
unceasing fight for the principles of his party, and 
iriien Sir John Macdonald was returned to power in 
1878, no one was surprised that Mackenzie Bowell 
should be given the important portfolio of Minister 
of Customs in the new government It is worthy 
of mention that he is to-day the sole survivor in 
office of the Cabinet of 1878 —six of his colleagues of 
1878 having died and the others being in various 
gpberm of life outside. For thirteen years he served 
as Minister of Customs ; for a year as Minister of 
IGHtia; for two years as Minister of Trade and Com- 
merce, and he is now in his second year as Premier 
and Ftesident of the Council When the late Sir 
John Thompson assumed the Premiership, in De- 
cember. 1893, Mr. ]3oweIl was asked to take the 
leadership of the Senate, and he assumed it with re- 
luctance. This took him out of the House of Com- 
moos, where he had sat for twenty-five years in un- 
Ivoken representation of the North Biding of Hast- 
ingsL It was in the year following this change, that 
he made his famous visit to Australia, and i>aved 
the way for the Colonial Conference of 1894~which 
gathering will yet come to be regarded as one of 
the most significant events in the modem history 
of the British Empire. On December 14, following 
tiie tragic death of Sir John Thompson, he was 
called to the Premiership, and on January 1, 1895, 
he was knighted by Her Majesty. The events of 
the year just closed are yet so fresh in the public 
mind* as to not call for mention in this relation. " 



MR. REED'S QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE 
PRESIDENCY. 

A PAPER in the February Atlantic discusses the 
Presidential situation in general, and Mr. 
Reed's qualifications for the jKwition of Chief Ex- 
ecutive in particular. The burden of the i>aper is 
the argument that party liijes should not be the all- 
important gn^des to the choice of the next Presi- 
dent. It acknowledges that there may have been a 
period when i)arty tests were the best tests, and 
when parties were our most important politicial in- 
struments, and that they may have served fairly 
well a generation ago. But this writer scouts the 
idea that, at the present juncture, ** any " respecta- 
ble man would make an acceptable President only 
provided that he was loyal to his party. The new 
and tremendous duties lying before any effective ex- 
ecutive are not taught by party exigencies ; party 
affiliations to them are shifting and changeable. 

PRESIDENTIAL DUTIES TOO UGHTLY ESTEEMED. 

These duties, the Atlantic Monthly writer thinks, 
were far too lightiy esteemed during the whole 
period from Lincoln to Cleveland, and to the de- 
graded conception of the Presidency he attributes 
the lower standards of political Ufe. He does not 
admit that the Presidential duties were very insig- 
nificant, but he also maintains that there has been 
and still is going on an accretion of responsibilities 
which continually broaden the Presidential func- 
tions. The Cabinet officers themselves, for instance, 
are gaining vastiy in importance and scope of work. 
Moreover, the executive functions of the President 
have become specialized to the extent that renders 
a mere party hero an unacceptable candidata The 
great President of the future is to be trained care- 
fully for the services he will perform, just as men 
are coming to be trained for the mayoralty of 
cities. 

A PABTY LEADER. 

Mr. Reed is then examined in detail as to his quali- 
fications for the Presidency. He is given credit for 
the good training of his thirty years of public serv- 
ice, and for ''unusual talents for public affairs." 
As a party leader he is most remarkably effective, 
ready, clear headed, with concise and epignunmatic 
oratory always at his command in party debate. 
Courage, cleverness and pertinacity have character- 
ized his rise to the leaderahip of his party in the 
House. But the Atlantic Monthly critic makes the 
point that it has been *' wholly as a party leader 
that he has risen above the rank and file. He has 
never identified himself with any great cause ; he 
has never set a moral force in motion. " 

The conclusion to which this critic comes is that 
the nomination of Mr. Reed would keep Presidential 
politics in an old and undesirable rut, and that it 
would be unfortunate, becaui^, in the writer's esti- 
mation, the Presidency ought not to be considered 
as a party prize. 



212 



THE REI/IEIV OF REI/IEIVS. 



A UNIVERSAL RATIO. 



ti 



ASILVEB bill to stiit both parties " is the 
attractive proposition of Mr Robert Stein 
in the Arena, The measure which Mr. Stein be- 
lieves fitted to work this wonder is what is known 
as the Eanitz Free Silver bill, introduced in the Ger- 
num Reichstag and afterward submitted to the 
German Silver Commission of 1894 This bill pro- 
vides for the eventual unlimited coinage of gold and 
silver at the ratio of 1 to 15^, the coinage of silver 
to be gratuitous, that of gold to be subject to a 
coinage duty. The law is to become operative only 
"when other great states shall have adopted the 
free coinage of silver. '* 

As to the change of ratio, Mr. Stein remarks: " It 
is well known that the ratio of 1 to 16 is advocated 
by the free silver men for the sole reason that it 
simply implies the maintenance of the old silver 
dollar, and may therefore be expected to arouse less 
opposition. They have repeatedly declared that 1 to 
15^ wiU be equally welcome to theuL This dec- 
laration is repeated in 'Coin's Financial School' 
Moreover, the United States Government, by giving 
its adhesion to the project of a Bimetallic Union 
submitted to it by the French Gk>vemment in 1881, 
expressly declared its willingness to adopt the ratio 
ofltol5Ji." 

VIBWB OF NOTED EOONOMl&TS. 

Laveleye, the great Belgian economist, is quoted 
to show that free coinage by the United States 
alone at 16tol would render the co-operation of 
France impossible. France would lose by adopting 
1 to 16, while the United States would gain by 
adopting 1 to 15^. 

Mr. Stein publishes several letters from eminenv^ 
publicists giving their views on the Kanitz bilL 
Professor Foxwell, of Cambridge University, Eng- 
, land, writes: "While I would not have it under- 
stood that I advocate the ratio of 153^ to 1, I do not 
think there can be a question that you are right as 
between 16^ to 1 and 16 to 1 for the United States. 
Of course 16 to 1 would be perfectly inoperative in 
America if 15J4 were in force in Europe; or rather, 
as you point out, it would be operative in the sense 
that you would be drained of silver and France of 
gold. The French are far too shrewd to go into 
any arrangement of such a kind; and the effect of 
your adopting 16 to 1 would be, in my opinion, to 
effectually stop international bimetallism.** 

Sir W. H. Houldsworth, M.P.. says: " I think very 
well of the ' Elanitz Silver bill.* and the pamphlet I 
consider an excellent one. It expresses exactly what 
we English bimetallists feel— viz. , what a pity it is 
that the bimetallists in the States, who are all inter- 
national bimetallists, and form the great majority 
of the nation, should be fighting among themselves 
instead of joining us here in forwarding an inter- 
national agreement. If the bill you propose could 
be passed, it toould help ua immensely here, and 
would, I feel sure, have an effect in Europe. ** 



From France, M Fougeirol, vice-president of tiie 
Bimetallic League and member of the Chamber oi 
Deputies, writes: "There is no objection whatever 
to the separate adoption by the respective parlia- 
ments of France, Germany, England and the United 
States of a law declaring, in substance, that their 
citizens are authorized to i>ay their taxes either with 
a fixed weight of gold or with a weight of silver 
153^ times as great; with an additional clause stat- 
ing that this law shall become operative only when 
the governments of France, Gtormany, Engliuid and 
the United States shall have agreed on a common 
date for its promulgation. 

" I for my part am willing to labor for this end, 
and I was glad to learn at a recent visit to the Ger- 
man Bimetallic League that several of its most 
prominent leaders share this view." 

Dr. Otto Arendt, member of the Prussian House 
of Deputies, writes: " If the bill proposed by you is 
introduced and passed in Washington, it will be -a 
very great help to the endeavors of bimetallistB in 
Europe, and it may be hoped that it will be the way 
in which bimetallism wiU be attained. So far as I 
know the attitude of the leading bimetallists. eimi- 
lar hHU vxndd promptly he introduced in the BeUh- 
stag and in the French Chamber of Deputies, and 
would in aU probability bepaeeed in both countries. 
My friend, Herr von Eardoff, has long recom- 
mended such action. The adoption of such laws, of 
identical tenor, by the three great states would have 
a decided effect in favor of bimetallism in England 
The English voters would then finally solve the 
question.*' 

Senators Teller and Chandler (who has introduced 
the bill in our Congress) and President Andrews of 
Brown University, add their commendations to 
those quoted. 

THE LESSONS OF THE YALU BATTLE. 

Sm EDMUND R. FREMANTLE, Vice- Admiral 
in the British Navy, reviews in the Forum the 
'* Naval Aspects of the Jiq>an-China War,** with 
the view of answering the question as to whether 
there was anything to be learned from the last con- 
flict at sea. From the principal naval battle, the 
Yalu, he draws these lessons, and other obvious 
ones, namely : the necessity for keeping a fleet under 
command, and for special protections against fire, 
and of removing all woodwork; the advantage of 
the offensive over the defensive ; high speed over 
lower speed; quick-firing over slower-acting guns; 
the uselessness of thin screens or shields to guns, 
and the danger of having accumulations of heavy 
gun charges in exposed positions. 

The Vice- Admiral concludes by saying that ** from 
the naval point of view one is struck by the fact of 
the eternity of general principles in strategy, ani 
even in tactics, modem appliances notwithstanding; 
and only shallow observers will fail to see the les- 
sons which can be learned from the ^amp^igpft of « 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



213 



KelaoQ, a Rodney or a SnfErezi, if care is taken to 
adapt them to the drcnmstances of our own times.*' 



AN IDEAL EMPLOYER. 
M. Leon Harmel, of the Val-des-Bols. 

ONE of the brightest and most interesting arti- 
cles this month is that which Mrs. Crawford 
has contribated to the Fortnightly Review. In the 
oonrse of last year Mrs. Crawford paid a ^isit to M 
lAm Harmel, who is probably the most conspicuous 
GathoUc layman in Europe. In his factory near 
l^honwiM he has realized an ideal relationship between 
employer and employed, while his zeal on behalf of 
the Catholic Church brought him into close and 
affectionate friendship with the Pope himself. Leo 
T TTT is said to have declared on one occasion that he 
approree of all that M. Harmel has done, all that he 
is doing, and ererything that he intends to do— a 
oomprehensiye aiiprobation which M. Harmel well 
dfiserres. Mrs. Crawford, who seems to have taken 
ft great deal of trouble to get tothe facts of the 
ciM. says that his woolen factory offers to the 
world an object lesson in Christian democracy: 
" After Comte Albert de Mun. his friend and fel- 
low-worker, Harmel is the foremost Catholic lay- 
man of his country. He is a veritable nineteenth 
eentury apostle of the workingman. " 

A CATHOLIC INSTITUTION. 

M. Harmel is a Catholic before ererything else, 
and the success of his factory depends so much 
iqKm its Catholicism that it is to be feared that our 
people will leam less from his experience than 
might have been hoped. Mrs. Crawford says: '* The 
iriide establishment is as frankly and c(mf essedly 
Orthotic as any monastery, with the one important 
proviso that there is no compulsion in any form; 
and it is solely and entirely to their essentially Chris- 
tian character that Harmel himself attributes the 
fast measure of social and economic success by 
which his yanous schemes have been crowned. No 
&ctory, I venture to think, can boast so complete 
an orgttoization as Val-des-Bois, and nowhere is the 
altruistic spirit so strongly developed. The prac- 
tical question is how much of it all would bear 
transplantation to English and Protestant soil? 
The mixed ooundl, the institutions for the encour- 
agement of thrift, the conseilUree d' atelier could be 
ofganized without difficulty by any EngliRh manu- 
tecturer who set to work in the right way." 

But although those features might be organized 
by the ig« gWa>t employer, Mrs. Crawford seems to 
agree with M. Harmel in thinking that Protestants 
would find it difficult to achieve anything like M. 
Hansel's success: " Two ideals, the one religious, 
tiie other economic, underlie idl the work that is 
carried on by the Harmel family. The first object 
^ to make of the average workman a good Chris- 
tiaa; tiie seocmd to train him into an independent, 
aelf-snpporting, self-respecting citizen. In Harmel*s 
opfailoo it is absolutely indispensable that the relig- 
( motive should precede that which is sodaL" 



M. Harmel has drawn up a little book which may 
be described as a handy guide to the duties which 
an employer owes to the employed. The following 
summary of its contents would seem to us that it 
might be read with as much advantage by Protes- 
tants as by Catholics: '"To organize with wisdom 
and prudence, to govern with justice and charity,' 
are the words in which he sums up the duties of the 
' I>atron.* The moral, religious and educational wel- 
fare of his workpeople fall as strictly within this 
sphere as their actual industrial labor. The ' patron * 
has only fulfilled a portion of his duty when he has 
paid fair wages for work done, has provided sanitary 
workshops, has made provision against accidents, 
and abolished, as far as may be, night labor. It is 
further his bounden duty to allow his people every 
reasonable facility for the fulfillment of their relig- 
ious duties, to shield them from immoral influences, 
to disseminate wholesome and Christian literature 
among them, to provide them with weU-built cot- 
tages, garden plots, and the means of healthy recre- 
ation, to superhitend the training of his apprentices, 
to actively encourage thrift, and, generally speaking, 
to come to the practical assistance of his workpeople 
in all cases of illness, accident, or misfortune. 

EOS CONCEPTION OF DOTT. 

Should neither church nor Christian schools be sit- 
uated within easy reach of his factory hands, the 
wealthy employer is bound to provide both the one 
and the other from his own resources. It is distinctly 
laid down that he has no right to beat down wages 
to the lowest market rate, for * the labor of man is 
not an object of barter, but a human act,' and is 
consequently subject to moral laws. Among the 
means by which the ' patron ' may hope to benefi- 
cially influence his ' hands,' Harmel specially rec- 
ommends workmen's associations, which, as we 
shall see, play such an important r6le in the life of 
Val-des-Bois. But he adds the important proviso 
that they should be governed autonomously by the 
membexs themselves, ' otherwise it would resolve 
itself into a patronage without initiative of action, 
and, as regards the workmen themselves, without 
result' By degrees these associations will serve to 
build up a corporation somewhat on the model of 
the mediseval guilds with combined economic and 
recreative objects, whose re-establishment in mod- 
em form it is the Utopian dream of Harmel to bring 
about" 

Another point in which M. Harmel's example 
might be imitated with good results in this country 
is described at some length by Mrs. Crawford. M. 
Harmel emplosrs two hundred girls, whose apjiear- 
ance is thus described: *' The very marked superior- 
ity of these girls is the result quite as much of their 
moral as of their phirsical conditions. Up to the age 
of seventeen every girl is compelled to devote one 
hour a day, deducted from her working hours, to 
self-improvement, her time being mostly spent in 
the ioole nUnag^ attached to the convent, while 
one hour a week is given to religious instruction. 



214 



THE REI/IEW OF REf^IElVS. 



Inside the workshop their moral character and 
their general well-being are safeguarded by an or- 
ganization for which M. Ilarmel nndonbtedly de- 
serves the greatest credit, which I shonld much like 
to see introduced into England, and which obviates 
the most common objections to factory labor for 
young women. Though the girls work apart from 
the men, it is obvious that with endless lengths of 
whirling machinery, the work must be closely 
8ui)ervised by male engineers and male foremen. 

PROTECTION FOR EMPLOYEES. 

How to protect the girls from the caprices, the 
X)ossible tyranny, the familiarity, or worse, of these 
men, some of whom are necessarily chosen more for 
their mechanical skill than for their moral charac- 
ter, was a problem which gave le bon p^ much 
anxious thought. His remedy is as simple as it is 
effective. The girls elect from among themselves a 
certain number of conseUUres d^atdiera, or monitors, 
three for each of the large atdiera. It is the duty 
of these conseUUreSy while attending to their own 
machines, to keep a friendly watch over the needs 
of their neighbors and to render them any little help 
that may be required. They are emphatically the 
servants and not the overseers of their comi>anion8. 
Each is possessed of a little metal token, and should 
any girl, for any reason of health, or any valid rea- 
son whatsoever, wish to leave the factory during 
working hours, she applies, not to the foreman, but 
to the nearest eonseilUre, and once provided with 
the token she may pass out without hindrance. It 
can be seen at a glance what a protection such a 
system affords to young and innocent girls. 

CARE FOR WELFARE OF OIRIJ3. 

In any case of attempted familiarity on the 
part of a foreman toward any of his hands, the 
conseiUire is ready not only with a word of kindly 
advice to the recipient, but also of warning to the 
originator of the misplaced attentions. At Val-des- 
Bois the permission to leave the factory is mainly 
used by the girls who wish to go to confession, for 
Harmel rightly holds that to condemn men and 
women to spend perhaps hours on a Saturday eve- 
ning, or the eve of a feast, waiting their turn at the 
confessional after work hours, would be a distinct 
discouragement to regularity in th